Fourth Amendment

The Police Dog Who Cried Drugs at Every Traffic Stop

Cops laugh about “probable cause on four legs” but the damage to innocent lives is real.


Don't blame Karma. The police dog simply followed his training when he helped local agencies impound vehicles that sometimes belonged to innocent motorists in Republic, Washington, an old mining town near the Canadian border.

As a drug detection dog, Karma kept his nose down and treated every suspect the same. Public records show that from the time he arrived in Republic in January 2018 until his handler took a leave of absence to campaign for public office in 2020, Karma gave an "alert" indicating the presence of drugs 100 percent of the time during roadside sniffs outside vehicles.

Whether drivers actually possessed illegal narcotics made no difference. The government gained access to every vehicle that Karma ever sniffed. He essentially created automatic probable cause for searches and seizures, undercutting constitutional guarantees of due process.

Similar patterns abound nationwide, suggesting that Karma's career was not unusual. Lex, a drug detection dog in Illinois, alerted for narcotics 93 percent of the time during roadside sniffs, but was wrong in more than 40 percent of cases. Sella, a drug detection dog in Florida, gave false alerts 53 percent of the time. Bono, a drug detection dog in Virginia, incorrectly indicated the presence of drugs 74 percent of the time.

Despite the frequent errors, courts typically treat certified narcotics dogs as infallible, allowing law enforcement agencies to use them like blank permission slips to enter vehicles, open suitcases, and rummage through purses.

The Institute for Justice, a libertarian public interest law firm, shows a financial motive for the snooping in its 2020 report, Policing for Profit. Local, state, and federal agencies have raked in more than $68.8 billion in proceeds since 2000 through a process called civil forfeiture.

The money making scheme, which allows the government to seize and keep assets without a criminal conviction, often starts with a police search, which requires probable cause, which often comes with a K-9 sniff. Institute for Justice clients in Wyoming, Oklahoma, and elsewhere all lost cash and had to fight to get it back after police dogs gave false alerts outside their vehicles.

'Probable Cause on Four Legs'

Some handlers jokingly refer to their K-9 partners as "probable cause on four legs." But Wendy Farris, a real estate agent from Great Falls, Montana, did not laugh when Karma gave an alert outside her red Toyota Prius on August 17, 2018.

Her ordeal, which led to a civil rights lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Washington, started with a birthday party invitation. Farris promised her grandson that she would attend his celebration in Oregon, so she packed her car and hit the road.

Rather than drive directly to the event, she made plans to visit a friend near Republic. While there, the friend's estranged daughter called for help, explaining that she was living on the streets in California and wanted to come home.

Farris agreed to go with her friend on a rescue mission—more than 1,300 miles round trip with few breaks—leaving both women exhausted and sleep-deprived when they returned to Washington with the contrite daughter. Despite the fatigue, Farris remained determined to attend her grandson's party, so she got back in her car and headed south alone.

Predictably, she almost immediately felt drowsy and decided to park in a safe spot and rest at the junction of U.S. Route 20 and state Route 21 in Republic. A Ferry County sheriff's deputy found Farris asleep behind the wheel and ordered her to submit to a field sobriety test. Farris, who had no prior arrests and doesn't drink, had not consumed any drugs or alcohol (which a blood test later confirmed) yet the deputy arrested her on suspicion of driving while intoxicated and called a K-9 unit to the scene.

That's when Karma showed up with his handler, Loren Culp, who served as Republic's police chief until the city dissolved its department in November 2020. Culp led Karma on a leash around Farris' vehicle twice. Then Culp paused and pointed to a rear panel with the palm of his hand, and Karma sat down—his trained final response indicating the presence of drugs.

The alert gave Culp and the deputy probable cause to impound the vehicle, while Karma got to chew on his favorite toy as a reward for his work. The only unhappy person at the scene was Farris, who knew her car contained no alcohol, drugs, drug residue, paraphernalia, or weapons. A search at the impound yard turned up $4,956 in cash but nothing illegal.

Rather than release Farris and apologize, the county locked her up and held her over the weekend without charges. She eventually got her cash and vehicle back, but she missed her grandson's party. Instead of birthday cake and ice cream, she got jail food and a bill for hygiene supplies.

