Obamacare

Now That It's Toothless, Obamacare's Individual Mandate Is Unconstitutional

The shifting understanding of the requirement to buy health insurance elevates form above substance.

|

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 includes a "requirement" that Americans "shall…ensure" that they and their dependents have "minimum essential coverage" for medical care. Seven years ago, Chief Justice John Roberts provided the decisive vote to uphold this requirement, also known as the "individual mandate," after counterintuitively concluding that it was neither a requirement nor a mandate but was instead merely a condition for avoiding a tax that the law describes as a "penalty."

As of January, thanks to a tax bill that Congress passed in 2017, that penalty was reduced to zero. Consequently, a federal appeals court ruled last week, the mandate that became a tax is now a mandate again and therefore unconstitutional, a decision that is simultaneously logical and puzzling, revealing the triumph of form over substance in the judicial branch's failure to stop Congress from exercising powers it was never granted.

In the 2012 case National Federation of Independent Business v. Sibelius, five justices agreed that forcing people to buy health insurance was not a legitimate exercise of the power to regulate interstate commerce, which has long been the favorite excuse for federal legislation that the Constitution otherwise does not seem to authorize. But Roberts was determined to save the individual mandate anyway, so he reinterpreted it as a tax, contrary to what he called the "most straightforward" and "most natural" understanding of the law, and joined four other justices in upholding the provision.

Explaining the danger of reading the Commerce Clause broadly enough to encompass a command to buy health insurance, Roberts observed that the clause "gave Congress the power to regulate commerce, not to compel it." If that distinction were ignored, he said, the Commerce Clause would "justify a mandatory purchase to solve almost any problem," such as a command that people buy broccoli because it is good for their health.

In a dissent joined by three other justices, Antonin Scalia amplified that point. Upholding the individual mandate under the Commerce Clause, he said, would transform it into a "font of unlimited power, or in Hamilton's words, 'the hideous monster whose devouring jaws…spare neither sex nor age, nor high nor low, nor sacred nor profane."

The cage designed by Roberts does not do much to keep that hideous monster confined. In his view, Congress cannot constitutionally impose a fine on people who decline to buy broccoli, but it can constitutionally impose a tax on them.

If Congress chooses the latter approach, it does not even have to claim that insufficient vegetable consumption has a "substantial effect" on interstate commerce. As Roberts put it, "the breadth of Congress's power to tax is greater than its power to regulate commerce."

Roberts emphasized that regulation via taxation "leaves an individual with a lawful choice to do or not do a certain act, so long as he is willing to pay a tax levied on that choice." Yet people who decide not to pay a tax can get into plenty of legal trouble, including criminal prosecution as well as liens and forfeiture.

For political reasons, Congress barred the IRS from using those scary remedies to extract the penalty for failing to maintain health coverage. But future "tax" legislation aimed at getting Americans to behave as members of Congress think they should may not be so gentle.

Now that the penalty for disregarding the individual mandate is zero, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit ruled last week, Roberts' "tax" is not a tax anymore. "The provision no longer yields the 'essential feature of any tax' because it does not produce 'at least some revenue for the Government,'" the court said. Hence "the provision's saving construction is no longer available."

In other words, when Congress was punishing people for not buying health insurance, the provision was constitutional. Now that the penalty has been eliminated, rendering the provision unenforceable, it clearly exceeds the federal government's constitutional powers. Take that, hideous monster!

© Copyright 2019 by Creators Syndicate Inc.

NEXT: A Christmas Miracle: Washington Court Overturns Marijuana Sign Rules That Banned String Lights Spelling 'Pot'

Editor's Note: We invite comments and request that they be civil and on-topic. We do not moderate or assume any responsibility for comments, which are owned by the readers who post them. Comments do not represent the views of Reason.com or Reason Foundation. We reserve the right to delete any comment for any reason at any time. Report abuses.

