Food Policy

What’s Inside a Washington, DC Food Desert?

Baylen Linnekin looks inside a Washington, DC food desert-which features a Starbucks and a campus dining hall. And pomegranates.

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Farmer's Market
puffclinty / Foter

Many food-policy advocates point to a lack of access to healthy food as a singular cause of obesity. Food deserts, defined "as urban neighborhoods and rural towns without ready access to fresh, healthy, and affordable food," are often painted as the root cause.

The USDA uses census-tract data, including a requirement that residents fall below certain minimum figures for income and access to food, to determine if an area qualifies as a food desert. Low-income areas must have either a high poverty rate or low median family income to qualify, while lack of access means "that at least 500 persons and/or at least 33 percent of [an urban] census tract's population live more than one mile from a supermarket or large grocery store[.]" Federal government policies then make aid available to try encourage more food availability.

While that's the federal government's goal, not everyone is on board. In recent years, discussions pertaining to food deserts have become increasingly contentious. Some studies contend food deserts don't exist.

Others studies acknowledge they may exist, but have questioned their link to obesity.

"Getting fresh fruits and vegetables into low-income neighborhoods doesn't make poor people healthier," wrote Heather Tirado Gilligan in a Slate piece earlier this year.

Still more research has declared the impact of food deserts on the health of residents to be nearly irrelevant. A 2013 RAND study, for example, revealed that low-income urban neighborhoods "not only have more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than more affluent ones, but more grocery stores, supermarkets and full-service restaurants, too," according to a New York Times report. "And there is no relationship between the type of food being sold in a neighborhood and obesity among its children and adolescents."

A Gallup report on the RAND study notes "a lack of access to food in and of itself doesn't matter when it comes to obesity, it only matters if Americans are also low-income."

And then there's the radical notion that the food people ultimately choose to eat—even when faced with nearby healthy food options—"could also be due to people's shopping and eating habits."

Even the USDA itself, in a 2010 report on food deserts it delivered to Congress, admits policy impacts have proven "modest." The report acknowledges "many other factors… contribute to obesity and… increased consumption of healthy foods may not lead to weight loss."

But many advocates seem unfazed by the research.

Meanwhle, the Obama administration's own centerpiece program, the Healthy Food Financing Initiative, "has distributed more than $500 million to increase fresh food access" in food deserts across the country, notes Gilligan.

It's part of Michelle Obama's "ambitious" plan, which she launched in 2010, "to eliminate food deserts in America completely in seven years."

The HFFI program awards tax credits, grants, and technical assistance in order to eliminate all of America's food deserts by 2017.

Has all that funding and attention gotten results? Apparently not.

"Unfortunately, more fresh food closer to home likely does nothing for folks at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder," writes Gilligan.

While the debate over the existence and impact of food deserts continues, I've long wanted to look critically at a food desert. While I've been to many urban and rural areas classified as food deserts over the years—and actually did my grocery shopping at a Walmart located inside a Fayetteville, Arkansas-area food desert—I've never sought to assess just what food offerings are available inside a food desert.

Seeking to address that deficit, earlier this week I took a group of students enrolled in my American University food policy course to the area around Washington DC's Catholic University. According to the USDA's food desert locator tool, the university's campus lies smack in the middle of a food desert. While this brief field trip could hardly be considered rigorous scholarly research—or a statement on anything but the space I visited—the trip did reveal to me some notable facts.

The first thing I noted in looking at maps before the trip is that the tract is virtually enveloped by government-owned property. Just west of the tract sits the U.S. Armed Forces Retirement Home. To the north sit two parks and a military cemetery. To the east lies rail and subway tracks. Even if a private developer wanted to purchase land—say, to build a grocery store—none appears to be available.

The university brags that students "never go hungry," thanks to a host of convenient options, which include a dining hall, two cafes, a food court, and a small market. The market—in the same building as a Starbucks and the dining hall—sells produce, including fruits like grapes, pomegranates, and Asian pears.

Catholic requires all freshmen and sophomores both to live on campus and to purchase a school meal plan. Meanwhile, the university doesn't guarantee on-campus housing for upperclassmen. In fact, the university has a lottery in place for the limited number of spots available to upperclassmen. Taken as a whole, this means that younger students eat most of their meals on campus, and upperclassmen likely eat most of their meals away from campus. And none of the Catholic students have much of a need for a grocery store in the area.

Off campus, one needn't look too hard—or travel too far—to find groceries. The Yes Organic Market, about a ten-minute walk from campus—just outside the food desert tract—features a wealth of organic produce and other food options. (It's worth noting that the local Yes market chain appears to have taken advantage of HFFI grants to open in some underserved areas.) But those options—like the produce sold on campus—were expensive. About half of my students said they'd be willing to walk to the organic market to shop for groceries. Others said they wouldn't make the trek and would prefer to eat on campus.

A sign just off campus also noted the presence of a local weekend farmers market. Other nearby grocery options include a Walmart grocery store, located two miles from campus. Meanwhile, grocery delivery services like Peapod are available to bring food to those who prefer to order online—and who can't or won't go to the grocery store.