Motorist Fares I. Said met a similar fate after an encounter with Karma. When a Washington State Patrol officer clocked Said going 70 mph in a 55 mph zone, the officer pulled him over. When Said acted "suspicious and evasive" in answering questions, the officer called Culp and asked for K-9 backup.

Karma circled the Jeep and sat down. Based on the alert, the police impounded the vehicle. A search later produced "several $100 bills" but no drugs or paraphernalia. Said, who lived at the time in Lynnwood north of Seattle, was innocent but got stuck with impound fees and an eight-mile walk back to town.

Social Media Darling

Overall, the police found drugs in 29 percent of the vehicles that Karma flagged during his time in Republic. Other vehicles contained paraphernalia, bringing Karma's combined score to 64 percent.

The result would be respectable (better than a coin toss!) if it were based on a random sample of vehicles. But the police do not work that way. When they deploy a drug dog at a traffic stop, they often have prior knowledge or suspicion that a search will produce something interesting.

Many motorists in Republic made things easy for officers. One SUV driver admitted to using heroin and having needles in her vehicle. The owner of a Ford Expedition confessed to meth and marijuana use, and the arresting officer seized drug paraphernalia from the man's pockets prior to Karma's arrival on the scene.

In nearly every case, officers had probable cause to conduct searches without a narcotics sniff. Yet Culp led Karma on a leash around the vehicles anyway, and then bragged on Facebook about the dog's uncanny ability to find drugs.

"Once again Karma's nose knows where the drugs are," Culp wrote on his Facebook page following a November 2018 stop.

What Culp failed to mention was that prior to Karma's involvement, the driver had led police on a chase, crashed his Toyota RAV4 at the Ferry County Fairgrounds and fled on foot—leaving his girlfriend behind. Search and seizure of the vehicle were inevitable even without Karma's nose.

The real confirmation of the dog's detective skills would have come from walking around a drug-free vehicle and not giving a trained final response. Karma failed this test every time. When he had a chance to stop the impound of an innocent owner's vehicle, his success rate was zero percent.

Born To Please

False alerts, which create problems for people like Farris and Said, sometimes have nothing to do with a dog's nose. Brain scientist Federico Rossano, who studies animal communication with humans at the University of California, San Diego, says dogs have an innate sense of loyalty that can override their sense of smell.

"The tendency of producing signals even when they detect nothing comes from the desire to please the human handler," he says.

Essentially, intelligent animals pick up subtle cues from their handlers and respond. Rossano says the communication often occurs by accident without anyone being aware.

Clever Hans, a horse celebrated in the early 1900s for his math ability, provides the most prominent example. The proud owner truly believed that Hans could solve arithmetic problems, but skeptics later proved that the horse merely was responding to facial expressions and body language from his human companion.

A 2011 study from the University of California, Davis, shows how cues can influence drug detection dogs. When human handlers believed that narcotics were hidden in test areas, their canine partners were much more likely to indicate the presence of drugs—even when no drugs actually existed.

Police participants did not like the implications. But rather than using the findings to improve their training techniques, they denounced the study and refused further cooperation.

They preferred a 2014 study from Poland, which eliminated the potential for false positives. Rather than simulating real-world conditions, researchers ensured that every test included measurable quantities of narcotics.

Participating dogs had no opportunity to sniff drug-free vehicles and communicate a lack of odor. The only correct answer was an indication for drugs. Karma could have aced such a test simply by sitting down every time. He would have looked like a prodigy, but a broken dial stuck on "alert" would have achieved the same result.

Something like this might have happened with Karma. Culp reports on Facebook that his dog passed his training with "zero misses" in 2018 and again in 2019. Culp cites the perfect scores as evidence of Karma's skills, but law enforcement consultant Mary Cablk sees a red flag.

"That's a problem," she says. "It shouldn't be like that."

Cablk, who studies narcotics detection at Desert Research Institute in Nevada, says effective training must mimic real-world conditions as much as possible. If dogs have certain error rates in the field, they should have similar error rates in experimental environments.

"In training if a dog is perfect and never misses, and never is recorded to make a mistake, then there are a couple of problems," Cablk says. "Either the training is not rigorous or the recordkeeping is bad."