  1. Constitutional Schmonstitutional. Now get the whole thing repealed so that nobody can reinstate the tax.

    1. Except the Kushner family is heavily invested in the ACA Exchanges so Trump will never allow it to be repealed. Republicans voted for the one Republican that wouldn’t repeal Obamacare!! Lololololol!!

      1. Merry Christmas fuckface.

        1. Josh Kushner had made hundreds of millions of dollars thanks to Santa Trump’s executive orders!! Thank you Santa Trump even helping the good little Jewish children!!

          1. Have a happy new year shit fer brains.

            1. Go fuck yourself loser.

              1. Except he’s not the loser here. You are. Along with every filthy progtard. You scum will keep pushing, since you can’t help yourselves. Then we can say we were……… provoked.

                And then, on short order, you Marxist trash will be wiped off the map.

                1. You can’t even get a job with health insurance. Btw, every time you purchase a product or service in America you are funding someone else’s health care costs including the PrEP pill that costs $1800/month…but you pay for your health care costs with after tax money…you are smart!

          2. Hundreds of millions huh. Definitely shot for brains.

          3. Links? Evidence? Post some or shut up.

          4. You mean from the Obamacare con created by and voted in by 100% Democrats. That’s what actually happened princess.

      2. My God are you stupid.

        1. Thank you Santa Trump for giving us Christmas in December!! $1.4 trillion in spending for all the good little girls and boys!! Everyone except Hunter Biden who gets a crack rock in his stocking!! Santa Trump hates crack but loves coal!!! 😉

          1. Lol. Love people too stupid to understand who controls the budgets and too ignorant to look at vote totals of said bills. Also too dumb to look at 2014 CBO projections who predicted this deficit due to entitlement growth.

            1. How can you type with Trump’s dirty d so far up your b hole??

              Btw, that is a metaphor, I got in trouble on the Hill when a moderator didn’t understand metaphors. 😉

              1. Happy holidays inbred fuck.

                1. Are you inbred too? Trump’s best state is West Virginia in which Obamacare is very popular…except they believe it is Byrdcare named after their KKK senator. That’s right, the state that sent a KKK grand wizard to the senate for decades also happens to be Trump’s best state! What a coincidence! Happy Kwanza! 😉

                  1. I’m not inbred, nor from West Virginia. Also, you’re a fucking idiot who posts nonsense.

                    1. West Virginia loves Obamacare!!! West Virginia Is Trump’s best state!!! It makes perfect sense dumbass!!!

                  2. So, what, there’s two people in WV who don’t hate Obamacare?

                    Kill yourself.

                    1. Happy Kwanza dipshit!!

              2. You’re not even a good troll.

                1. Good troll is an oxymoron. [drops mic]

                  1. Fine, pedant. You’re not even a competent troll. Better?

              3. may you get in trouble here for the same thing.

          2. Too bad Trump vetoed that balanced budget the democrats passed. Oh wait, that never existed in the first place.

            Kill yourself.

      3. What I read is that Joshua Kushner created Oscar Health Insurance to participate in the Obamacare exchanges, and Jared had a piece of that company via Thrive Capital. However, Jared Kushner sold that interest back in 2017 a week after Trump’s inauguration and no longer owns it.

        One thing this does show, is how businessmen will take advantage of government created opportunities in business where ordinary people don’t have the resources to compete. The point being that government shouldn’t be involved in businesses providing the goods and services we need, because it removes our freedom and the free markets that allow us to provide for each other, and replaces it with higher costs, lower choices and less quality. It also allows politicians to pick winners and losers in commerce, which corrupts the system.

      4. yep. they sell Oscar in Texas, where they hate poor people to live.

    2. so if in the next congress they ‘tax’ everyone $1its constitutional/

      so here is the real world : I am 63 with cancer. For the past 40 or so years the company that my family owned with over 100 employees had caddillac HI. we sold the company and I have no ’employee health care’ . I can buy on exchange and pay full price for premiums.

      with repeal I doubt very seriously any HI company will sell me insurance. So with Stage 3 melanoma it sounds like a death sentence. in my cast probably I will be Medicare eligible before it all gets shaken out , but the principle will be the same. Who will repeal of the ACA send to death row?

