Police Abuse

A New Report on the Aurora, Colorado, Police Department Documents a Pattern of Excessive Force and Racial Disparities

The report from the attorney general's office also found that Aurora paramedics used ketamine illegally to treat "excited delirium."

|

A report that Colorado Attorney General Phil Weiser released this week concludes that the Aurora Police Department, which has attracted much attention in recent years due to horrifying incidents such as the 2019 death of Elijah McClain, "has a pattern and practice" of "racially biased policing," of "using excessive force," and of "failing to document stops as required by law." The investigative team that prepared the report, which included former prosecutors, public defenders, and police officers, also found that Aurora Fire "had a pattern and practice of using ketamine," a dissociative anesthetic that paramedics sometimes administer to people in police custody, "in violation of the law."

All of these factors either clearly or arguably played a role in the lethal August 2019 police encounter with McClain, a black 23-year-old massage therapist who, according to an independent panel appointed by the Aurora City Council, was stopped, arrested, tackled, and forcibly restrained without legal justification. This month Weiser announced that a statewide grand jury had approved 32 criminal charges, including manslaughter, criminally negligent homicide, and second-degree assault, against three officers and two paramedics who were involved in that incident. The indictment cites a forensic pathologist's conclusion that McClain died as a result of complications caused by his violent restraint and an overdose of ketamine.

McClain was walking home from a convenience store, where he had bought three cans of iced tea, when he was accosted by police responding to a 911 call in which a teenager described him as "sketchy." The fact that McClain was black does not prove that race was a factor in the incident, although it jibes with longstanding complaints from African-American residents that Aurora police tend to treat them differently than they treat white people. The 118-page report released by Weiser's office cites substantial statistical evidence that backs up that impression, showing that black people in Aurora, as in other cities, are disproportionately likely to interact with police, be arrested, and be subjected to the use of force. While racial bias is just one possible explanation for those disparities, the report's authors argue that race-neutral factors are unlikely to account for the large differences they found.

Marc Sears, president of the Aurora police union, says he is willing to work with Weiser, who wants the department to enter into a consent decree requiring reforms aimed at addressing the problems identified in the report. But Sears objects to the authors' description of his colleagues as "racially biased," saying "police officers don't care what color you are" and "you can do anything with statistics to kind of present what it is you want to present."

While the patterns described in the report are open to interpretation, they are at least consistent with the popular impression that the Aurora Police Department, which is overwhelmingly white, discriminates against black people. Aurora, which is located about 10 miles east of Denver, is Colorado's third-largest city, with about 386,000 residents, 16.5 percent of whom are black. Yet from January 2018 to February 2021, data cited in the report indicate, African Americans accounted for half of all police interactions, compared to 39 percent for non-Hispanic whites, who represent 44.4 percent of the population. Taking into account multiple encounters involving the same individual, 46 percent of Aurora's black population interacted with police during this period, compared to 24 percent of whites.

The pattern is similar when you look at arrests and the use of force. The number of unique arrests (involving different individuals) represented more than one-fifth of Aurora's black population, compared to less than a tenth of its white population. "When measured as a percentage of population," the report says, "for every unique use of force on a white subject, there were 2.5 times as many uses of force on a non-white subject and 5 times as many unique uses of force on a Black subject." Differences in the use of force persisted across levels of force and were apparent in misdemeanor as well as felony cases.

One possible explanation for these differences is that police focus their resources on high-crime, low-income areas that are disproportionately black. But the report says "geography cannot explain the racial and ethnic disparities observed in Aurora Police's use of force." It notes that "Aurora is divided into three police districts, each with different demographic and socio-economic characteristics." Yet "the statistically significant relationships between race and ethnicity and use of force—both as a percentage of interactions and a percentage of arrests—remained consistent for non-white individuals as a whole and Black individuals specifically across all three Aurora Police districts."

The investigators also considered whether the disparities varied with "the median household income of the zip code where the event occurred." They found that disparities were apparent in all four income quartiles. In the highest quartile, for example, "Aurora Police had 2,009 interactions with Black individuals, which equaled 13.2% of their population in zip codes corresponding to this income quartile," which is "over five times higher than the 2.5% interaction rate for white subjects in Income Quartile 4." For arrests and use of force, the investigators found "similar disparities across nearly all income quartiles, particularly with respect to Black individuals."

Another possible explanation for these disparities is that black people are more likely to commit crimes than white people. The report's authors raise this possibility but do not fully consider it.

