Black Dignity Matters

Research shows that police do subject African Americans to much greater unwarranted scrutiny and harsher treatment



Race and policing preoccupied Americans last week. The two shootings by police of black men in Louisiana and Minnesota rightly sparked outrage and protest across the country. Then came the racially motivated attack that killed five police officers during a Black Lives Matter rally in Dallas.

Tensions between police and the African-American community were already high. For example, a June Gallup Poll reported that 67 percent of blacks believe that police treat African Americans less fairly than whites in their community.

Is there any evidence of such biased policing? Unfortunately, yes.

In a new study, "Targeting young men of color by search and arrest during traffic stops," by the University of North Carolina political scientist Frank Baumgartner and his colleagues find clear evidence of extensive police racial profiling. The researchers reached their conclusions by parsing data encompassing more than 18 million traffic stops in North Carolina between 2002 and 2013.

North Carolina was the first state in the nation to mandate police-stop data collection, and since 2002 the North Carolina Department of Justice has gathered information on every traffic stop from law-enforcement agencies throughout the state. The police can assign reasons for a traffic stop to 10 different categories—speeding, safe movement, equipment issues, not having a seat belt buckled, expired registration tags, and so on. In general, the researchers report that while blacks constitute about 22 percent of North Carolina's population, 31 percent of stopped motorists are black. Whites and blacks are about equally likely to receive citations (tickets) for traffic infractions.

The difference in police treatment becomes apparent when looking at search and arrest statistics. Except in the case of driving while drunk, black motorists are much more likely to be searched or arrested than are white motorists.

For all nine categories of traffic stops (checkpoint stops are excluded) considered in the study, 2.61 percent of white drivers are searched, whereas 4.57 percent of black drivers are. In other words, black drivers are 75 percent more likely to be searched than white ones. Similarly, 1.9 percent of whites are arrested, compared to 2.71 percent of blacks—so blacks are 43 percent more likely to be arrested than white ones. And worse yet, the search disparities for black versus white drivers have been growing over time. In 2002, black men were 70 percent more likely to be searched than white men. By 2007, black men were twice as likely to be searched; by 2013, this difference had grown to over 140 percent. The percent difference in the likelihood of arrest between black and white male drivers remained stable at about 60 percent. Interestingly, black and white women of whatever age were about equally likely to be searched, cited, or arrested during traffic stops.

The researchers suggest that there are two possible explanations for the disparities they document: racially differential policing or racially differential possession of contraband. Since searches subject to warrants and incident to arrests are procedurally mandatory, the researchers look chiefly at searches done with consent or based on probable cause. They report that black men are twice as likely as white men to be searched with consent. This suggests that black men are either more willing to give their consent to being searched or that they are asked more often for such consent. In addition, "Probable cause searches skew strongly toward blacks, indicating that officers are much more likely to be suspicious of criminal wrongdoing when interacting with black motorists."

By one definition, probable cause means reasonably reliable information to suspect there is a fair probability that a person has committed a crime, or that a search will reveal contraband or evidence. So how much more suspicious of black male motorists are North Carolina police? Based on probable cause, officers were 125 percent more likely to search black men than white men in 2002. That differential had increased to 250 percent by 2013, despite the fact that police consistently have been more likely to find contraband with white males than with black males. Similar results were found with regard to consent searches of white and black males.

"So the increased reliance on probable cause to search blacks is not associated with more accurate assessments of the likelihood of blacks engaging in criminal behavior," the researchers write. They add, "The data make clear that with regard to consent and probable cause searches, an increased targeting of black males was completely unjustified by any corresponding increase in contraband hit rates." In other words, the greatly increased number of police searches of black male motorists has not resulted in finding any more drugs, illicit guns, or stolen property.

The idea that police tend to treat black Americans more harshly than white Americans was further bolstered by a new study by the Harvard economist Roland Fryer, Jr., that assesses racial differences in police use of force. Fryer analyzed what happened after black, white, and Hispanic citizens were stopped by police in ten cities. Fryer reports that with regard to non-lethal uses of force, such as being grabbed, pushed into a wall or onto the ground, or handcuffed, "blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police than whites." There was one notable exception to this pattern: Despite the vivid stream of video testimony of police shootings of black men, "blacks are 23.8 percent less likely to be shot by police, relative to whites."