      The bill is back in front of the original Texas judge who overturned the entire law. Not much has been said about the depth of his research. We simply know he is an R appointee in Fort Wort , Tx who issued his ruling after Beto turned Fort Worth blue. Could he have an agenda? Could it have been as simple a thing as revenge? I think likely. As if any court ruling is not a political manifesto before it is legal ruling.

    3. just so you know what is actually happening, the law is being sent back to the Judge who overruled the entire law, pre-existing, expanded Medicaid, exchanges, kids on parents policy, etc.

      if the same judge who overruled ACA overrules it again, before election. any D wins in a landslide. MFA will become the law of the land.

      oh the irony, all the Tea Party gasbags who became shills for Trump will basically help him lose 2020, and likely see federal charges. I doubt he will be jailed but will be doing some mighty thrilling perp walks.

  2. When Roberts dreamed up that penaltax decision out of whole cloth, part of me admired his ingenuity, even if it was in the service of corrupt statism. But now that this decision has turned it right back on him, I laugh even more. I hope it gets to the Supreme Court; I hope Roberts has to either admit he was hoisted by his own petard, or that he tries to pull an even more creative rabbit out of his hat. I have little faith that Roberts will learn a lesson from this.

    1. Love the way this decision takes a big dump on Roberts.

    2. But he didn’t dream up the penaltax out of whole cloth. If you read his opinion he makes several strong arguments to support that decision:
      – The “penalty” was being collected by the IRS using its normal taxation mechanisms.
      – Several legal injunctions against the mandate had been barred by the Anti Injunction Act which prohibits lawsuits that exist only to impede the collection of a tax.

      The problem with the mandate was that it was an amorphous shapeshifter. It was a tax whenever the government found it convenient to be a tax, but not a tax whenever it was convenient to be a simple command. What Roberts did wasn’t so much to free the demon as to imprison it in a single, mortal, form.

      Roberts has never been a fan of the ACA. I don’t know why people think he “saved” it when what he really did is mortally wound it and I think he knows that. NFIB v. Sebellius is a champion case for limited government and the principle of calling a spade a spade, but you have to look beyond the Law Upheld Outcome Bad meme.

      1. Yeah, Obamacare is popular in Trump’s best state of West Virginia. In Kentucky which has Rand Paul as senator and Trump is very popular Obamacare is also popular. Face it—Cruz Republicans like you are the right wing equivalent of Bernie Sanders. Why don’t you go down to your local hospital and scream at the patients to get a job with health insurance!!! Damn freeloaders getting cancer and then going on the government dole!

        1. Why don’t you go down to your local hospital and scream at the patients to get a job with health insurance!!! Damn freeloaders getting cancer and then going on the government dole!

          LOL–someone’s revealing a lot more here than they likely intended.

          1. Crackhead gonna crackhead

        2. Hey faggot. I lost my adequate individual plan when you and your faggot friends unconstitutionally banned. Now I can buy shitty coverage for three times the price.

          I look forward to the day when you morons finally push this country into a civil war. Then we can finally deal with you. Which will be a for, or pest control.

  3. Huh. Libertarian Moment?

  4. The power to ‘tax’ was only granted for the “welfare” of the federal government… OF which is completely limited to their JOB description “enumerated powers” and the IX Amendment. Funny how all that Unconstitutional ‘taxing’ policy has left us with a broke and divided government/people and thievery at 30% or better and a society that cheers for Hitler (National Socialism – i.e. NAZI).

    The Justices who passed this were obviously lying, bigoted, cream of the scum crop liberal psychopaths without an ounce of ethical principles. Frankly; they belong in prison to protect the people from their evil intentions and treasonous outcomes.

  5. PPACA was a legislative abomination (individual civil liberty killing), brought forth with good intentions (the desire to see people cared for medically). It needs to have a judicial silver stake hammered into it’s legislative heart so it stays dead.

    Hope Justice Gorsuch writes that majority opinion.