"The idea that individuals of certain races or ethnicities have a greater propensity to commit crimes because of their race or ethnicity is unsupported by any reliable evidence and contrary to law," they say. "While it is true that observed arrest and conviction rates can and do differ among racial and ethnic groups, we recognize that these differences could arise for many reasons, including income level disparities, differential policing efforts, community willingness to report crime, or other factors."

That gloss seems evasive. Whatever the reasons for racial disparities in crime rates, their existence would help explain higher rates of interactions, arrests, and uses of force. Whether the differences are due to "income level disparities, differential policing efforts, community willingness to report crime, or other factors," they still could provide an explanation for racial disparities in law enforcement that do not involve racial bias.

One piece of evidence that cuts against alternative explanations is the likelihood that force will be used when an arrest occurs. During the three-year period considered in the report, police used force 3.6 percent of the time when they arrested black suspects, compared to 2 percent of the time when they arrested white suspects.

"Aurora Police used force against 1.5% of Black subjects who had at least one interaction with police from 2018 to 2021," the report says. "That is nearly double the corresponding figure for white subjects. Racial differences in arrest rates…cannot explain the use-of-force disparity, at least as to Black individuals." A race-neutral explanation for this disparity presumably would hinge on the idea that black arrestees are more likely than white arrestees to resist arrest or that they present more of a threat when they do, both of which are subjective judgments that could themselves be influenced by racial bias.

The report cites another important piece of evidence in support of the argument that racial bias, conscious or not, plays a role in the disparities it describes. The investigators compared outcomes in three kinds of cases involving different levels of officer discretion: "suspicious occurrence," "disturbance/noise complaint," and "domestic dispute." If racial bias influences officer behavior, you would expect the evidence of disparities to be strongest in cases where police have the most discretion, which is what the data indicate.

While "officers must arrest a suspect if there is probable cause to believe domestic violence has occurred," they have much more leeway when responding to a "suspicious occurrence"—a description that fits the police encounter with McClain, although the officers in that case did not actually have a reasonable basis to suspect he was involved in criminal activity. Complaints about noise or some other disturbance fall somewhere between those extremes, since "there has been a report or observation of potential unlawful activity that impacts others, but officers still retain significant discretion over whether to make an arrest."

The investigators found "statistically significant evidence that Aurora Police
disproportionately used force against Black individuals, as compared to white individuals, in suspicious activity cases—both as a percentage of interactions (2.5 times more) and as a percentage of arrests (2 times more)." By contrast, they "did not find statistically significant evidence that the uses of force in domestic violence or noise disturbance/complaint cases were disproportionate across race or ethnicity."

Whatever you make of the dramatic racial disparities documented in this report, the evidence of excessive force is troubling without regard to the complexions of the people on the receiving end. In addition to reviewing the Aurora's annual use of force reports since 2016 and 2,800 individual reports on uses of force, the investigators observed officer behavior during 220 hours of ride-alongs in all three of the city's districts. They found that Aurora police "repeatedly engaged in unlawful and unconstitutional uses of force, regularly applying greater force than reasonably warranted by the situation."

These violations included incidents in which officers used force "to take people to the ground without first giving them adequate time to respond to officer commands, or generically recit[ed] 'stop resisting' when trying to control subjects, even though it appeared from other available evidence that the subject was not resisting." The investigators also "observed officers immediately escalating in circumstances
where the subject was in obvious mental health distress but not presenting an imminent risk of harm to themselves or others." In other cases, officers used force on "individuals who had not committed any crime and presented no danger but who simply refused to comply with orders."

On that last point, the report notes that Aurora's Disorderly Conduct Ordinance criminalizes failing to "obey a lawful order or command" by a police officer when that failure "causes or is likely to cause harm or a serious inconvenience." That law gives police broad discretion to arrest someone who is not actually involved in criminal activity—someone like McClain, for instance—simply because he declines to follow orders that never should have been issued in the first place. From 2015 through 2020, Aurora police invoked this provision to justify thousands of arrests, and in many cases the charges were subsequently dropped.

"Based on information available to us," the report says, "we conclude that Aurora Police has a pattern and practice of using objectively unreasonable force to arrest those who police claim have violated this ordinance." The authors describe several such cases, including one that resulted in a $285,000 settlement of a lawsuit brought by a man who did not exit his garage as fast as the cops thought he should have when they arrived at his house in response to a noise complaint. Other incidents involved a woman who fell asleep on a bench at the Municipal Court and a man who was "lying on the grass."