In any case, the North Carolina and Harvard studies strongly indicate that police do subject African Americans to greater unwarranted scrutiny and harsher treatment. "We can conclude that blacks in North Carolina appear to have good reasons to be mistrustful of the police, and that these trends appear to be growing over time," the North Carolina researchers warn.

Fryer suggests that unwarranted police encounters demoralize members of minority communities and could contribute to sustaining aspects of racial inequality. "If, for instance, blacks use their lived experience with police as evidence that the world is discriminatory," speculates Fryer, "then it is easy to understand why black youth invest less in human capital or black adults are more likely to believe discrimination is an important determinant of economic outcomes." He concludes, "Black Dignity Matters."

NEXT: So Much for the Delusion That Donald Trump Could Be Some Kind of Non-Interventionist

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  1. It probably doesn’t help to be black if you’re trying to avoid being hassled by the cops.

    But it’s not like honkies, Asians, etc. are immune.

    1. And have they looked into how black police act toward black “civilians”?

      1. I know a fair number of cops personally. A good many are straight-up racists. White ones and black ones.

        1. “I know a fair number of cops personally. A good many are straight-up racists. White ones and black ones.”

          But you live in KillMockingBirdVille so there’s that.
          /just kidding

      2. Interestingly, black and white women of whatever age were about equally likely to be searched, cited, or arrested during traffic stops.

        I think you’ve pegged it, Eddie.* Bailey doesn’t say, and maybe the study didn’t either – twenty-six pages gets bookmarked – but without the percentages for the women, the above is indefinable. Equally likely. Is this a bad thing or a good thing? We have no idea.

        They keep controlling for race. I’d love to see the data crunched with vulnerability risk factors (of which race is one) as the control.

  2. *In before fallacious statistical inference, confirmation bias, argument from anecdote, and this*

    1. I just barfed nachos EVERYWHERE.

    2. Made it in with 3 minutes to spare.

      1. I’m glad that I didn’t take the time to link to this, then.

        1. Stats are just lies people tell with numbers. They do it, like, all the time.

          1. 73.6% of statistics are made up on the spot.

        2. I love it when you post stuff like this.

          …and the twerking videos.

            1. Where was the twerking?!

            2. Hairy dude @ 6:13

              I’m triggered.

              1. I’m sorry, but I can’t control for those who are skewed, either direction, from a mean time of 5 minutes to orgasm.

            3. From the comments:

              P(erection | hot latina) = 1


              1. I’d give that H0 some “P” value.

                1. Text formatting but no subscripts. Eat a dick, Reason software.

                  1. Michele Rodriguez can do great things when she stays sober.

                2. I don’t know how I feel that I read this as “I’d give that null hypothesis” and it didn’t click for a minute.

    3. Inaccurate; they’re shitting crap, not talking it.

    4. Don’t worry. Irish is on vacation.

  3. I sometimes wonder whether Reason is the slightest bit familiar with crime statistics.

    Bailey seems surprised that “while blacks constitute about 22 percent of North Carolina’s population, 31 percent of stopped motorists are black.” But as the black lawyer Peter Kirsanow has noted, traffic violation rates are higher among blacks.

    As he observed in 2015, in “the Ferguson Report is a Farce” “several studies over the last 20 years (including data adduced before the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights) show that black drivers commit various types of traffic offenses ? including speeding, driving under suspension, DUI, and running red lights and stop signs ? more often than drivers of other races.”

    The crime rate is generally higher among blacks than among whites, according to the federal government’s own data. The murder rate is eight times higher among blacks than among non-Hispanic whites. (See Wikipedia, “Race and Crime in the United States.”) More than half of all murders are committed by blacks, who are just 13% of the population. (See FBI, “2014 Uniform Crime Reports: Crime in the United States,” Table 43A, Arrests by Race, 2014.)