  6. We focus on Roberts because he was the swing vote and we thought he was a reasonable man, but don’t forget the other, more dedicated Nazi oppressors: Justices Ginsburg, Breyer, Sotomayor and Kagan, may they die soon and rot in hell.

    1. And they had no problem with the concept that the government can compel you do anything.

  7. Well, another issue here is that declaring the commandment a tax also ignore the repeated statements of the legislature that it was NOT a tax, so future rulings need not consider the ‘intent’ of congress. Next to fall to ignoring the intent of the legislature is the severability issue. During the passage, I recall that the need for a severability clause was in fact debated. And there were multiple politicians stating on the record that the entire bill INCLUDING the mandate were necessary for the law “to work’.
    Any bets on how the courts rule about punting the whole thing?

    1. It didn’t ignore those statements, it just stated that they were a lie — which they were. Roberts said Congress can’t wiggle out of an act’s being a tax just because they deny it and call it something else.

      1. The problem is, it wasn’t a lie. They were telling the truth: It was a penalty, a fine, a punishment for not doing as the government directed.

        Roberts was the one who lied.

        1. Wasn’t it also an unconstitutional tax in that it was dreamed up in the Senate, not the House? They gutted and renamed the House bill so they could claim it originated in the House, but any decent court would have ruled it unconstitutional.

          I could be wrong. Memory of Obamacare’s beginnings just pissed me of.

          1. You remember correctly. The gutted a bill that included tax provisions to cover their claims.

          2. You mean Romneycare?? Lololololol!! You people are such morons.

            1. Except it wasnt romneycare. It is amazing how ignorant you liberals are. Next you’ll claim it was a heritage plan.

              1. The AHCA included subsidies for premiums. McStain’s 2008 proposal is the closest to the Heritage plan and it included subsidies for premiums. Btw, you are a dumbass.

                1. They both had “health” in their names too. The coincidences are breath-taking!

                  1. So you support premium subsidies?? That means you support the foundation of Obamacare nitwit.

                2. ACA literally outlawed the types of plans the heritage plan called for you ignorant fuck.

                  1. You are a conservative that fights for women to have to pay out of pocket for IUDs…all the while you gladly help pay for gay dudes’ $1800 a month PrEP pill. You are an imbecile!!! Happy Kwanza dipshit!! And tell your family how great it is for PrEP to be covered by health insurance while mommy’s IUD isn’t covered!!!

                    1. Next time, don’t guzzle the egg nog before posting, and you might be able to come up with a semblance of a point.

                    2. WTF are you even talking about? We don’t have anything to do with your fag pills that let you get DAP’d at the local bathhouse.

                      Once again. Just kill yourself. You are stupid, weak, and delusional. No one could ever love you, and you have no value.

                    3. I don’t think that’s eggnog he’s guzzling.

        2. Oooooh. The Kenyan Muslim was a liar! Hard hitting stuff. Good thing we only wasted a few trillion on asinine wars started by Bush. But the Kenyan Muslim has the audacity to throw taxpayer money at unlucky Americans. I want my government to throw taxpayer money at Muslims killing each other. ‘Murcia! Love it or leave it!

          1. Did Obama end any of Bush’s wars? Did he refuse to start any new ones?

            1. I’m not a partisan hack—I fault Obama for keeping Gates and for his asinine surge. Quite frankly due to life circumstances I wasn’t very engaged in politics during Obama’s second term, but I was never an enthusiastic Obama supporter. I do strongly support Obamacare even though it is suboptimal and I think Medicare for All is the dumbest policy proposal of my lifetime and I predicted it would not be popular in the Democratic primary as more light was shined on it. The Green New Deal is so stupid that I can’t even include it as a serious proposal.

              1. You and mikey boy, a pair of neutral actors.

    2. Now it’s not clear whether the ACA will go down as unseverable, because it’s been amended. The amendments didn’t mention severability, but they may have actually severed the ACA.