Courts tend to overlook the complexities when evaluating evidence from a dog sniff, but Cablk recently testified in a Utah case that put K-9 teams on alert. Rather than accepting all training programs as equal and infallible, a federal judge looked deeper and raised serious concerns about shortcuts in Utah.

Other jurisdictions could benefit from this type of scrutiny, although increased oversight would not affect Culp and Karma. Both have moved on to new opportunities. After losing in 2020 as the Republican gubernatorial nominee, Culp filed paperwork to challenge Rep. Dan Newhouse to represent Washington's 4th Congressional District. Meanwhile, Karma moved to private security with Spokane-based Phoenix Protective Corporation.

Republic no longer has a K-9 team or police department, yet the lessons remain. Some dogs are reliable, but courts should recognize that particular sniffs from particular dogs might not be good indicators of probable cause.

Circumstances change from case to case, and nothing should be automatic. K-9 teams should not give the same response 100 percent of the time, and neither should the judges who hold them accountable.

UPDATE 6/16/2021: After the publication of this article, former Republic Police Chief Loren Culp claims to have "discovered" new records that only he knew about and had access to. These newly released "records"—at least 50 of which included no detailed information about the majority of cars supposedly searched—claim that Karma the drug sniffing dog was involved in numerous incidents in which the dog did not alert its handler about the presence of drugs. Even adding the results of these documents into Karma's performance record, the dog alerted for drugs 87 percent of the time during vehicle sniffs at traffic stops. Furthermore, three other vehicle alerts led to the discovery of small amounts of marijuana, which is legal to possess in Washington. Culp decided to count these as successful alerts, even though he used Karma to search the vehicles of innocent people and found nothing illegal.

NEXT: Refusing To Show ID Is Not a Crime

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  1. At least the town decided to paws this activity.

    1. They call him "Old Yeller" for a reason you know.

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      2. Karma’s a bitch.

        Ahem, I’ll show myself out.

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        2. Cops aren’t known for being very smart, expecting them to appreciate the difference between false positives and false negatives – and the implications thereof – is probably asking too much.

    2. My wife asked how anyone could name a male dog Karma? It has been proven time and time again that karma is a bitch.

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      1. I'm glad to see that, like 99.999% of the readers here (conservatively estimated), you LOVE my sense of humor! Even better yet, unlike most of the others, you're NOT afraid to admit it!

        THANK YOU! Honest people with a refined sense of humor, who write in comments to support me, is mostly what keeps me going as a writer!!!


        1. [Cursor continues to hover over mute button]

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          2. Are you even on a libertarian message board if it isn't at least 15% nutty?

          3. We have the mute function, but some people won't use it. They're here to be outraged and argue. And so the comments will continue to be shit.

      2. You actually read that gibberish?

  3. Cops aren't known for being very smart, expecting them to appreciate the difference between false positives and false negatives - and the implications thereof - is probably asking too much.

    1. Yeah, but judges are supposed to have a little bit more on the ball. And they continually rubberstamp this shit. Because it's convenient, and very few in the system really care about an accused's rights anyway. There's no way, over the course of this dog's working life, that some defense attorney didn't point out to the judge, "This dog alerts on everything!" And the judge blew him off.

      LOL at anything in forensic criminology, besides DNA typing, surviving an independent Daubert hearing. Even half of the stuff the FBI Lab gets up to. Prosecutors get these things admitted because they sound like they should work, and again, because nobody cares very much about the people who get caught in the Sausage Maker of Justice.

    2. A lot of people who pride themselves on being ‘very smart’ fall for the most appalling bushwa. I suspect that cops are, on average, smarter then the typical Antifa protester, for example. The problem isn’t stupid cops. The problem is stupid incentives combined with the ridiculous idea that the State stands in loco parentis to the public.

    3. But give the cop one positive STD test, and suddenly he's all over it like Feynman.

  4. I trained my dog to alert when she detects government incompetence or corruption. She also has a 100% success rate.

    1. Did she die from the stress of being on alert constantly?

  5. Dogs are pieces of shit. So are cops. Let the cops shoot the dogs. Let the dogs maul the cops. Problem solved.

    1. "Dogs are pieces of shit."

      We have a sign in our house that reads:

      "If Our Dog Doesn't Like You, We Probably Won't Either"

      Hasn't failed me yet.

