Does Sexual Fare Cause Sexual Violence?

The truth about pornography


Editor's Note: Steve Chapman is on vacation. The following column was originally published in November 2007.

In the 1980s, conservatives and feminists joined to fight a common nemesis: the spread of pornography. Unlike past campaigns to stamp out smut, this one was based not just on morality but on public safety. They argued that hard-core erotica was intolerable because it promoted sexual violence against women.

"Pornography is the theory—rape is the practice," wrote feminist author Robin Morgan. In 1986, a federal commission concurred. Some kinds of pornography, it concluded, are bound to lead to "increased sexual violence." Indianapolis passed a law allowing women to sue producers for sexual assaults caused by material depicting women in "positions of servility or submission or display."

The campaign fizzled when the courts said the ordinance was an unconstitutional form of "thought control." Though the Bush administration put new emphasis on prosecuting obscenity, on the grounds that it fosters violence against women, pornography is more available now than ever.

That's due in substantial part to the rise of the Internet, where the United States alone has a staggering 244 million web pages featuring erotic fare. One Nielsen survey found that one out of every four users says they visited adult sites in the past month.

So in the past two decades, we have essentially conducted a vast experiment on the social consequences of such material. If the supporters of censorship were right, we should be seeing an unparalleled epidemic of sexual assault. But all the evidence indicates they were wrong. As raunch has waxed, rape has waned.

This is part of a broad decrease in criminal mayhem. Since 1993, violent crime in America has dropped by 58 percent. But the progress in this one realm has been especially dramatic. Rape is down 72 percent and other sexual assaults have fallen by 68 percent. Even in the past two years, when the FBI reported upticks in violent crime, the number of rapes continued to fall.

Nor can the decline be dismissed as the result of underreporting. Many sexual assaults do go unreported, but there is no reason to think there is less reporting today than in the past. In fact, given everything that has been done to educate people about the problem, and to prosecute offenders, victims are probably more willing to come forward than they used to be.

No one would say the current level of violence against women is acceptable. But the enormous progress in recent years is one of the most gratifying successes imaginable.

How can it be explained? Perhaps the most surprising and controversial account comes from Clemson University economist Todd Kendall, who suggests that adult fare on the Internet may essentially inoculate against sexual assaults.

In a paper presented at Stanford Law School in 2006, he reported that, after adjusting for other differences, states where Internet access expanded the fastest saw rape decline the most. A 10 percent increase in Internet access, Kendall found, typically meant a 7.3 percent reduction in the number of reported rapes.

For other types of crime, by contrast, he found no correlation with Internet use. What this research suggests is that sexual urges play a big role in the incidence of rape—and that pornographic websites provide a harmless way for potential predators to satisfy those desires.

That, of course, is only a theory, and the evidence he cites is not conclusive. States that were quicker to adopt the Internet may be different in ways that also serve to prevent rape. It's not hard to think of other explanations why sexual assaults have diminished so rapidly—such as DNA analysis, which has been an invaluable tool in catching and convicting offenders.

Changing social attitudes doubtless have also played a role. Both young men and young women are more aware today of the boundaries between consensual and coercive sex. Kim Gandy, president of the National Organization for Women, thinks the credit for progress against rape should go to federal funding under the Violence Against Women Act and to education efforts stressing that "no means no."

But if expanding the availability of hard-core fare doesn't actually prevent rapes, we can be confident from the experience of recent years that it certainly doesn't cause such crimes. Whether you think porn is a constitutionally protected form of expression or a vile blight that should be eradicated, this discovery should come as very good news.


NEXT: Trigger Happy

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  1. You say that rape has waned, but what about rape rape? I anticipate nothing more than your complete lack of responsiveness to these threads.

    Good morning reason!

    1. i though rape is bad enough…
      what is rape rape?

        1. more turds of wisdom from “whoopi”!

      1. You said ‘rape’ twice.

    2. I was not unresponsive.

    3. Oh my….good morning, Suki!

    4. Rape is no laughing matter. Unless, of course, you’re being raped by a clown.

      1. Q: How do you make it not rape?

        A: Jump on her and scream “SURPRISE!”

  2. Yeah but people have fun with pornography. It allows people to have a little distraction in their ordinary lives and to be a little less miserable. And we can’t have that can we? Especially if such people tend to be men.