The report says the use of excessive force by Aurora police officers is due partly to "a culture [that] emphasizes justification for force, rather than whether force was lawful and appropriate." It says training focuses on the "maximum force permitted under law" rather than urging officers to use only as much force as is necessary in a specific situation.

The authors also note that the department has fostered a misunderstanding of what "de-escalation" entails. "Repeatedly in the Force Review Board meetings, members applauded de-escalation that occurred after officers had tased or tackled someone,
rather than focusing on whether the taser or tackle was necessary in the first instance," the report says. "De-escalation, properly understood, focuses on tactics that reduce the need for force in the first place, rather than decreasing the amount of force used after the fact." Even leaving aside all the other dubious decisions that the officers who tackled McClain made, a less confrontational, more peaceful approach  to an innocent man who did not understand why police were manhandling him could have avoided a fatal outcome in that case.

The report also addresses the use of ketamine to subdue arrestees, another factor that figured in McClain's death. Based mainly on police suspicions that McClain was "on something," paramedics diagnosed him with "excited delirium"—a controversial concept that is not recognized by the American Medical Association or the American Psychiatric Association. They gave him the drug about two minutes after they arrived on the scene without conducting a physical examination or even asking him his weight. They overestimated his weight by 40 percent and gave him a dose that was 54 percent higher than he should have received, even assuming that an involuntary ketamine injection was appropriate to begin with.

Last June, the Colorado legislature passed a law that restricts the use of ketamine by paramedics to "a justifiable medical emergency," specifying that "excited delirium" does not count. The law, which took effect on July 6, also prohibits police from asking paramedics to administer ketamine, which is not to be used to "facilitate ease and convenience in law enforcement encounters."

The authors of this week's report examined paramedics' use of ketamine before that law took effect. From January 2019 through September 2020, Aurora paramedics injected ketamine 22 times in response to what they perceived as "excited delirium." In most of these cases, the investigators found, "paramedics failed to follow ketamine monitoring protocols or administered ketamine at doses above the maximum allowable dose." They note that "ketamine cannot be administered unless it is (1) used for bona fide medical needs, and (2) administered by or under the direction of a person licensed or legally authorized to do so." They add that "the unlawful administration of drugs constitutes second-degree assault."

As even Sears implicitly acknowledges, the Aurora Police Department has some serious problems. The report elaborates on the troubling pattern of law enforcement described by plaintiffs like Brittney Gilliam, a black woman who sued the department this year after police forced her, her daughter, her sister, and two of her nieces to lie on the pavement at gunpoint because they mistakenly thought her car was stolen. In the aftermath of that fiasco, police officers were dismayed by the anger it provoked from Gilliam and the bystanders who witnessed it. As the report shows, there are ample reasons to be angry at the way Aurora police treat the citizens they are supposed to be serving and protecting.

NEXT: Biden's Drug Price Controls Would Make Americans Sicker and Shorten Their Lives

Editor's Note: We invite comments and request that they be civil and on-topic. We do not moderate or assume any responsibility for comments, which are owned by the readers who post them. Comments do not represent the views of Reason.com or Reason Foundation. We reserve the right to delete any comment for any reason at any time. Report abuses.

  1. Good thing Colorado got that MLB all star game away from Atlanta.

    1. Start making money this time… Spend more time with your family & relatives by doing jobs that only require you to have a computer and an internet access and you can have that at your home. Hax Start bringing up to $65,000 to $70,000 a month. I’ve started this job and earn a handsome income and now I am exchanging it with you, so you can do it too.

      Here is I started.…………… VISIT HERE

      1. My last pay test was $9500 operating 12 hours per week on line. my sisters buddy has been averagrtying 15k for months now and she works approximately 20 hours every week. i can not accept as true with how easy it become as soon as i tried it out. This is what do,…………… READ MORE

        1. Searching for a supplemental source of income? This is the easiest way I have found to earn $5000+ per week over the internet. Work for a few hours per week in your free time and get paid on a regular basis.GFs Only reliable internet connection and computer needed to get started…

          Start today………………… IncomeOpportunities

      2. I made over $700 per day using my mobile in part time. I recently got my 5th paycheck of $19632 and all i was doing is to copy and paste work online. this home work makes me able to generate more cash daily easily.AWd simple to do work and regular income from this are just superb. Here what i am doing.