    1. I sometimes wonder whether you have ever wondered what came first, the chicken or the egg.

    2. Holy shit, did you not read the rest of the article? Like, not even the very next sentence?

      1. Nobody reads the articles, Cali. It is known.

      2. He’s ignored every refutation people have thrown at him and only posts on threads where he can talk about the black threat to the proud White Race. Just ignore it.

        1. Prior probability distribution is the biggest, blackest threat.

          1. You have to look at a suspect’s priors before you know whether he deserved to get shot.

        2. Look, black dudes are mouthy and uncooperative, that’s why the cops search them more and arrest them more. Everyone knows this.

            1. That made me laugh

            2. If there’s any ethnicity that’s routinely stereotyped as mouthy and disrespectful of authority, it’s Asians.

              1. And Hasidic pimps.

        3. Goddamnit, it is really a sisyphean task to remember all these idiots. I try to be somewhat polite when it is someone I don’t recall encountering before, but I guess I should just assume the worst in people.

      3. The sentence that states, without citation, that

        Whites and blacks are about equally likely to receive citations (tickets) for traffic infractions.

        Bailey saying it doesn’t make it true.

    3. But as the black lawyer Peter Kirsanow has noted, traffic violation rates are higher among blacks.

      When I drove home (after rush hour) from my previous job, I routinely went 15 mph or more over the speed limit. I wasn’t the only one. The speed limit on I-285 is routinely ignored by almost everyone.

      When a cop wants to write some tickets to meet productivity goals, finding speeders is like shooting fish in a barrel.

      1. Grrr, left out this part:

        So cops can be picky and choosy about who they pull over. And the most likely person to be pulled over are people least likely to be lawyers or to afford a lawyer.

        I’ve seen a case where a cop was following a car, pulled over into the next lane, speed up to see the driver, slowed back down, get back behind the car, and turn their lights on.

        So, yeah, cops do take into account what the driver looks like.

        1. White people are just too mouthy and plaintive to deal with.

        2. They do. I think poor people are the top choice.

          1. Well, they should be able to tell that from the car itself/

        3. If the point is to raise revenue, ticketing wealthy people makes more sense.

          Who hires a lawyer to fight a legit speeding ticket? Rich people just pay it and move on with their lives.

  4. “New studies show”

    I’ve reached the point where I have difficulty with pinning down the usefulness and accuracy of any new study.

    How does a layman approach professional studies when

    1. So many of them are subtly and unsubtly manipulated

    2. They are filled to the brim with jargon

    3. SOME of them are actual attempts at misinformation?

    1. “How does a layman approach professional studies when”

      Here we can take a page from the sciences. Any particular study is of little importance. Can the study’s findings be replicated by other researchers, preferably impartial? That’s how scientists separate the wheat from the chaff and fortunately it works for humanities as well.

      1. So, how many studies were replicated that showed specific dietary guidelines were great, until they weren’t?

        The process has been coopted, and now it is entirely suspect.

        1. If you want easy, quick and irrevocable answers, then science is not going to be of much use to you.

          “The process has been coopted, and now it is entirely suspect.”

          It’s extremely expensive, there’s no doubt about that. And that opens the door to all sorts of chicanery. One way we could address that is to free up the sum of scientific literature and make it readily available over the internet, as Aaron Swartz was trying to do before he ran afoul of the law.

  5. Dignity would be a great name for a black stripper.

    1. That might be the perfect black stripper name.

    2. How much does it cost to get indignity?

  6. And one partial answer to this problem is to change the law so that cops have fewer justifications to pull people over and harass them. We have an entire web of laws that do nothing but prey on poor and minorities. That not only effectively gives police the duty to harass people it also poisons the relationship between the police and the community. It makes the police no longer a force of good. If the police are actually protecting the community from criminals, the community might have a more positive opinion of them. If you send the police out to do nothing but harass people and collect revenue for the state, people are likely to resent and hate them where otherwise they would support them.

    1. But that would result in less revenue for the state, John. Which means less money for schools. Which is bad for the children. Don’t you ever think of the children, John?

      1. I am a law abiding white person and I find the police annoying. If I were a black person living in one of these big cities, I would hate them. Life is hard when you are poor or lower middle class. These asshole suburbanites support these laws with no regard to the effect they have on poor people. They always get their car registered on time and can afford the odd $100 parking or speeding ticket, why can’t everyone else?

