Tyranny Goes Global

Iran sets a dangerous precedent by jailing Canadian blogger Hossein Derakhshan.


The plight of Iranian "blogfather" Hossein Derakhshan, known by his online handle Hoder, is a chilling reminder that there are still places where the exercise of one's freedom of expression could be a capital offense. According to officials in Iran, Canada is one of those places.

Derakhshan, an Iranian-born Canadian citizen, has been in prison in Iran for the past 22 months, after being arrested shortly after returning to his country of birth under suspicious circumstances in 2008. Late last month, it was reported that Derakhshan had been sentenced to 19 years in prison. One activist who wished to remain anonymous told me that this is the longest prison sentence given in Iran for a speech-crime since the post-election crackdown that began in June 2009. But the sentence is still a victory of sorts: There were credible rumors that prosecutors had been pushing for the death penalty. 

No one knows why Derakhshan went back to Iran, but it's been credibly suggested that he was offered a job with Press TV, Iran's government-owned satellite news network. If this is true, then it's possible that some faction of the Iranian government played a role in convincing him to return to the country. Nir Boms of Cyberdissidents.org speculated that the government lured Derakhshan back to Iran in order to pump him for infomation about the Iranian opposition's web network. "If you are a known political activist and someone who holds the key to many of the opposition blogs, who know some passwords to many of their websites, you are an asset to the regime, no doubt," says Boms. Boms added that there's some proof that the Iranian government promised not to hassle or arrest Derakhshan if he returned to the country, further suggesting an effort by regime hardliners to entrap one of the world's most important Persian-language bloggers. "It seemed before he returned he received some assurances from Iran that nothing bad would happen to him," he says. "The Council for Iranians Abroad seem to have given him indication that he wouldn't have problems with the government."

Like many who have run afoul of the Iranian regime, Hoder was charged under the broad rubric of "crimes against the state," which in this case means "anti-state propaganda" and "insulting the prophet and his descendants." Although Hoder became controversial for his increasingly pro-regime opinions—leading to speculation that he had been bought off or otherwise co-opted by the government in Tehran—he is now facing several decades in prison.

Hoder is paying for his blogging activities with his freedom, but his career is an object lesson in how technology can bring some limited degree of political liberty to societies living under oppressive governments. His publication of easy-to-follow instructions for blogging in Farsi helped spur an explosion of blogging in Iran, which was partly responsible for the atmosphere of debate and protest that fueled the Green Revolution two summers ago. The Internet, after all, is a nationless and inherently cosmopolitan medium—whether a blog is pro- or anti-regime, it has the potential to open lines of dialogue and communication between Iranians and the outside world. This might explain why the Iranian government blocks non-political or even religiously conservative blogs, according to a 2008 Harvard study (see page 20). The regime's penchant for jailing bloggers also attests to its fear of a blog-fueled and truly democratic political culture, a fear which has manifested itself through an assault on cosmopolitan figures who could bridge the gap between an isolated theocratic state and Western standards of civil society. Mohammad Ali Abtahi, "the blogging mullah," is emblematic of the government's anti-cosmopolitanism in action. A regime insider and vice president under the conservative Mohammed Khatami, Abtahi also appeared on the Daily Show and headed a committee dedicated to inter-religious dialogue. He has been in prison since June 2009. 

The nature of Hoder's "crimes" is reflective of this paranoia towards any activity that could undermine the Islamist and pathologically anti-Western foundation of the Iranian regime, and observers have speculated that Hoder's arrest was partly triggered by a controversial reporting trip to Israel in 2006. The Iranian government's fear of globe-trotting dissidents also runs notoriously deep. Prominent Iranian scholars and journalists have been indicted in absentia, while Robert Guerra of Freedom House says that the Iranian regime's internet surveilance has been both wide-ranging and aggressive.

"There's a huge push by the Iranian government to control the message, and they will reach outside their borders to do so" says Guerra. This entails a number of invasive and sophisticated means of controlling the opposition's Web presence. Guerra says that people have been forced to give up their Facebook and Twitter passwords upon arrival at the Tehran airport. The government also keeps Internet connections in Iran extremely slow, so that they can identify or target anyone who spends suspicious amounts of time uploading pictures or video online. Anti-government exiles have to be extremely careful about how they communicate with dissidents still inside the country. "There's a great chilling effect" says Guerra of anti-regime bloggers and Web-based activists. "So people might self-censor even outside of iran, which is very troublesome as well."