  6. “A search at the impound yard turned up $4,956 in cash but nothing illegal.”

    Sounds suspicious.

  7. There is that one dog breed that can detect gang members. The criphound.

    1. Nice. "Pick me! Pick me!"

  8. "Rossano says the communication often occurs by accident without anyone being aware."

    So much BS here. Why do some people bend over backwards to cover for the cops. These are not "drug sniffing" dogs. they're "alert" dogs.

    1. Not fair. The cops are told that the dogs are good. The cops have plenty of incentive to believe this. There is a great deal wrong with policing in this country, but most of it is caused by politicians.

  9. Essentially, intelligent animals pick up subtle cues from their handlers and respond. Rossano says the communication often occurs by accident without anyone being aware.


    1. As a dog breeder of 20 years, I can tell you, 100% true. Many of ours obey commands as we are still preparing to give them.

  10. Dogs don't lie, but their handlers sure do.

    1. That cops dog was trained to "alert" when he wanted a treat.

      Good doggie.

  11. The dog in the picture is clearly high. That explains a lot.

  12. Loren Culp ---- 2020 GOP gubernatorial candidate Loren Culp has filed to challenge Rep. Dan Newhouse, R-Sunnyside, WA. Loren Culp who lost Washington governor race in 2020 by 13% sues state official, alleging voter fraud.

    1. I know this isn't the most scientific data, but before the election I was asking everybody in my circle who they were voting for. 23 Culp, 1 Inslee.

      1. If you live outside the Seattle metro area, that wouldn't be unusual.

  13. "They preferred a 2014 study from Poland, which eliminated the potential for false positives. Rather than simulating real-world conditions, researchers ensured that every test included measurable quantities of narcotics."

    Cue the jokes.

    1. Just the punchline:
      "The Polish scientist frowned and thought, and then made an entry in the notebook:
      "Frog with no legs can't hear."

      You can reverse engineer the joke, I'm sure. It has animal cruelty and racism against Poles. Not as good as my "Ni**er Doctor" joke, which has racism and sexism, but still pretty good.

  14. Honestly if HALF of the time that this cop requests a dog, he was right about narcotics, I’m impressed.

    Either he is really good at profiling people or he’s planting drugs.

    1. Thats what I thought too. 64% for a human guessing is pretty good.

      1. The wide disecrepency between the actual drugs and "paraphernalia" makes me suspect they are being overbroad on what constitutes paraphernalia.

    2. Sometimes it's not too hard. It is eastern Washington. No shortage of meth-addled weirdos.

  15. Wasn't Loren Culp on the WA state ticket under the R banner running for governor or Lt. Governor last election?

    Is this the same guy?

    1. Same one. Now he's running for US Congress. Guess he'll be searching Congress people for drugs now.

      1. Let's hope he finds probable cause to arrest them all.

  16. This is not a police problem. This is a court problem.

    The courts are already notoriously bad at handling forensic evidence. They are also already notoriously bad at forcing police to reach the proper threshold before obtaining a search warrant. Add in asset forfeiture and funneling part of the money to the courts and you have the unholy trinity.

    Of course this ends badly. It could not go any other way given the incentives that play and the relative competencies of the parties.

    This is down to the courts to recognize that police are making an end run around probable cause. And asset forfeiture? I suppose that is down to the politicians to fix since the courts are not going to do it.

    The police are like low-level employees. They are going to do whatever makes their job the easiest. This is true of all low-level employees. This is why you design your business processes and systems to properly align incentives such that you avoid unintentioned consequences.

    Right now, police are incentivized to violate the rights of motorists in these situations. And the controls that are in place to prevent this are extremely weak. That is it bad combination. And blaming the police is like blaming the dog for jumping up on the guest. That's on the owner, not the dog.

    1. Very well said as usual, Cyto.

    2. Very good. Add UNqualified immunity and the 1033 Program ("Wow! This half-track's great! And it's got machine gun mounts! Can we get a machine gun, Chief? Can we? Can we? It's my birthday!") and it's no wonder cops find themselves unpopular, instead of heroes.

      Of course, the positive view of cops was back when they would help you break into your car, give walking drunks rides home, and rescue Granny's kitten from a tree. All that Officer Friendly shit was real (going back far enough, I guess). THEY were the ones who were more excited by 'roided up, eye-blacked SWAT action, the freaks.