If those options don't suffice, the fact the area is also located next to two subway stops and at least one bus line means people  in the area are mobile. One set of Catholic students, in fact, told my students that they often travel by subway to the Whole Foods at George Washington University to buy their groceries.

Together, I found these facts illuminating. The census tract surrounding and including Catholic University may be a food desert by USDA definitions. But students and residents off campus alike have a host of options for buying fresh produce.

The minimum USDA income and access requirements for residents in this food desert seem problematic. College students tend not to be earners. Mandatory meal plans, easy transportation, and online buying options make the term "access" seem largely irrelevant.

People who live in areas that don't have grocery stores may have to work harder to eat healthier. People who live in areas with more choices have (unsurprisingly) more choices. The term "food desert" may be useful for classifying generally the food offerings available in an urban or rural environment. But—at least in the case of the food desert I visited this week—the term isn't terribly useful when it comes to describing a specific tract.

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97 responses to “What’s Inside a Washington, DC Food Desert?

  1. Just have let Walmart build stores in these places,problem solved.

    1. Didn’t read the article, huh?

      Walmart is *already* there. Along with Target, Ralph’s, 7-Eleven, and a dozen other food stores.

      1. Yes, but do they pay a LIVINGGG WADGEE!!!1!?

      2. there are places that fight to keep Walmart out

        1. Which has not a ting to do with either the article *or* your first post.

          1. Although there are now some WalMarts in DC, it wasn’t because the politicos embraced it.

            City politicians spent much of this year debating whether to require Wal-Mart to provide its workers with no less than $12.50 an hour in wages and benefits ? half again as much as the city’s current minimum wage. The “living-wage” measure died after Mayor Vincent C. Gray (D) vetoed it amid threats from Wal-Mart that it would curtail its plans for operating in the city, and the D.C. Council could not muster the votes to override him.

            I think Adans smith’s point was that government wrings it’s hands about food deserts, while government simultaneously creates food deserts.

            1. Yes it was,and I learned that here.Mom and pop stores and 7-ll are much higher priced and have a small selection.Plus,Walmart hires lots of locals .Mostly likely at higher wages .

              1. Aga’s initial comment is still valid. Read the story and you’ll discover that perfectly adequate stores, although outside the ridiculous and arbitrary 1-mile range, are completely reachable if one so desired.

            2. I should ask the owner’s kid brother who sometimes rings up my milk at the bodega about his “living wage” and “benefits”.

              1. Why can’t the shoe-shine boys and babysitters make a living wage?

                Why do libertarians hate the lemonade stand owners?

                1. cause they suck (lemons) that’s why…

            3. By their definition, it’s still a food desert even with a Walmart in it. Presumably because WM has very little fresh food. Farmer’s markets don’t count either because they’re usually not open.

              1. Presumably because WM has very little fresh food.

                Really depends on the Walmart. The super-Walmarts have a metric shit ton of fresh food.

                1. I would add that it’s possible to eat very healthy even if you somehow have no access to fresh produce.

                  Brown rice, dry beans, canned tuna, and many other things are easy to come by. In addition, frozen vegetables are an option, and freeze dried vegetables are very similar to fresh ones if you know how to prepare them. Neither of those preservation methods significantly degrade the nutrition.

                  Any food that is shelf stable can be bought online or from a catalog (these survival supply catalogs I get always have tons of freeze dried vegetables in stock).

                  A diet consisting entirely of shelf-stable foods is not ideal, but you can get all of the nutrients you need. Even with no stores around that will sell healthy food, there’s no reason that anyone in this day and age has to suffer from malnutrition.

  2. “Unfortunately, more fresh food closer to home likely does nothing for folks at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder,” writes Gilligan.

    Well you know what that means – if they won’t do what you ‘suggest’ they do voluntarily, its time to bring in the force of law to make them.

    1. Eat your broccoli. Or else!

      1. Yup; far too many Liberal Intellecual enclaves have effectively become The Peoples Republic of Shut Up and Eat Your Veggies.

        The longer the “obesity” panic goes on, the more inclined I am to view it as a bunch of aging caucasoid Liberals having hysterics because the lower classes are opting for a chubbier body image, and they’re going to be OUT OF FASHION!

    2. Well you know what that means

      They simply need to throw moar muny at it?

      1. Government cheese hander-outers need a living wage too.

    3. This means that “folks at the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder” can’t afford fresh produce. A $1 box of mac & cheese can fill a lot more stomachs than $1 worth of fresh veggies (if you could actually buy anything fresh with $1)

      It figures that a bunch of elitist assholes can’t figure out the most logical explanation–they need to spend millions on studies to figure out that people buy what they can afford.

  3. Wow, that USDA desert locator tool is interesting. Apparently the entire SE quadrant of OR is a food desert. Granted, not a populous region, but still I think they manage to survive. My folks live in one and they *gasp* drive to the nearest town 20 miles away once a week or more to stock up. Of course, this requires actual menu planning and the incredible self-discipline to drive past all the fast food joints attempting to corrupt them.