Hoder is a victim of this assault on the international, Web-based nature of Iran's emerging political culture. This policy isn't surprising for a self-isolating dictatorship. But in situations like these, Western governments at least have the minimal responsibility of defending the rights of their citizens. After all, Hoder is a Canadian citizen and did most of his blogging in Toronto. In this case, the dictatorial interests of the Iranian regime are in conflict with a Western government's commitment to protecting the civil liberties of its citizens.

To Canada's credit, it cares that speech by one of its own citizens on its own soil is being treated as criminal behavior in another country. The Canadian government asked for access to the jailed blogger and attempted to extend him full consular support after he was arrested, a request which the Iranians continue to deny. But the Canadian government has given no public indication that it is negotiating for Hoder's release, and hasn't threatened to downgrade or cut off diplomatic relations if Hoder is executed. One blogger writes that,

The reason to write about Hoder and support campaigns like the Free Hoder blog is not to influence the Iranian government, but to urge the Canadian government to do whatever they can. Hoder holds a Canadian, as well as an Iranian passport, and while Iran doesn't respect dual nationality, Canada does, and has an obligation to push for Hossein's release.

Julie Payne of Canadian Journalists for Free Expression agrees. "I think the Canadian government is working behind the scenes in diplomatic channels," she says. "We'd like to hear them take a strong public stance on this issue and I think there's more that can be done. I think this needs to be a really high priority." She cited the case of Maziar Bahari, a Canadian-Iranian filmmaker and Newsweek reporter who was freed after being swept up in Iran's post-election crackdown, as an example of activists and the Canadian government successfully pressuring the Iranian regime. 

But in the 22 months that Hoder has been imprisoned, the Canadian government has shown little willingness to spark an international confrontation over the civil rights of either its citizens or Iran's beleaguered opposition. Given Canada's history of championing Iranian human rights and its success in securing Bahari's release, it's disappointing that its government has been relatively mute in defending one of the world's most high-profile Iranian-Canadians.

While the Canadians have utilized diplomatic back-channels and released a statement after the prison sentence was handed down, the Derakhshan affair was hardly the international incident that it could and arguably should have been. The Canadian government's attitude is a quiet acknowledgement of tyranny's transnational reach in the digital age, when what you write in Canada could land you on death row in Iran. Hoder's arrest, as well as the Iranian government's alleged role in luring him back to Iran, suggests that this is more than a hypothetical. The Iranian government's international campaign against its opposition is a terrifying development, and should be a call to global outrage and resolve—not a call to polite diplomacy.  

Armin Rosen is Reason's Fall 2010 Burton C. Gray Memorial Intern.

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  1. The Globe and Mail has some weird details, such as:

    Later, he apologized for his dissenting views, and emerged as an unlikely supporter of the regime, at one point comparing Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to a modern-day Che Guevara.

    Are they sure that was a pro-Ahmadinejad statement?

    They also state that the Iranian gov’t invited him to come to Iran.

    I wonder if this dude’s story is just too weird and convoluted to sell as a MSM outrage piece. Not that I think the Canadian gov’t isn’t a bunch of pussies (Ottawa ain’t “demanding” shit).

    1. You know, for a country that’s most famous for producing hockey thugs, lumberjacks, and outstanding soldiers, you guys sure are pussies up there.

      1. You know what you get when two shit-tectonic plates collide? Shitquakes, Warty. Shitquakes.

        1. Is that what happens after you drink a dozen raw eggs and a gallon of milk, too?

          1. The shit pool’s getting full, Warty, time to strain the shit before it overflows. I will not have a Pompeian shit catastrophe on my hands.

              1. No way I’m clicking on that link!

                1. Too late.. Upside down smiley face

  2. Is this the same blogger I heard about on NPR. As NPR reported it, this blogger suddenly became supportive of the Iranian regime, and even took to task other critics of same.

    The takeaway was one of two things:

    He voluntarily changed his tune to soften his return to Iran, thinking that his slate would be clear, or…

    Someone “got to him”.

    I have to admit, I’m skeptical of the “someone got to him” theory.