        Just imagine what it must be like to be living hand to mouth just on the edge of not making it and then have some fucking cop catch you making an illegal turn or with your taillight out and stick you with a $80 ticket. Eighty dollars is a lot of money to most people. It can be the difference between making your rent and not or eating for one week of the month. And the cops hand out fines like that and larger ones like candy. And right thinking white people of all political persuasions wonder why poor people hate the cops. They must just all be criminals I guess.

        1. On top of that 80$ is another 80$ of court fees, filing fees, etc., etc.

          Then, if you can’t pay, you get a suspended license and more fines and fees. It just snowballs.

          1. Yes. and you go from being a productive person with a life albeit right on the edge, to having nothing. What makes me most angry is that so many middle and upper class people have no idea it works that way. They wake up every day thinking they are good, caring liberals, and then vote to support laws that cause so much harm.

            1. ^This

              They just don’t seem to realize how much all the petty laws screw poor people.

        2. $80????

          Sounds like it’s been a while since you’ve gotten a ticket.

          My last speeding ticket was $381 plus court fees and traffic school, and I was only doing 15 over on the freeway.

          1. Last parking ticket I got was 50 bucks.
            I got a speeding ticket for 15 over, I think it was $280? It was a few years ago.
            If I was paid any less, I would’ve been eating pb&j’s for a while.

          2. In california they’re fucking $500 for a rolling right turn at a red light.

            These appropriate punishments are chosen, by a funny coincidence, at emergency budget meetings where they’re trying to resolve shortfalls.

          3. I got ticketed for driving past a stopped school bus in a tiny eastern Sierra (Walker, CA) town a few years ago.

            I went to court and the cop didn’t show, so the case was pitched. The DA told me the fine would have been $800.00.

            It was a trap set up. The school bus was parked in a curve under a very large tree in the shade and the sun was directly in the eyes of drivers approaching it. Five of us drove right past the school bus. There just happened to be three sheriff’s patrol cars parked behind the bus. I don’t think there were any kids in the vicinity, just the bus and the cops. The cops pulled all five cars over and wrote everybody tickets. I am pretty sure the other four chumps actually paid the fine. Not a bad racket for Mono county.

            Oh, by the way, I am an old, white guy.

        3. Just imagine what it must be like to be living hand to mouth just on the edge of not making it and then have some fucking cop catch you making an illegal turn or with your taillight out and stick you with a $80 ticket.

          Except for the odd few days of side work, I do live hand to mouth. A couple weeks ago while I was at one such job, I was cited by a parking officer. My meter was paid up, but my registration had lapsed. $130, much more than I earned that day, into the city’s coffers for a bullshit ticket.

          1. I do live hand to mouth.

            I should add that it’s a very comfortable hand to mouth, since I’m single without kids renting from family and have a very quiet lifestyle. I just haven’t got much by way of money after the bills are paid.

          2. They got me for a missing front plate when I was in Denver. It was in my windshield, I had just received the plates after moving. Ridiculous.

          3. I got dinged for an expired state inspection sticker about a year ago (i was trying to hold off on the inspection until i could afford some necessary repairs). The violation itself was $45, with $80 in “court costs.” The officer told me that if i could bring proof of inspection to my court date, i might be able to get the $45 dropped, but even technical innocence wouldn’t get me out of the court costs.

            The city’s gotta pay for its shitty light rail system somehow, i guess.

            1. What a fucking joke. I have the same problem, hence the lapsed registration: either the O2 sensors are shot or the cat is, and in any event I can’t afford the repair. So I’m dinged $130 I could have (but admittedly wasn’t going to) put toward that repair, and my car is still unregistered.

          4. Y’all are lending support to Epi’s praise of living in NYC. Been here ten years, and have yet to deal with a cop, or any of this kind of bullshit.

            1. Epi

              *dedicates bong hit*

            2. speaking of epi i haven’t seen the man in like a year what happened to him?

        4. My sympathy level is pretty low for poor black people in big cities. For the simple reason that they keep voting the same assholes into office, year after year for decades, that pass all these ordinances and stupid regulations that make their lives miserable i the first place.