    3. Agreed, though I'd suggest it's still also a police problem, because American police are also supposed to respect the constitution and not find ways to bypass it. But like you said, police are always going to do stuff like this, and it's the courts job to stop them.

      1. I seriously doubt that any cop has ever read a single paragraph of the Constitution or Bill of Rights.
        Most of them can barely read.
        To paraphrase Henry Kissmyassinger," Cops are nothing more than stupid, dumb animals to be used fro NWO policy."

      2. Cops do whatever the people who sign their paychecks want done. 100% of the time. Katrina proved it decisively, Portland and Minneapolis were just experimental reconfirmation.

  17. Karma gave an "alert" indicating the presence of drugs 100 percent of the time during roadside sniffs outside vehicles

    , including *police* vehicles, right? RIGHT?!

    1. "Where's the drugs boy? Where's the drugs?"
      [dog sniffs officer's pants...]

  18. This is on the trainer and handler. i have trained hunting labs for 30 years for myself and friends. Used feathers and frozen birds from the year before planted for upland and waterfowl birds. I never tell a dog to hunt dead for no reason. Once they know the scent it's all on them, no clues from me unless it's a water kill I can se and they can't. Then only hand singles for the right direction.. This dog was taught there is always drugs. Hunting for grouse and upland birds the dog does all the work.

    1. The difference is that you actually care whether the dog is wrong.

  19. I'm glad the story brought up Clever Hans. That horse fooled the leading scientists of his day. But any idiot knows you can train a dog to bark to command, which makes the myth that police dogs are never wrong so fucking pathetic.

    Do a blind smell test. Single blind. But a baggie of pot in one box, a baggie of oregano in the other. Tell the dog's handler (the cop) that the oregano is the pot, and the dog will magically detect the oregano as the pot. Even though a noseless bum could smell the difference.

    1. A burglar got caught in the act by a home owner in my neighborhood, fled the house and was at large in the neighborhood someplace. The police were going yard to yard with a police dog searching for him.

      My dog faced off with the police dog at my back yard gate and would not let them in. I like to think he was demanding a warrant.

      1. Just your tough luck that you got a burglar who wasn't a user.

    2. This still gives a 50% chance of being right by accident. What you do is make them both oregano, tell the cop one is pot, and wait for the dog to signal. Then you break the news.

    3. I've never figured out how the courts allow a "witness", whose word is relied upon for a search to be conducted, but can't be cross-examined, is allowed to "testify".
      Defense attorney: "Now, Fido, tell the jury how you are sure you didn't smell some food on the car, but that you were sure you smelled drugs".

  20. Wait... she had $4,926 in cash in her car. Uh, I’m no fan of police but— you know— come on.

    1. It's not a crime to have cash. Seriously, it's not. Stop being a fucking socialist.

      1. I’m a socialist because I don’t really care for the police and hate the military— seeing them as institutions that enforce oppression and maintain a status quo that enshrines a rich elite.

        Still... you know... you have to consider the facts at hand and someone having $5,000 in the car is most likely doing something shady.

        1. Don't socialist countries have police and military?
          And often very bad human rights records?

          1. Yes, of course. There’s a reason the term “useful idiot” was coined.

            1. Why do you guys get so bitchy when I start talking about military spending. Let me guess... ex-military, right? Which country were you duped into invading? Vietnam or Iraq?

              1. Not ex-military, and not against cutting military spending. I’m against socialists spouting nonsense about socialism being some sort of path to getting rid of police or military.

        2. Then you should be an anarchist. Can't have socialism without police to enforce it.

          Doing legal things that might look shady is not a crime, or even reasonable cause for suspicion. There are many perfectly legal reasons to carry lots of cash. Including "because I fucking felt like it".

          1. Where did I say carrying around $5000 should be a crime? I just said it was shady as fuck. Which it is.

            1. There’s a lot of reasons a successful adult could be carrying that much cash.

              1. Top shelf whores are expensive.

                1. That’s certainly one of them!

            2. Maybe he's a socialist because his economic performance has resulted in him believing that $5000 is a lot of money

        3. someone having $5,000 in the car is most likely doing something shady.

          Typical socialist thinking regarding money - anyone who has money must have done something wrong.