  8. I’m sick and tired of Republicans sabotaging Obamacare. Hopefully Democrats have total control of all 3 branches in 2021 so they can implement their healthcare agenda without GOP obstruction.

    #LetDemocratsHandleHealthcare

    1. I agree,let Democrats handle health care. Unfortunately, it seems the rest of us have been saddled with paying for it.

      1. I love paying for expensive steel and ethanol subsidies. Oh, and the trillions Bush spent on two asinine wars!! Thank you for voting for Bush and then calling people like Trump and me traitors because we told you how stupid you were!!! You make America great!! Merry Christmas!!!

        1. How many trillions did Obama throw at both Bush and Obama wars?

          How many trillions on ObamaCare with no expansion in people covered, but at much more expense and loss of privacy and flexibility and quality?

    2. BUT the Democrats CAN handle their healthcare STARTING anytime they so desire. Not a single Republican is going to stop the Democrats from implementing whatever healthcare they CHOOSE at ANYTIME they want.

      The only obstruction going on is the “obstructing” free-will and choice and this is the VERY and ONLY reason Democrats have shoved healthcare into the federal government.

      That is the ONLY difference between a DNC Health-group versus Obamacare.

    3. Spoken like someone who hasn’t endured government run healthcare.

  9. I thought Roberts’ penaltax was a triumph of substance over form, because it said that if it acts as a tax, it’s a tax, regardless of whether you call it a penalty or something else.

    1. Pair that with the NFA ruling way back when, in which the Supreme court declared that, if Congress called something a tax, the Supreme court wasn’t going to contradict them. And the end result is that EVERYTHING is a tax. It’s a tax if Congress calls it a tax, it’s a tax if Congress denies it’s a tax.

      1. Wow, you are doing great work here. Keep it up! Btw, Obama’s birth certificate was clearly fake…right??

        1. Good, change the subject, throw up some straw men. You’re getting more and more practice.

          1. He’s clearly mentally ill.

            1. He needs hospice. With a morphine drip that goes up to 11.

              1. Get a job with benefits loser!

        2. Wrong. But the idiot birthers deserved to lose in a court of law on the merits, after their idiot case was heard.

          The natural born citizen clause is right there in the Constitution, and I do not believe the courts should be preventing clauses of the Constitution from being enforced.

    2. By his reasoning, all penalties are taxes including civil infractions which makes no sense.

      1. Do you think he is also from Kenya and a secret Muslim?? Omg, our country is in trouble and you are speaking truth to power…so brave!

        1. The fact that you cant argue with what is posted says a lot.

          1. Maybe he’s hoisting a few too many while celebrating Christmas. He does seem off his game.

            1. Oh nooos, did I hurt your feelings and make you pee pee your panties?? Don’t worry, Whaaaaa-Mart has men’s size XXL panties in stock. They are referred to as “Trump” size panties. 😉

  10. Merry Christmas you stupid idiots.

    1. We’re not all stupid idiots, some of us are deplorables for worshipping false idols and some of us are heretics for refusing to worship false idols. We’re all pretty much agreed though that at least some people are stupid idiots, we just disagree on which ones. But Merry Christmas to all of them just the same.

  11. As Roberts put it, “the breadth of Congress’s power to tax is greater than its power to regulate commerce.”

    Roberts emphasized that regulation via taxation “leaves an individual with a lawful choice to do or not do a certain act, so long as he is willing to pay a tax levied on that choice.” Yet people who decide not to pay a tax can get into plenty of legal trouble, including criminal prosecution as well as liens and forfeiture.

    No, the power to tax is limited to the purpose of raising revenue. The government does not have the authority to use the tax code as a carrot or a stick to encourage or discourage behavior they think “for your own good”. If Congress cannot lawfully pass a law mandating the purchase of broccoli, passing a law that merely imposes a 1000% tax on grocery bills that don’t include broccoli as an item is not lawful either, it’s just lawyerly bullshit. This is why, if we’re not going to kill all the lawyers, we should at least put somebody like Mike Rowe on the Supreme Court – not a lawyer but somebody with some damn common sense. Or, as I’ve often advocated, declare all lawyers to be officers of the court and therefore members of the judicial branch and therefore ineligible to be members of the legislative branch.