    I really think there are many people on both sides who just can’t stand the idea of someone not being miserable. That is why they hate drugs, pornography, good food and the like. That old canard about puritans worrying that someone somewhere being happy has been around so long for a reason; it is true.

  3. Feminists rightly note that rape is not about sex. But, then they proceed to conflate the two when talking about porn.

    1. That is a great point.

    2. No, what they tend to do is say most porn has aggression/domination as a sub-theme.

      1. Yeah like when they have the domnatrixes with the whips and nipple clamps….oh, wait, that wasn’t what you were talking about? Oh, okay, then it must be all those women hollering “Oh, YES!! YES!!! GOD, YES!!! YES, BABY YES!!”

      2. so does most sex – it’s ingrained in human nature. I don’t think there are very many women who would enjoy having to initiate everything (from dating to sex) or being the “top” in bed

        1. When do you turn 90 Edwin?

      3. No, what they tend to do is say most porn has aggression/domination as a sub-theme.

        But what about all the non-Warty porn?

    3. “Feminists rightly note that rape is not about sex.”

      I don’t think they are right about that, rape is a lot about sex, though sex doesn’t have to be about rape (that’s where the feminist get goofy).

      1. I can’t quite fathom what exactly is supposed to be “sexy” about a woman who isn’t getting off on the “sex”.

        1. And that, is why you fail.

          1. That’s not what your mom said. She was more like “Oh, YES!! YES!!! GOD, YES!!! YES, BABY YES!!”

      2. Rape has to be about power for feminists because they are unwilling to morally condemn anything outside of the feminist framework. If rape was just a corruption of process, then that would make the gender of the rapist incidental rather than the cause.

    4. Wrong. Rape is very much about sex. To say otherwise is completely irrational.

      This is just one more idiotic unsubstantiated feminist canard.

      1. That was said with a little too much authority. ;%)

  4. The internet has been a boon for pornography in more ways than one. The one advantage the days of censorship had over today is that everyone else’s sex life was not thrown in your face. I love sex as long as it involves me and people of my choosing, which doesn’t include 95% of the world. I really don’t care about most of the rest of the world’s sex life. Back in the day, people did the same things they do now, they just didn’t advertise it. There is a lot to be said for discretion. And there is a lot to be said for there not being an X rated movie house or old style peep show on every block.

    Now with the internet, all of that can be done in the privacy of your own home. I really don’t understand how adult bookstores stay in business. The interenet allows sex to be free but still live in the home and to give everyone some privacy from each other again. It really is the best of both worlds. It sets up the perfect compromise on this issue. Let the moral scolds have the public square and pretend everyone is moral. But leave the home and the internet to the individual.

    1. I love sex as long as it involves me and people of my choosing, which doesn’t include 95% of the world.

      That is the core of the feminazi complaint and you have ‘outed’ yourself as the problem 😉

      You are running around choosing 5% of the whole world against their will when you should not be so appearanceist and smellist, pop by a Womyn’s Studies Department and take one to dinner.

      1. 5% is a lot. Have you seen the world?

        1. Just call me a humanitarian.

          1. I’m not going to start the new year by lying.

        2. No shit. That is something like 325 million people. Damn John. I didn’t think you were such a big slut. Fuck, you put Warty to shame.

          1. I am not gay so that is basically one out of every ten women in the world. Throw out those under the age of 16, so that means probably what, one in four adult women? that is probably a little high true. But not that high.

            1. Lying bitch!

              1. If I ever do go gay, I am going to go to liberal internet trolls because they sure seem to want to convert me.

                1. Dream on. You couldn’t handle a liberal-we like sex

                  1. Uh yeah. Except for uber feminists and other liberal crazies.

            2. One in four? You’re into Ted Bundy territory, fella.

              1. I said it was a bit high. And I didn’t say I wanted to kill them. You have some seriously wierd ideas about sex.

                1. Well, first he “dated” them. And he wasn’t picky.

              2. Four Loco?

                Makes Steve Smith want rape with tree huggers!

                Likes long bushy cuffs and collars.

        3. have you seen the Womyn’s Studies Dept.?

          1. have you smelled the Womyn’s Studies Dept.? I drove by one day and thought the tuna fleet was in.

            1. thought the tuna fleet was in.

              Remind me to never let you buy fish for my restaurant.