          As bad as some cops are, many being huge pieces of shit, they don’t make the laws and regulations they enforce. I highly doubt some kid goes into the police academy thinking “I can’t wait to bust some guy and fill out paperwork because he sold a loose cigarette”. That bullshit comes from city councilmen and the state assembly. Usually democrats, which poor black urbanites typically reflexively vote for, if they vote at all.

          I am always highly critical of that kind of bullshit, but at least I vote against it, and the people who try to make it happen.

          1. Well it’s not just inner cities that need to worry about this. It happens in rural and suburban areas too. The point is that these useless fines weigh more heavily on the poor, who just happen to be minorities or immigrants in many cases.

            1. You’re absolutely right. I have been the victim of at least small levels of parasitic abuse by the cops and my municipality. It’s a big reason I reflexively vote against funding for anything at the city and county level. Especially police funding. The cops constantly whine that they have no money to investigate property crime, yet have all the money they need for new decked out Ford Explorers as police cruisers. Cops be living’ large!

    2. Look at you, all making sense.

        1. Yeah yeah. I am very consistent on this issue.

          1. Yes you are. And very correct.

    3. And this is why I predict local, state and federal governments are going to obstruct driverless cars for as long as they possibly can. No more revenue from speed traps, DUI’s, traffic violations, etc. It also takes away much of their justification for infringing on our Fourth Amendment rights when we are out of our homes. And jobs. How can they possibly keep all those police employed if they aren’t out there giving us traffic citations?

      1. Fuck driverless cars. I’m not keen on surrendering control of my comings and goings.

          1. Ba dum CHH

      2. I prefer driving, it’s fun. That said, can you imagine a big city not needing parking? Your car just does laps around town while you work or shop, then comes and picks you up. No more tickets.

        1. Your car

          Why even bother owning a car? What a hassle. Oil changes? Registration fees? Fender benders? And where do you put it at night? Nah. You use an app for one-off trips and maybe you even have a service that picks you up and drops you off at regular scheduled times. Much better.

          1. Smart. I just want to see what the city would do to keep that revenue.

            1. Issue one service the de facto monopoly over self-driving cars and charge them a fortune, which they pass on to consumers.

              1. You’re crushing my dreams.

                1. Exorbitant transit fees are just the price we pay for lavishly funded bureaucracy civilization.

          2. You could have taxis without the asshole drivers and all the attendant bullshit. That is one place where driverless cars could be good.

        2. I’m not necessarily throwing my support behind driverless cars (although being able to pile into a car drunk and tell it to take me home before passing out does sound pretty sweet) but I’m just speculating based off what I know about government on any level. Somewhere in the Ten Commandments of Government lies “Once thou hast a revenue stream thou must NEVER give it up”

      3. I think you touched on something there with the 4th amendment infringing.

        Driverless cars are programmed not to violate traffic laws, so they might become the preferred vehicle for drug traffickers once the goods are across the border.

        The remaining lawful justifications for pulling a vehicle over are mostly easy to avoid (keep the registration updated, seatbelt on, and headlights/tailights functioning.

    4. And one partial answer to this problem is to change the law so that cops have fewer justifications to pull people over and harass them.

      If not for the Broken Taillight Policy our roads would look like Mad Max with roving BDSM-clothed gasoline gangs charging down and shooting up other motorists.

      1. I think that would go better.

    5. If the police are actually protecting the community from criminals, the community might have a more positive opinion of them.

      I’m not so sure, John. In my neighborhood, it’s the community that protects the criminals. A woman was shot a few blocks from my house about a week ago. She was sitting in a van waiting for her daughter and was caught in the gang-banger cross-fire. It happened in broad daylight at a busy corner. Died at the scene, if memory serves. Everyone with half a brain knows there were witnesses. Her family was on the news a few nights ago with pleas for anyone with information to come forward. The family was saying that doing so wasn’t snitching; it was being a responsible member of the community. Of course, no one has come forward with any information.

      1. If that’s the case, I suspect that the police aren’t very effective at protecting the community from criminals. Sounds like they are afraid of what the criminals might do if someone comes forward as a witness.