        Try now………….. Pays24

    2. I am making a good salary online from home.I’ve made 97,999 dollar’s so for last 5 months working online and I’m a full time student.WDa I’m using an online business opportunity I’m just so happy that I found out about it.

      For more detail ……………. VISIT HERE

    3. Why do we even have cops? They are useless yet expensive criminals who do little to nothing to stop or reduce crime, and, are often the criminals themselves.

      1. Cuz as bad as cops are, mobs are worse.

        1. Find USA Online Jobs (800$-95000$ Weekly) safe and secure! Easy Acces To Information. Simple in use. All the Answers. Multiple sources combined.VGy Fast and trusted. Discover us now! Easy & Fast, 99% Match. ..

          Here………… Pays24

      2. I made over $700 per day using my mobile in part time. I recently got my 5th paycheck of $19632 and all i was doing is to copy and paste work online. this home work makes me able to generate more cash daily easily.VGr simple to do work and regular income from this are just superb. Here what i am doing. Try now………

        Click & Chang your Life …… JOBS APP

  2. African Americans accounted for half of all police interactions, compared to 39 percent for non-Hispanic whites

    What is an hispanic white?

    1. I am making a good salary online from home.I’ve made 97,999 dollar’s so for last 5 months working online and I’m a full time student.QSz I’m using an online business opportunity I’m just so happy that I found out about it.

      For more detail ……………. VISIT HERE

    2. Hispanic is an ethnicity not a race (not really that either, it’s people who “originate” from a country where many are likely to have ancestors from Spain) Almost all Hispanics are white in the US. During the heyday of racial science, the classification was used as a tool to discriminate against a white ethnicity, now used for the exact opposite. (Interesting side note; Russians were considered the dumbest of all ethnicities per the US army)
      South of Mexico, most are Native American. The Caribbean has lots of black ones.
      I think some Philippinos are considered Asian Hispanic.
      Emilio Estevez and Charlie sheen are white Hispanics. So is James roday. So are AMLO and AOC for that matter.
      Pedro Martinez and David Ortiz are black Hispanics.
      Not sure if Portuguese descendants are considered Hispanic or not.

      1. (Interesting side note; Russians were considered the dumbest of all ethnicities per the US army)

        When?

  3. Yet from January 2018 to February 2021, data cited in the report indicate, African Americans accounted for half of all police interactions, compared to 39 percent for non-Hispanic whites, who represent 44.4 percent of the population. Taking into account multiple encounters involving the same individual, 46 percent of Aurora’s black population interacted with police during this period, compared to 24 percent of whites.

    By the way, these statistics by themselves do not prove racism. They’re worth looking at and studying why, and it might be found that the reasons for the above is racism.

    But the “disparate impact” theory has been roundly debunked. Merely because policing has a “disparate impact” does not mean it is racist.

    1. I mean, this article is about people literally doing exactly that. They looked at the statistics to find why they were the case and arrived at the conclusion that racial bias was the explanation best supported by the data.

      1. Hard to say ; there is a bit of a leap of logic here that itself has to be tested:
        “A race-neutral explanation for this disparity presumably would hinge on the idea that black arrestees are more likely than white arrestees to resist arrest or that they present more of a threat when they do, both of which are subjective judgments that could themselves be influenced by racial bias.”

        “The investigators found “statistically significant evidence that Aurora Police disproportionately used force against Black individuals, as compared to white individuals, in suspicious activity cases—both as a percentage of interactions (2.5 times more) and as a percentage of arrests (2 times more).”

        They still dont isolate the arrestee’s behavior. They just look at suspicious activity cases.

        This is sort of like the typical drug arrest stat:

        1 “)Black men are far more likely to be arrested for drugs possession, but whites and blacks use drugs equally”…this is a false comparison as arrests are usually for dealing rather than using

        2) “well”, the come back is, “we also think white people as much as black”…there is only very weak stats on this

        But more importantly the majority of drug possession arrests are in PUBLIC and black men are far more likely to deal in public than white…white guys deal inside, black outside…hard to arrest people in the privacy of their homes without a warrant…

        you need to do the stats on reported arrestee behavior not a presumed cofactor

      2. Groups whose members commit a disproportionate amount of crime can expect a disproportionate number of encounters with the police.