            2. I LOVE the smell of TUNA in the morning!

              1. so much for Napalm…

                1. I still carrying a “torch” in my heart for Nap!

  5. you should not be so appearanceist and smellist

    Don’t forget Blondist, Big-titist, and apple-asstist.

    1. One my favorite lines of argument in this is when ugly hags like Kathryn Jean Lopez whine about how porn causes men to have unrealistic expectations of their wives and lose interest in them. No Kathryn, it is just your husband who lost interest and it had nothing to do with porn. Porn is the symptom not the cause.

      1. And that reminds me on a George Carlin routine. “Did you ever notice that the people who are most against abortion, are people you wouldn’t want to fuck anyway?”

      2. Most people are at best homely and most marriages are at best conveniences, bereft of true romantic love. The only escape is food, sports and porn. And then death, of course. Happy New Year!

        1. most people are homely. But hey, sex with the homely beats no sex.

          1. My right hand is kinda cute, and I never have to buy it dinner.

            1. Help! I can’t breathe up his ass

          2. That is why paper bags were invented.

          3. “”But hey, sex with the homely beats no sex.””

            Which is why they invented beer.

        2. Weren’t you a white guy a minute ago?

          1. You can’t trust Whitey.

            1. I guess It’s true-once you go black, you never go back.

              1. ….to work.

        3. they don’t call it nocturnal maneuvers for nothin’…

      3. I can actually see porn giving both men and women goofy ideas about sex, but what opponents fail to see is that for every goofy expectation/idea it gives another person somehitng interesting/pleasurable to try or experience.

        1. And people have goofy ideas about sex anyway. And pornography has always and will always be with us. What exactly do the opponents of porn expect to accomplish?

        2. Don’t the folks who complain that porn gives men unrealistic ideas about women/sex realize that ALL ENTERTAINMENT offers UNREALISTIC IDEAS about EVERYTHING? According to sitcoms, dumpy fat guys get hot wives. According to movies, the scrawny Jewish nerd ends up with the hot chick. People don’t want entertainment that reflects real life, and that includes porn.

          1. Oh, and don’t get me started on Looney Tunes… Let’s just say in real life somebody’s gonna notice if you replace their hot dog with a stick of dynamite.

            1. Don’t get me started on the performance of various Acme products not living up to expectations.

          2. If I wanted reality, I wouldn’t own a TV.

  6. Perhaps those people most likely to commit sexual violence in the 1990s were already aborted in the late 1960s or 1970s.

    1. Or maybe women are smarter and don’t put themselves in as many dangerous situations and are more likely to stand up for themselves if they are.

      1. Smarter than what?

        1. Than they were in the past.

          1. Also acceptable: “slugs.”

            1. I bet your right hand slaps your face in your sleep.

  7. Hey, everyone’s entitled to a vacation, but this is ridiculous. You couldn’t come up with a slide show on top ten fattest movie villains of 2010?

    1. That slideshow is pointless in a year without a Dune remake.

  8. Throw out those under the age of 16, so that means probably what, one in four adult women? that is probably a little high true. But not that high.

    I notice the older I get, the less picky I get. When I was 18, I’d probably never consider fucking someone over the age of 40. Now my age range is 18 to 58. I’d probably fuck Sofia Loren and she is 70 something.

    1. That is the one fun aspect of getting older – the increase in the range of appealing women. . .and the fact is, that for a lot of women, once they get old enough to get tired of the ‘Ozzie and Harriet’ illusory lifestyle, it makes things much more . . .interesting.

  9. I like saggy butts and I can not lie. You other codgers can’t deny.

  10. Steve Chapman is “on vacation?” Don’t you have to actually work to go “on vacation?” 😉

    1. More alarmingly, this column is pre-Palin. And she changed everything.

      1. …now you include bears?

  11. Throw out those under the age of 16,

    16 really? Aren’t you in your 30’s John?

    1. I mean not that I am judging or anything. Just curious that you would put that on the internet.

      1. Maybe John really is a libertarian.

        1. Nah, John’s a libertine.

          Go John, Go John, Go John!!

          *hands in the air*

      2. Depends on the girl. But somewhere in the teens. Surely you don’t believe that people magically become adults at 18 or that finding a 17 year old attractive is the same as finding a ten year old the same.