        I’d like to make a distinction that turning someone in for selling drugs = snitchin’, but coming forward as a witness to a murder isn’t. But I’m not sure the gang bangers make that distinction.

      2. If we didn’t try drug prohibition like we did alcohol prohibition, that lady would still be alive. What surprises me is that while crime in the cities has gone up due to the drug war, the severity of crime has yet to reach the levels it did in the 1920s. But that’s just another example of how government expansion creates the problems most drones use to ask for more government interference in our lives. Like asking the progenitors of our problems to solve them will work.

    6. Yep, that’s the real, main problem. Between the war on drugs and all of the other petty bullshit cops are supposed to enforce, the proper role of police has been completely corrupted. Police should really never have to go out searching for crimes. If a real crime happens, someone will call. The fact that traffic stops are usually fishing expeditions and revenue generators makes it even worse. If the worst you had to worry about if you get stopped for speeding is a speeding ticket, this wouldn’t be such a problem.

  7. My buddy’s step-mother makes $96 an hour on this PC. She has been fired for 9 months but last month her payment was $9600 just working on the PC for a few hours. Check It out what she do..

    ============= http://www.CareerPlus90.com

  8. Let’s see what O’Bailey has to say today…

  9. I read something interesting the other day that I did not know. Apparently the idea that the police could arrest someone without a warrant and only with probable cause for felonies is a fairly new and entirely judicial creation. Under common law, absent exigent life and limb circumstances, like some maniac shooting people, the police could not arrest you without a warrant no matter how strong the probable cause.

    As with most things, the common law got it right. Make police get a warrant and put an end to this shit of them arresting anyone they wanted on the theory that they can “beat the charge but can’t beat the ride” and a lot of the worst harassment would end.

    1. Aren’t you a defense attorney? Of course you’d say that.

      1. I have been on both sides. I have law and order creds.

        1. What would you tell an aspiring law student today?

          1. To not be a DA more than five years. Any longer will make you corrupt and cynical no matter how well intentioned you are.

    2. Funny that. I was watching an episode of Perry Mason the other day and after getting his client released from a lesser charge, Lt Tragg delays him with small talk until Berger could get an arrest warrant for murder. Didn’t even click at the time.

  10. But blacks are also much more dependent upon the law enforcement industries for employment. So there’s that.

    1. You got tired of the dajjal handle, huh?

      1. It’s just PB hiding from the debt collector, bro.

        1. Is it confirmed that AM/dajjal is the same creature as shreek? The stridency and lack of of anything like an intellect is the same, but they’ve got different styles. Namely, AM/dajjal hasn’t called anyone a “Christfag” yet.

      2. AM is the only poster I have reasonable’d, although dajjal’s coming close for being so incoherent. Tony and amsoc and PBP are obnoxious, odious, and pretentious, but at least they’re coherent.

        1. They are the same entity.

              1. Is that a pokemon? Where did you find it? I will trade you dajjalabotabad for it!

          1. I like to think we get all the trolls we deserve

  11. RE: Biased Policing and Black Dignity: New at Reason
    New studies show that increasing police stops and searches of black male drivers is completely unjustified

    Pulling black male drivers over for searches is always justified.
    The author of this article has forgotten we leave in a police state.
    Getting pulled over and having your car searched for no real reason is one of the many benefits of living said police state.

  12. In 2002, black men were 70 percent more likely to be searched than white men. By 2007, black men were twice as likely to be searched; by 2013, this difference had grown to over 140 percent.

    So then, the racism of North Carolina police increased over the years…? That seems unlikely. And shouldn’t these figures take into account the race of the officers involved? If black officers are stopping and arresting blacks, “racism” seems like a poor explanation.

    1. “If black officers are stopping and arresting blacks, “racism” seems like a poor explanation.”

      That’s why they call it “institutional racism.” The feelings and attitudes of the individual participants is not important.

    2. Black people are as racist against other black people as white people are in many cases.

      1. If that wasn’t true, where would black comedians get their punchlines?

    3. So then, the racism of North Carolina police increased over the years…?

      That is the part that doesn’t quite jibe with me. Not only has the racism increased, it has increased by a lot.