    1. You’re free to criticize the government as long as you pay a large tax penalty. Refusing a search or demanding a jury trial also incurs a large tax bill.

  12. In Robert’s case I don’t think it was a penalty or a tax that changed his vote. I think it was a big fat monetary bribe that did it. He tried to get Kennedy to change his vote, probably to cover his own ass. His ruling was idiotic. He saved Obamacare again when he rewrote the law regarding the exchanges. When this gets to the SC again we’ll see what convoluted reasoning he invents to save this POS again. Fuck Roberts.

  13. Actually the Trump tax cut is unconstitutional because the ACA has already been declared constitutional. So the only issue is is the individual mandate zeroing out of the tax severable from the rest of the tax cut legislation? Enquiring minds want to know. 😉

    1. No. ObamaCare was not declared constitutional. A challenge to it was defeated.

      If you are brought up on criminal charges, and found “not guilty” of one,that is not the same as “innocent”, and it says nothing about the other charges, or about other crimes which were not charged.

  14. “…Obamacare’s Individual Mandate Is Unconstitutional”

    Shhhh….
    Don’t tell Roberts.

    1. I heard Obama was born in Kenya. Santa Trump told me when I sat on his lap and told him what I wanted for Christmas—ethanol subsidies and tariffs on steel. Guess what ? I got them!! Thank you Santa Trump for the nice presents!!

      Btw, Santa Trump told me what he wanted for Christmas—a new Ukrainian wife like the ones Giuliani’s thugs have. Santa Trump said Mrs. Santa Trump is getting too old and smelly for him. 😉

      1. So pod changed names and went full retard.

        1. You are such a loser. I would tell you to g f y but you might think that sounds fun and try to do it. Btw, if you are going to engage in autoerotic asphyxiation I urge you to make sure a spotter is present. Please just promise me you will have a spotter.

          1. I think I will g f y (go find Yoda). That does sound fun!

  15. Discuss this article on Quora:

    https://www.quora.com/q/sgrmlrcbxkjitfee/Now-That-Its-Toothless-Obamacares-Individual-Mandate-Is-Unconstitutional

    Quora is a vibrant community where everyone must use their real names and a “be nice, be respectful” policy is strictly enforced.

    Merry Christmas!

    1. Ideas are all that matter. The problem is most people just spit out partisan taking points and can’t defend their positions. So the nitwit Cruz Republicans that are now Trump supporters can’t grasp the fact that among Trump’s real base Obamacare is very popular. The Cruz Republicans lose the argument and then resort to ad hominem attacks.

      1. What’s a taking point dipshit?

        1. As Jesse wrote—you have “shot for brains”. Lololololol.

          1. And corrected before a reply.. you not so much pod.

            1. Shot for brains.

    2. God… this is why you think you’re neutral.

      https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Quora-such-a-liberal-hack-deleting-conservative-responses-to-questions-that-dont-align-with-their-leftist-agenda

      Quora, hill, wapo all quickly delete conservative responses (see mass banning at hill over mugclub during voxpacalypse) as an example. They are lenient to leftist trolls and quick ban conservatives who respond back.

      No wonder you think you’re neutral. You live in a fucking bubble.

      1. I posted about Obama’s long form birth certificate being an obvious fake and they censored my comment. I pee peed my pants.

        1. You do that frequently don’t you?

      1. +1000

        That is funny about the data saying some 35% of users are from India and does not account for Communist Chinese users. Quora is not banned in China, so it makes you suspicious of its propaganda potential to socialists.

    3. Poor neutral mikey.

      Quora was founded by FaceFriend employees and just had a massive user data breech.

      Evidently Hillary, Obama, and other Lefties are “sources” to answer questions. Based on that, the website clearly does not value factual information and appears to be another Lefty bubble outlet.