        1. Old enough to pee, old enough for me.

          1. a bartender say to me “if there is grass on the field, i’ll play.
            he didn’t like when i asked why he couldn’t find someone in his own bar rather than the local playground.

        2. 16 year old chicks are sexually mature enough in some cases, but who the fuck can stand to even talk to one?

          1. True enough. We have college interns in our office during the summer and they are unbearable. Can’t imagine what the younger ones must be like.

            1. This is the downside to having the expanded age-range acceptability as one grows older. Those on the lower end of the scale tend to remain physically desirable, however, it gets to a point of diminishing possibility due to the perceived need that their consent will also include allowing their mouths to be duct taped so you don;t have to listen to them talk.

              1. What some might call duct tape others call a sexual necessity!

              2. That’s why God invented ball gags

          2. who the fuck can stand to even talk to one?

            That’s why God invented Ruffies.

            1. Can’t you just shove her panties in her mouth like a real man?

      3. Actually, 16 is the age of consent in most states.

  12. Indianapolis passed a law allowing women to sue producers for sexual assaults caused by material depicting women in “positions of servility or submission…”

    That would have put a lot of artists out of business.

    1. Also many restaurants.

      1. “material depicting.” Nothing wrong with actually making them be servile.

  13. Does Sexual Fare Cause Sexual Violence?

    Only to my small floppy appendage…

    Seriously, without porn I would never have known that women lack penises. (How DO they pee???)

    1. (How DO they pee???)

      Try Googling “Golden Shower”.

  14. From ABCDunlimited.com/ideas/leftism.html:

    When Viva magazine editor Patricia Bosworth made revisions in an article submitted by Andrea Dworkin, Dworkin “threw me to the ground and practically pinned me. She physically held me there and said, ‘I won’t let this run until the cuts are restored.’ If you know how slight I am and how big she is, you can imagine my dilemma. We reached a compromise and the piece, which was about the horrors of Chinese footbinding, ran.” The horror of a physical assault of a woman in the workplace, however, didn’t prevent Dworkin from going on to provide the introduction to 1992’s Sexual Harassment: Women Speak Out. (“The verbal assaults and some physical assault are endemic in the environment, a given, an apparently inevitable emanation of the male spirit.”)

    And in 1984, a 23-year-old woman in Minneapolis, then the epicenter of the anti-pornography campaign, took gasoline and immolated herself. When confronted with the news of this horrific and pointless tragedy, Catharine MacKinnon simply responded: “Women feel very desperate about the existence of pornography. This doesn’t single her out. People make choices on how [to protest it].” Unbelievable. The feminist who cries for the nonexistent victims of “snuff films” (feminism’s blood libel against men) can’t even conjure a tear for a young woman who actually set herself on fire in the name of MacKinnon’s own movement. The feminist who wants to hold others responsible for the violence they (allegedly) inspire gives absolutely no indication that she believes herself in any way responsible for inspiring this act of violence, much less that she should be held so legally. The feminist who propagates a dehumanizing lab-rat ideology of behavior, who denies that adults can make truly free decisions regarding their own lives (such as a young woman posing for a magazine), now tells us that people can “make choices” — such as a young woman dousing herself with gasoline. Observe how MacKinnon doesn’t even seem worried that — or particularly bothered if — other women might make similar “choices.”

    1. McKinnon and Dworkin are both pretty crazy and would be very dangerous if ever in a position of any authority. Thank God we don’t live in a age where they could gain any real authority. You want to know what Revolutionary France or Russia or Nazi Germany was like? Just imagine those two with unchecked power.

      1. Dworkin is dead,thank God.

    2. Well, to be fair, you can’t really hold them responsible for what some nutbag does in their name.

      The Dworkin story is a good one though.

      1. Nice reading comprehension.

  15. Argh, bad link!

    Bosworth is quoted in Burning Desires by Chapple and Talbot.

  16. According to the feminists all sex between a man and a woman is a form of rape because the man is penetrating the woman.That was the theme of Dworkin’s book Intercourse.

  17. Women are the one’s perpetrating sexual violence on men in the US. It’s called circumcision, and apparently, someone else who doesn’t even have the genitals in question gets to decide if you keep the best part.