      2. Just a few stimulus checks.

  21. To Catch a Smuggler leads me to believe the dogs are always correct.

  22. Blame Justice Kagan for the awful Florida v. Harris decision that held that as long as a dog was trained as a drug dog, it doesn't matter how the dog actually performs in real life.

    1. Hey David, I went to your Twitter page...

      People: Hillary got 3 million more votes than Trump.
      Trumpkin: You dummies don't even know that popular votes are meaningless. Cry more, libs. Facts don't care about your feelings.

      Also Trumpkin: What about the feelings of the 75 million minority of people who voted for Trump?

      You seem half way sensible. What are you doing here?

    2. Why Kagan? It was a unanimous decision, despite being utterly asinine. It's one of those decisions that let's you see how high court judges live in a bubble.

      1. +1 "increasing professionalism of police forces."

  23. If this handler was the same Loren Culp who lost the election by 14% and still tried to claim he won due to election fraud, I think I was able to sus out where the problem was. It wasn't the doggo.

    And honestly, this isn't surprising. A lot of studies have shown handler expectations and behavior influences the dog's behavior. Dogs aren't actually trained to indicate to a smell, they are trained to indicate when theit masters want them to (this is Baucus vaccine psychology), and it's just that good handlers/trainers convey that they only want them to when they detect a smell. But if a Handley, say, gives the dog a treat every time it indicates...

  24. No "Karma's a bitch" jokes? I'm very disappointed in you people.

    1. That’s because he’s a male dog.

      1. A male, walked around on a leash by another male? Sounds like a bitch to me.

        1. Don’t knock it ‘til you’ve tried it.

          — Tony

      2. Scraps is a boy dog

  25. Traffickers and drug dealers will have a harder time dealing with him. great! impossible game

  26. "The only unhappy person at the scene was Farris, who knew her car contained no alcohol, drugs, drug residue, paraphernalia, or weapons."

    If there was cash in the vehicle, there probably was drug residue. According to the US government, something like 80% of circulating US dollar bills are contaminated with detectable amounts of cocaine.

  27. One cannot cross examine a dog.

    1. Which should make it that you can't use them in court.
      We have a right to confront our accuser.

      1. The cops treat them as officers. The courts treat them as pieces of equipment. You can't cross examine a breathalyzer either.


          Get back to me when a state tosses 30,000 drugs sniffing claims due to problems with the dog handlers or records showing the dogs ongoing certifications as accurate

    2. It would be interesting to have the dog perform in court on say 20 samples. Some with narcotics and some without.

  28. Police having and using dogs is a form of animal abuse. This corrupt exploitation of dogs as “probable cause on four legs” is much milder than the beatings and killings of their own police dogs by police, but it is largely the cause for the dogs being at the mercy of the police in the first place.


    “It is the invariable habit of bureaucracies, at all times and everywhere, to assume...that every citizen is a criminal. Their one apparent purpose, pursued with a relentless and furious diligence, is to convert the assumption into a fact. They hunt endlessly for proofs, and, when proofs are lacking, for mere suspicions. The moment they become aware of a definite citizen, John Doe, seeking what is his right under the law, they begin searching feverishly for an excuse for withholding it from him.”
    ~ H. L. Mencken

  29. Can we just say that in the instances cited one can make a reasonable guess that the dogs were not wrong , just late and alerting to lingering traces.

  30. I blame this on judges. They know drug sniffing dogs are bullshit, they understand the 4th amendment and know these are violations, they have the power to stop this and yet they choose not to because they want to be liked by cops and prosecutors.

  31. When 7-year-old Danielle van Dam went missing from her San Diego home in 2002, the police suspected neighbor David Westerfield, so they applied for a search warrant. They told the judge that their search dog had NOT alerted to her scent, either in his house or outside his motor home, which is evidence of innocence, but the judge issued a search warrant anyway.

    At the time of the dog searches, the handler said his search dog did NOT alert, and made NO comment about his cadaver dog. But two weeks later, when Westerfield was arrested, he said he thought his cadaver dog MAY have alerted. And at Westerfield’s trial four months later, he was certain that the cadaver dog HAD alerted. I now lack confidence in dog handlers.