      3. they really didnt. they did not look at the MOST IMPORTANT DATA to determine racial bias:
        “Another possible explanation for these disparities is that black people are more likely to commit crimes than white people. The report’s authors raise this possibility but do not fully consider it.”

        whether or not higher rates of police interaction due to higher criminality rates and or higher violent criminality rates.
        they CHOSE not to examine the most relevant data.
        that says it all. they predetermined their conclusion and avoided addressing the data that would have challenged it.

    2. It’s clearly much more sexist than racist. Really biased against men.

    3. R2 is 1. Case closed. Hang em!

    4. Racism of the gaps.

      Muh racial disparity!

  4. Trench Coat Mafia maintains it’s “whites only” membership policy.

    1. Both members are dead. Easy to not change the policies under those conditions.

    2. Plus that was Lakewood.

  5. If the message they’re sending is that “if you’re white you have nothing to worry about,” check Reason’s coverage of police abuse for a refutation.

    1. Jeez, just take a look at how they handled that 2012 bank robbery, where they blocked off an entire street of traffic, yanked everyone out of their cars—about 15 or so—just to try and find some escaping bank robbers. https://www.denverpost.com/2012/06/03/aurora-cars-stopped-occupants-questioned-after-bank-robbery/

      Yeah, that was Aurora too. They’ve been shitheads for a really long time. I’ve heard Red Rocks say here before that a lot of it is a shithole ghetto, but still.

      1. That shithole ghetto has the best food in the Denver area. Could just be a personal preference.

        1. Yeah, white liberals in Denver LOVE to show how “tolerant” and “open-minded” they are by eating at those places (on the west side, too, which is mostly Chicano), but you can be damned sure they’re all back in their metro area whiteopias by the end of the day. They’re good enough to treat these people as a servant class, but they’ll kill their own kids before sending them to school in a majority-minority district.

          It’s not an accident that Denver remains one of the most balkanized cities in the American West, especially now that it’s run by race-grifting commies.

      2. The shithole ghetto part is mostly on the northwest side, and has been for decades. A lot of the middle and upper-middle class whites took off for the southeastern parts of the city, Castle Rock, and Parker after the military bases in and near the city (Lowry, Fitzsimons, Rocky Mountain Arsenal) shut down.

        The violence, at least until the Floyd riots kicked off, wasn’t as bad recently as it was in the early-mid 90s when the Bloods and Crips were fighting over territory, mostly north of Mississippi Avenue. When the whites moved out, Mexicans started moving in around 2000, and now they make up about 70% of the student body in a lot of the northside schools. They actually ended up pushing quite a few black residents back to the Park Hill area; their gang members do NOT fuck around and their leaders have far better future-time orientation than the black L.A. OGs and their prodigies ever did.

        A BIG reason why Aurora cops have such a brutal reputation is precisely because that northwest side in particular is an absolute garbage pit of socio-economic refuse. They’ve been trying all kinds of band-aids for decades to make it as nice as it was from old Aurora’s heyday in the early 20th century, but they might as well burn all the money they spent like Joker did in Dark Knight, for all the good it did.

        1. “They actually ended up pushing quite a few black residents back to the Park Hill area; their gang members do NOT fuck around and their leaders have far better future-time orientation than the black L.A. OGs and their prodigies ever did.”

          Same thing happened in the L.A. Basin, IIRC. Ethnic cleansing if whites did it that way (versus gentrification, raising property taxes, etc…), but no one cares otherwise.

          Thanks for the clarification and explanation. Aurora PD’s had a few other semi-infamous egregious uses of force in the last decade, but putting an entire street of motorists under arrest was the first one that came to mind. As for the case here, I’m thinking the cops don’t have reasonable suspicion for the stop, despite the hoodie and mask in August 2019, the paramedics breached the standard of care for follow-on treatment after administering ketamine, and both cops and paramedics ended up with an eggshell suspect. Negligent homicide charges seem appropriate for both sets here. (Or involuntary manslaughter, if that’s how Colorado’s Penal Code classifies this offense.)

          Pretty bad conduct for both groups here. Poor kid.

          1. If you look up just about every instance of bad behavior by Aurora cops, the vast majority of instances are on the northside, the Colfax corridor in particular. That’s why I mentioned a while ago that they really need to treat patrols in that area like a combat tour of duty, and rotate guys out every couple of weeks.

        2. I think you mean northeast, rather than northwest Denver area. Northwest is Golden, Broomfield, Lafayette, even Boulder – not exactly hotbeds of gang activity, although there was that supermarket mass shooting a few months ago.
          Northeast is where you have Commerce City and Montebello, which are both poor and crime ridden. Park Hill and Five points have become almost yuppie compared to those areas.