    1. Silly Mincan, “my body, my choice.” gets overridden by “ewww, foreskin.”

      1. or, “men are opprsessors, so they do not receive the same freedom of bodily autonomy that Womyn have earned.”

        Take your pick.

        1. So you have to lose a little skin to make yourself look pretty-GTFOI

    2. As an uncircumcised male I would like to weigh in on this whole ‘circumcision’ thing. While the procedure is highly painful and a traumatic experience for children, it has some pronounced benefits down the road. The probably of STD transmission to males with circumcision is lower than those without, the same is true of the chance of non-sexually transmitted infections. Closer to my heart, a circumcised man can never ‘snap’ his frenulum, this has happened to me, it is extremely painful, slow to heal, and remains tender to the touch even years later.

      1. I don’t know what “snapping” one’s “frenulum” is but I kind of winced and closed my legs a little bit anyway. It sounds bad, whatever it is, and I don’t want bad things to happen to my Wee Willie Wonka.

      2. ‘snap’ his frenulum-turn on 🙂

        1. That snapped frenulum crap is awful. On the other hand, the greater than 50% of men who have lost that part of themselves don’t know what they’re missing.

          1. When God made then his chosen, he must have been having a pissy day.

    3. Ask anyone circumcised as an infant if they remember the experience, and how traumatic it was.

      I can’t consider this “sexual violence” any more than ear-piercing is.

      And AFAIK, in most couples, the dad has a say – and in fact, my understanding is that just as often the dad is in favor of it, while mom wants to leave little junior’s little junior uncut.

      1. As a circumcised male myself, I thought the same thing. Then I saw a circumcision actually performed on Penn & Teller’s Bullshit. That’s when it occurred to me: you can punch a baby in its face, break its leg, or even hack off a limb when it’s a week old and, yes, it won’t remember. That still doesn’t mean you should do it.

        1. I am waiting for them to do it in the live show, right after the bullet catch. They still do the bullet catch, yes?

  18. Since “feminists”, particularly the more militant ones, seem to operate in reaction to their fevered imaginations more than actuality, not surprising they missed the call on this phenomena. As to the causation/correlation of a violent sex crimes statistical drop concurrent with the proliferation of internet porn, I’d tend more to chalk it up to the internet, and the connectivity it provides, than to the mere sexually oriented material available. Books and movies of such began to have wide availability from the early 70’s on, with the successes of the likes of Guccioni, Flint, and the perennial player, Hefner. What the internet did was not so much ease availabilty or access to such materials, but facilitated communication, and such, more people were able to discern that there were actually people out there willing to consensually participate in getting freaky, as it were. It demonstrated to a lot of people that sex was actually available in the real world, not simply locked in the imagination, or a distant, removed, inaccessible ‘dirty’ thing to be ashamed of. Hence, no need to “take” one’s pleasure – with the discovery that it will be available ‘freely’. . .meaning with consent. That the possibilities are so unlimited, there’s no need to waste time on the unobtainable, particularly if there’s significant personal risk involved for such actions.

    1. Let me summarize your thesis for anyone with a life: friends with benefits

  19. I find all of the feminist, puritan, and conservative fear of sex ridiculous. My partner of three years and I, are due to wed in August of this year. She is wonderful and the light of my life. We have grown so much together and I respect her greatly and would never do anything that caused her any physical or emotional harm. That being said I am now willing to out myself as a member of some groups these ‘crusaders’ hate: We are both involved in a very heavily BDSM influenced relationship and are open and active swingers. We do so without enmity, without argument, and without jealousy. We both find a wide range of both other people, pornographies, and sexual proclivities stimulating. The idea that because of my being: A) A Male, B) an enjoyer of extreme pornography, and C) The dominant in a D/s relationship, could mean that (as feminists suggests) I would even consider perpetrating ANY non-consensual acts, sexual or otherwise, against anyone is as patently ridiculous as the idea that because A) I read a lot, B) I like Limerick’s, and C) Dr. Suess was my favorite author as a child that I would have grown up to speak only in rhymes! Aggression and force are as inherent to sex as they are to basketball, stop trying to conflate the expressions of certain emotions, dynamics, or actions in healthy scenarios with their application or expression in unhealthy scenarios.