    4. This could be the response to the earlier complaint that black neighborhoods were not getting police protection so it could be an increase in officers present not racism.

  13. The methodology here seems achingly similar to the type that gave us the ‘wage gap’–a trope most Reason writers logically decry.

    Why then do they so easily accept this methodology when it’s race instead of sex?

    1. Women choose their jobs. Car drivers don’t choose their race. Unless they are race car drivers.

      1. Like I said below you can’t just base it off simple numbers. There are a lot of factors that need to be accounted for. You are more likely to be pulled over for instance if you are in a high crime area or during certain times of day. A wide range of things can cause an officer to act one way or another. Not saying there isn’t bias but looking at numbers alone is not a valid study you have to compare apples to apples.

  14. Perhaps if they weren’t so over-represented in the groups that are committing crimes, they wouldn’t receive so much scrutiny.
    Heaven forbid though, that they might “act White”.

  15. “The difference in police treatment becomes apparent when looking at search and arrest statistics. Except in the case of driving while drunk, black motorists are much more likely to be searched or arrested than are white motorists.”

    By simply looking at numbers how can they tell. Did they compare two motorists doing the same thing in the same neighborhood at the same time of day? Someone driving through a high crime area is going to get more scrutiny. We can’t just go with numbers.

  16. Blacks commit the vast majority of all crime.

    Blacks consistency fail to follow lawful orders given by police, thereby forcing escalation of trivial stops.

    Whites and blacks are not the same, statistically or genetically.

    1. Whites and blacks are not the same, statistically or genetically.

      Genetically, whites and African Americans are pretty much the same. The differences we see between whites and blacks in the US are more of a vicious cycle based on superficial appearance, a kind of caste system tied to appearance: African Americans view themselves as an excluded minority, so they act accordingly, and because they act that way, they are further marginalized and discriminated against.

  17. BLM street theater is not dignified.

  18. As Whitney Houston sang, “they can’t take away my dignity” and “the greatest love of all is easy to achieve. Learning to love yourself, it is the greatest love of all”.

  19. Fryer suggests that unwarranted police encounters demoralize members of minority communities and could contribute to sustaining aspects of racial inequality.

    That may well be true, and it is unfair. But complaining about life being unfair isn’t going to improve things.

    The root cause of racial differences in the justice systems is racial differences in actual crime rates. The way to address that is to (1) turn back the overcriminalization of daily life in order to reduce police/citizen interactions, and (2) for minority communities to change their cultures and reduce their crime rates.

  20. North Carolina is 70% white. Almost 12% of its population is Latino and Asian. The police force is becoming more diversified (you don’t need fancy degrees to be cops). Since blacks do commit the majority of violent crimes, determining whether pure “racism” is responsible this discrepancy will need to take account additional factors.

    White people covers a whole lot different classes. Some Latinos identify as whites. A chunk of this group commits the least amount of crimes anywhere. Or they populate posh areas where dangerous elements can be kept out. Blacks make up the poorest class in decaying urban zones stricken with crime. A straight white vs black crime comparison might be apples and oranges.

    Cops don’t shoot that many Asians. They don’t shoot a lot of Muslims, even though radicals among them are wrecking havoc. Any way you look at it, blacks are in a unique situation, and their high crime rate is a factor. Immigrants are quietly wary of this group in ways that might disturb the left. A cop might stop 5,6 old white ladies from the midwest and have no reason to fear for his life. If he stops an angry black man with shifty eyes, perhaps certain biases and preconceived notions comes into play.

    1. Why are they being stopped. Most likely to search for drugs. Because we have an ineffective prohibition against certain types of drugs which makes about as much sense as Prohibition did. Cops wouldn’t have to fear for their lives if they only handed out speeding tickets. But because they fish for possible “drug violations” they put themselves in danger every time they stop someone. Which makes them more likely to shoot first. Which is how we have gotten to this pass where cops shoot blacks and blacks shoot cops.

      Occam’s Razor suggests we might consider decriminalizing drugs. It would do wonders for our crime problem.

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