          1. No, I’m specifically talking about Aurora, not the entire metro area.

  6. If the message they’re sending is that “if you’re white you have nothing to worry about,” check Reason’s coverage of police abuse for a refutation.

  7. Did they shoot an unarmed woman in the back, reason? Seriously go kill yourselves.

  8. Those who commit more crime get more attention from the police. Blacks commit much more crime.

  9. “Another possible explanation for these disparities is that black people are more likely to commit crimes than white people. The report’s authors raise this possibility but do not fully consider it.”

    So basically, the suggestion that policing in Aurora is racially biased is complete horse manure. Just add it to the pile of horse manure that BLM is based on.

    We need improvements in policing. Period. It’s not a racial issue. Making it a racial issue with zero evidence cripples real reforms and cripples policing at the same time.

  10. Obama’s daughter introduced a site that can help many people financially. If you want to earn extra income every month … look no further! This is a great opportunity for anyone to earn from home. you can work online only for 5 to 8 hours on my computer and this was so smooth that I personally couldn’t accept it as true before working on this website. if you too need to earn this sort of huge cash then come and be part of us. go to the home tab section for more details…..www.cashidea1.com

  11. Is Polis checking out Weiser’s ass in that picture? I’m pretty sure. I wonder how his hubby feels about his wandering eyes.

  12. I live in Aurora. Every single episode of crime that I encounter involves a black person. Every single one. Two days ago I brake checked a man who was aggressively tailgating. At the next light, he threw an empty soda can at my car. I put my car in park and existed my vehicle. The offending party laughed in joy at my exist, got out of their own vehicle, and approached me. The man threatened me, and threatened that he was going to punch me in the head. Of course, I outweighed him by 80 pounds. Little chicken arms and no chest. I would have broken him into little tiny pieces. He recognized the facts, did not hit me (the wisest decision he made) and got back in his vehicle. He seemed to believe that he could cower me simply because he was black and I am white. Fuck him, and fuck the mentality among black americans that theaw doesn’t apply to them. You wanna know about the disparities in law enforcement in Aurora then I suggest that you look at the attitude amongst the black population that the law doesn’t apply to them. From driving and parking, to simple human interactions in a grocery store- a percentage of Aurora’s population think that they are immune from both the law and basic social contract. So yeah, the police are going to interact with a lawless population more. (Btw, that individual is lucky I was in a good mood, or I would have put him in the hospital. I mean, throwing a can at somebody else’s car? Who does that except a barbarian?)

    1. “…I put my car in park and existed my vehicle…”

      Profoundly fucking stupid. Don’t do this. Lot of people have gotten shot, doing what you did. Drive off, turn down another street, break contact—all while dialing the cops, if need be—but don’t get out of your car.

      Just what were you going to do? Kick the shit out of the guy? Now what? Any witnesses, and you might have a chance of catching a battery or aggravated assault charge. Yeah, it’s not likely, but, in the immortal words of Remo Gaggi (AKA Joe Aiuppa), “Why take a chance?”

      I’ve liked your posts here. Please don’t put yourself in a position where you won’t be able to keep making them.

      1. Yeah, he’s lucky the hood rat wasn’t packing heat. Most of the shootings in Aurora over the last year and a half have involved black people going off, albeit mostly over drug-dealing incidents.

  13. Obama’s daughter introduced a site that can help many people financially. If you want to earn extra income every month … look no further! This is a great opportunity for anyone to earn from home. you can work online only for 5 to 8 hours on my computer and this was so smooth that I personally couldn’t accept it as true before working on this website. if you too need to earn this sort of huge cash then come and be part of us. go to the home tab section for more details…..www.cashidea1.com

  14. Do you want to make money online then click this link to get started http://www.easy40.com

  15. Um, you kind of missed the whole ball of wax here.
    Generally, when studies find that arrests and use of force are NOT RACIALLY BIASED, its precisely because of the proportional crime activity by race.
    Another way to put this is: ‘THE AUTHORS FAILED TO EXAMINE THE MOST LIKELY REASON BESIDES RACISM THAT WOULD HAVE CREATED RACIAL DISPARITIES IN POLICING.”

    “Another possible explanation for these disparities is that black people are more likely to commit crimes than white people. The report’s authors raise this possibility but do not fully consider it.”

Please to post comments

Comments are closed.