      1. I dropped the hammer on Mike McFaul there a few years ago.
        Had I known who he was at the time (Global Sociaist ambassador to Russia), I’d not have been as polite

    4. Of course you love quora, you leftist bitch.
      Soviet style enforcement of the “Be Nice Be Respectful” policy and organized mobs of leftists to censor anything that gets too close to reality

  16. Would someone please tell the California legislature? There is a $695 penalty in this state for not buying the health insurance that I can no longer afford since I lost my job in September. Since they base eligibility on last year’s taxes I don’t qualify for the subsidies. Nice present from the state as I go into my 63rd year on this planet.

    1. COBRA would have been a LOT more expensive. In fact just throw that $695 and then a few thousand more down a toilet and then you will get to experience what COBRA is like. Buh Obama. 😉

      1. Good. Leave out the increased taxes, decreased efficiency, and reduced quality. Just pay attention to the direct cost and ignore all the extra taxes and indirect costs of regulation.

  17. Roberts also killed the mandatory expansion of Medicaid. This is what ultimately gutted Obamacare.

    https://newrepublic.com/article/143524/supreme-court-screwed-obamacare

    1. Democrats have won multiple governorships in red states running on expanding Medicaid numbnuts.

      1. Your link fell off.

  18. Republicans took away your healthcare out of spite.

    I guess they’re all retiring because they know they’re not going to enjoy being in the minority and not having the presidency.

    1. Ah, I see. “Republicans” took away my healthcare. Out of spite. Those damn “Republicans”, telling me I could keep my doctor. And forcing me to pay for pregnancy coverage. And tripling my premiums. And banning bare-bones coverage. And adding a tax on medical devices because the manufacturers didn’t get in on the Obamacare bandwagon.

      Damn “Republicans”.

      You, Tony, are a spiteful idiot.

  19. Sᴛᴀʀᴛ ᴡᴏʀᴋɪɴɢ ғʀᴏᴍ ʜᴏᴍᴇ! Gʀᴇᴀᴛ ᴊᴏʙ ғᴏʀ sᴛᴜᴅᴇɴᴛs, sᴛᴀʏ-ᴀᴛ-ʜᴏᴍᴇ ᴍᴏᴍs ᴏʀ ᴀɴʏᴏɴᴇ ɴᴇᴇᴅɪɴɢ ᴀɴ ᴇxᴛʀᴀ ɪɴᴄᴏᴍᴇ… Yᴏᴜ ᴏɴʟʏ ɴᴇᴇᴅ ᴀ ᴄᴏᴍᴘᴜᴛᴇʀ ᴀɴᴅ ᴀ ʀᴇʟɪᴀʙʟᴇ ɪɴᴛᴇʀɴᴇᴛ ᴄᴏɴɴᴇᴄᴛɪᴏɴ… Mᴀᴋᴇ $80 ʜᴏᴜʀʟʏ ᴀɴᴅ ᴜᴘ ᴛᴏ $13000 ᴀ ᴍᴏɴᴛʜ ʙʏ ғᴏʟʟᴏᴡɪɴɢ ʟɪɴᴋ ᴀᴛ ᴛʜᴇ ʙᴏᴛᴛᴏᴍ ᴀɴᴅ sɪɢɴɪɴɢ ᴜᴘ… Yᴏᴜ ᴄᴀɴ ʜᴀᴠᴇ ʏᴏᴜʀ ғɪʀsᴛ ᴄʜᴇᴄᴋ ʙʏ ᴛʜᴇ ᴇɴᴅ ᴏғ ᴛʜɪs ᴡᴇᴇᴋ
    pop over to this website……….. Read More

  20. The work on this site has gone so far downhill since donald trump became president. It is so bad.

    There is not one line in the US Code or in the internal revenue code that makes it a crime to fail to pay a tax levied through the income tax. Failure to file timely, knowingly filing a return with false information, definitely crimes. However, it has never been, nor will it ever be a crime to fail to pay.

    You have access to some of the better attorneys out there, i would recommend you use those resources

Please to post comments