    1. Congrats! Are you registered at One Fist Two Fist Red Fist Blue Fist or The Cat in the Hat, The pussy and the tushy?

      1. Well all of our kin in kink know our wishlist items, so we do expect to get a few gifts from extreme restrains and the stockroom 🙂 but only from play partners, with a lifestyle like ours discretion is an absolute must, if any of our family or friends know or suspect about our lifestyle they politely keep it to themselves.

        1. Damn disappointed in your reply; I expected a limerick a la Dr. Seuss

          1. What do you think he meant when he wrote:

            Would you, could you, with a fox?
            Woult you, could you, in a box?

            1. Sorry I was busy reading Dr Seuss’s I Can Lick 30 Tigers Today! and Other Stories. It’s about a boy who likes pussy

              1. You want 30 kitties in 1 day?

                You ever lick 30 envelopes in 1 hour?

                You’re mouth is gonna have the EXACT same after taste and texture by then!

                …unless you’re Gene Simmons…

    2. *blushes*

      I like yours too.

  20. I like to watch people fuck. Why complicate it?

    1. Duh! Wish we thought of that.

    2. Keep It Simple Stupid!

      1. keep it simple simmons…

  21. I put anti-porn activists in the same category as those who also want to take away our guns, video games and rock n roll/hip-hop. A bunch of morons who use flawed science and scare tactics to force their ignorant way of life on the rest of us.

  22. Sad, but if feminist weren’t women it would be easier to throw them into the same category as religious nuts. Unfortunately, if you do you’re sexist. Both want to control human sexuality with possibly different motivations as the reason why.

    1. Feminist is a pretty broad term. It’s not fair to lump all feminists in with Andrea Dworkin or whatever her name is.

      1. Feminists believe that men are sub-human so they are no different than people that are Nazis or in the Klan but since they hate men their bigotry is socially accepted.

      2. Perhaps…but then those feminists need to start stepping up and out shouting their sisters. All I keep hearing about is their male privilege/patriarchy nonsense.

  23. This is another situation where reality doesn’t fit the narrative a small, but obnoxiously vocal, special interest group has crafted in order to hoodwink the American public for power and money.

    1. Do you mean feminists are like the NEA?

      1. Sort of, except feminists haven’t managed to get their own Cabinet-level Department in the Executive Branch yet.

        1. Holy shit AC, that was a joke!

  24. Is there any distinction between “we had some drinks and he fucked me when I just wanted a kiss” style rape and dark-alley-and-knife style rape. Would porn affect the incidences of either differently? Also, what is the difference between porn and erotica? Does viewing lesbian porn still make a man more likely to be a rapist in feminist theory?

    1. I’m still trying to find out. Just a few more hours…

  25. You got it all wrong Troy, it was a Sam Kinison joke and you changed it for PC reasons. The joke was “did you ever notice that lesbians are women you wouldn’t want to fuck anyway”? Hey Troy, so you wouldn’t fuck Kathy Ireland? She’s pro-life you know. Dickwad.

  26. You’re too busy focusing on the legality of porn and not the incredibly corrosive effect it has on society and relationships. Drinking a bottle of Scotch every day is legal too, but it’s not a good idea.

    1. anything more than anecdotal evidence would be nice, so far you are spouting, but have no substance to back up your claim.

  27. This is just one more reason why libertardians will never….and I mean EVER get more than 2 % of any vote anywhere. Their air of amoral superiorty and self righteousness (masquerading as a lack of self righteousness) dooms them every time to the scrap bin of politics and relevance.

    1. For a sniper you really suck at hitting your targets.

      1. Give the poor guy some credit; it’s a real bitch for him to work a rifle since trolls don’t have opposable thumbs!

        1. intelligent design at work…

    2. Ummm your aim is off…true libertarians are fine with porn.

      Come on if you’re gonna use labels you should at least have the intelligence to use them correctly.

  28. I saw Andrea Dworkin give a speech locally –no interesting thing to mention but , c’mon, in all seriousness, being that ugly must have shaped her perception about sex and relationships.

  29. Feminism is about giving ugly women power over men.

    1. What? The power to make us gag not good enough for ’em?

  30. I actually find the current level of violence against men to be far more disconcerting then the level of violence against women. The very idea that our government continues to fund one without funding the other demonstrates the culture of misandry in which we all live.

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  32. Rape is epidemic in S. Africa, where up to 1/4 of the women report being victimized. My guess is they view less pornography on the Internet than we do.

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