  32. It's outrageous. The bots joking about it are idiots.

  33. Drugs should not be a crime in the first place.

  34. So much for "man's best friend"!

  35. Two unrelated thoughts:

    1) Why haven't we called out drug sniffing dogs as pseudoscience? It seems to me this is on the same level of phrenology.

    2) From this woman's story, she seems to be addicted to drama. You know the type, always a crisis, or always lying. So, she drove out there for a birthday party, but got shanghaied into a rescue mission that would put her at risk of missing her grandson's celebration?

    When I go on road trips, I tend to carry a few hundred in cash, but never thousands. What's up with that? Conclusion: she's a coyote transporting people over the Canadian border.

    I have a 100% accuracy guarantee on my conspiracy theories.

    1. Drug sniffing dogs aren't pseudoscience. Dogs, like people, can recognize scents. I don't think there's any scientific disagreement on that.

    2. Drug sniffing dogs are not "pseudoscience." They are an accurate and effective law enforcement tool. Marijuana may be legalized in many states, but more destructive drugs are not, and most can be detected by dogs, who have a FAR better sense of smell than we humans do. The problem is that the dog are not always trained or handled properly.
      Very few people carry much cash today--electronic money use and transfer is safer and easier--but drug transactions are still done largely in cash. So carrying large amounts of cash IS more suspicious than it used to be (in addition to being risky.)

      1. Drug sniffing dogs COULD be something other than pseudoscience, if they were treated as fallible indicators instead of machine-certain. Used to find drugs once probable cause had been determined, rather than as an excuse for a search 9n the absence 0f other evidence. And if charges had to be brought to trial before asset forfeiture kicked in, much abuse would be avoided.

        I don’t maintain that drugs aren’t harmful, but the erosion of basic civil rights caused by the Drug War strike me as more damaging.

      2. Marijuana may be legalized in many states, but more destructive drugs are not,

        They, too, should be legalized. No one's forced to take drugs. If they were legalized, there would be quality control, measured doses, and less overdoses. Drug prohibition is a violation of individual rights, an initaton of force, and is, therefore, evil. Enforcement of such laws is therefore evil. That's absolute moral fact.

  36. It would be interesting why the town of Republic, Washington, fired the entire police department.
    Could it be the department became so corrupt and self serving, they were totally useless? Or that they began preying on the townspeople?
    Might be worth the investigation .
    Won't be the first time nor the last time.
    It's good to know just how inaccurate these animals truly are. The time is long past to challenge the use of these dogs as well as end civil asset forfeiture and immunity.

  37. When lawmakers pass unconstitutional laws, LEOs blindly enforce them, and the courts approve, the political paradigm of force & fraud becomes obvious. The question becomes: Who will protect us from the protectors the system creates? The Founding Fathers were clear on this. "We the People" have a duty to abolish and replace the form of government.
    I suggest a new paradigm based on reason, not force/fraud, rights, not consensus, and individual choice, not mob rule (democracy).
    The failed system has had 8000 years. Isn't it time to try its opposite?

    1. What system has been in place for 8000 years? Democracy? Even Ancient Greece isn't half that old.

      1. Various systems based upon might makes right.

  38. Keep telling yourself about all the "good" cops out there. I am not for defund the police by any means. BUT I am totally for retraining the police and making THEM accountable not the taxpayers. Sorry but if a "good" cop knows others are bad, and doesn't turn them in, then they are also bad cops.

  39. Nothing changes. We used to believe witchsmellers could actually smell a witch and now we believe dogs can actually smell a criminal. It has and always will be a superstitious performance. Funny how the courts have accepted both as legit.

  40. Simple solution: Every drug dog that has a false positive shall be destroyed by the handler with his own service weapon.

  41. You’re defending someone who has said dictionary and encyclopedia definitions were “written by progressives.” However, if it suits them they become undisputable facts. ML is either senile like Sevo or a liar. ,They will claim I’ve said things I haven’t. Or play dumb when I have said something that may poke holes in their narrative.

  42. AS this article makes clear, it's not the dogs. A properly trained drug dog is exceedingly accurate. The issue is the handler of the dog and training given to both. A good dog will have some negative results.

  43. Don’t blame the canine, you trained him on the reward system, give him his damn cookie.

    1. A cannabis infused cookie.

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