  3. He has been in prison in Iran for the past 22 months, after being arrested shortly after returning to his country of birth under suspicious circumstances in 2008.

    Suspicious because who in their right mind would want to go?

    1. Exactly. Who in their right mind would say bad things about a police state known for imprisoning dissidents, then voluntarily step foot inside said police state?

  4. Suspicious because who in their right mind would want to go?

    Shit, who wouldn’t?

    1. He ain’t getting any of that sweet, sweet pussy in jail.

      But, yes, they have hot women in Iran, just like there are hot women anywhere you go in the world.

  5. his online handle Hoser


  6. “…Boms added that there’s some proof that the Iranian government promised not to hassle or arrest Derakhshan if he returned to the country,…”
    I certainly haven’t followed this closely, but we have a guy from Canada (which doesn’t recognize the basic right of free speech) going to a place where you can get in deep doo-doo for making certain noises (and despite the opening sentence, is not all that rare).
    Voluntarily? Based on the government’s ‘promises’? And we’re to be sympathetic?
    Hey, sympathy is scarce also; I’ll save mine for the folks who were already there, or the Cuban population.
    Unless there’s something I’m missing…

  7. 1) Iran is horrible for arresting people for their speech.

    2) This case is an bad consequence of the eroding national sovereignty. Clear jurisdictional lines would have but this case under Canadian control and preserved freedom. When we go after gambling websites in the Caribbean, we make our own citizens more vulnerable.

    1. “Clear jurisdictional lines would have but this case under Canadian control and preserved freedom.”
      Ignoring the Canada doesn’t recognize free-speech, how would Canada maintain any sort of control after he crossed the border?

      1. Canadian speech laws are not as free as in the USA, but they are still much freer than in Iran. I doubt this blogger would have been arrested under Canadian speech laws.

    2. 1) Attacking overseas gambling websites is a bad idea.

      2) The Islamic Republic pays absolutely no attention to what the West does about overseas gambling websites.

      1. Our pursuit of overseas gambling websites do create a small impedance to our efforts to protect our own citizens. The Islamic Republic of Iran may not care what we do, but most of the other countries do. Diplomatic pressure depends on the good will of a large coalition of nations. When we bully other nations over their internal affairs, we weaken our ability to stir up an international diplomatic backlash against Iran for it’s abuses towards our citizens.

  8. The canadian government should really make a bigger deal out of it.

    I have always thought that a number of European nations could be declared war on and attacked on (without threat of invasion, like a country launching missile ) and they would do nothing, I think canada could be added to that list.

    1. Canada expects to be defended by the US. Because of the US, western nations have the illusion that they need not ever worry about defense.

      Canada will never object to Iran. that would be too unPC. To the liberal canadian and they are all liberal, Iran is just fine. America, Israel, and the Iranian opposition are the bad guys.

  9. Personally I know a guy is gay when we meet and i feel the need to check my fly~gdyhr

  10. I like what Iran is doing here.

  11. I agree, this isn’t an example of “tyranny going global.
    It WOULD be the case IF Iran charged him with a [thought]crime and Canada was compelled to honor the extradition request. (If Canada gladly volunteered to honor the request, it would also not be a case of globalized tyranny but rather Canada joining the axis of evil.)

    Instead, this is an example of a gullible free citizen walking into a trap set by a dictatorship.

  12. The Iranian regime hates the West for ideological, not pathological, reasons. Hating the West is the justification of the rule of the mullahs.

    I doubt Hoder received any guarantees from regime insiders – or if he did, that they were worth much. He’s a politically naive person, but his mistake has been shared by much more sophisticated types: underestimating the malice, ambition, and hunger for control of those in power in Tehran.

    That said, everything and anything should be done to end this abuse – and not just by the Canadians.

    See “Hoder in chains”:


  13. Seriously, What kind of numb-nuts returns to Iran?!? Even Canada is better than that festering hole. I call stupid on this guy and offer no sympathy. He got what he deserved for returning.

  14. “Hoder is paying for his blogging activities with his freedom”

    No, he is paying for his foolishness in returning to Iran, with his freedom. Blogging never put him in any danger, only his shortsighted willingness to expose himself to the authority of the Iranian government placed him in danger. The rest is Darwinism.

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