    1. Sounds like your parents are the sort of people who would make good ‘Top Men’. Bureaucrat-monks who live for the administration of populations.

      Unfortunately the rest of the plebs can’t be trusted to make proper life decisions based on the best government provided information.

      1. *narrows gaze*
        Not sure if joking or insulting my folks…

        1. I vote for “insultinfg my folks” waits patiently for bitch fight to ensue

    2. According to the USDA, the green layer food desert in my city is an area comprised of heavy industrial buildings, a rail yard, and two oil refineries. There is surprisingly an orange layer near my neighborhood. But the area has four grocery stores surrounding it, all within easy walking distance. Also, I can think of at least two grocery stores within the orange layer area, and about 200 restaurants. Also, AmazonFresh delivers in the area, and one of the local groceries does home delivery.

      This whole notion of food deserts is bullshit. But we already knew this.

      1. That map is screwy as hell… I live smack dab in the middle of a food desert, and there is a Kroger that I can walk to in less than five minutes. And this isn’t even in some big metro area; I live in Southwest Ohio. Just about everyone around here owns cars. During the warm part of the year, there’s a weekly farmer’s market downtown, which is also in the “food desert” area.

    3. Well, if their accessibility radius is only one mile, I would think there’d be a problem in large areas of the western US, where peoples’ mailboxes may not be within a mile of where they live.

    4. The SE quadrant of Oregon is a desert desert.

  4. So, looking n the vicinity of where I live (Yuma, AZ), I see that tons of open desert – where no-one lives – is classified as a food desert.

    Including my actual town (Somerton) which – at 14,000 people – has *two* grocery stores, a gas station (soon to be two!), a convenience store, a carniceria (butcher), paneria (bakery), and over a dozen restaurants (both brick and mortar and mobile cart).

    And yet because some people might have to go as far a ONE WHOLE MILE, they’re not able to get ‘proper nutrition’. And ignoring that a huge number of these people are perfectly fine with driving to one of the two Walmarts that are within 10 miles of us.

    1. To be fair, actual open desert does technically qualify as a food desert.

      1. Not to lizards.

        1. What do you think we eat out here? The lizards go with the napoles. The open desert is where the lizard ranches are located.

  5. Do places that only have deep-dish pizza qualify as food deserts? Asking for a friend (Epi’s mom).

  6. Obama administration’s own centerpiece program, the Healthy Food Financing Initiative, “has distributed more than $500 million to increase fresh food access” in food deserts across the country

    Any guesses as to the political leanings and activities of those getting all those grants to move fruits and vegetables to places where they will rot on the shelf due to lack of interest?

  7. Roll that beautiful bean footage.

    http://www.Anon-Planet.tk

  8. Mmmm…food desserts.

  9. “Has all that funding and attention gotten results? Apparently not.”

    I don’t know. It’s certainly distributed funds to those with the proper guanxi.

  10. “that at least 500 persons and/or at least 33 percent of [an urban] census tract’s population live more than one mile from a supermarket or large grocery store[.]”

    This is irrelevant.

    Some studies contend food deserts don’t exist.

    Sure they do. It’s called the ‘desert’ desert.

    It’s part of Michelle Obama’s “ambitious” plan, which she launched in 2010, “to eliminate food deserts in America completely in seven years.”

    Apparently the un-elected position of flotus has some granted powers I am unaware of.

    1. Sure they do. It’s called the ‘desert’ desert.

      I live in Nevada (ok, not anymore, but lets roll with it), and I’m on a diet.

      My home is a food dessert desert desert.

  11. “that at least 500 persons and/or at least 33 percent of [an urban] census tract’s population live more than one mile from a supermarket or large grocery store[.]”

    One mile? Why not 50 feet? Clearly some really fat people can’t be expected to walk a mile but what about 100 feet?

    It is not until everyone in America has to walk less than 50′ to a organic grocery store before our obese people will be safe from hunger.

    1. Yeah, this is pretty baffling. Apparently I grew up in a food desert even though the poorest of the poor had a car that would take them to palaces of food (Wegman’s or TOPS) the likes of which I could only dream of living now in NYC.

      1. Where my papartment sits would be classified as a ‘food desert’ by those criteria, though eveyrone who lives in the complex has access to at least one car, and the main issue when deciding where to eat if we choose not to stay in is the overabundance of options.

    2. I’d love to see a study of the economic probability of a supermarket trying to survive on 500 customers.

      Out in West Texas we have counties the size of states, where 33% of the population probably drives more than a mile to get to their ranch gate.

  12. Your AM derp:

    Richard Wolf explains to Bill Maher why Americans should not be afraid of Marxism

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-6nrAnDGyU

    1. OK, but how about the mass murders that Marxism causes? Shouldn’t people be afraid of those? They’re ‘way more contagious than Ebola.

    2. I’m going to guess that the fact that Marxism is a stupid and thoroughly discredited idea isn’t the reason he gave.

  13. A place close to me is considered an urban food desert. Until about ten years ago, they had a decent sized chain grocery store smack in the middle of that desert. But, between the constant massive shoplifting, violence in the parking lot, and employees that either showed up drunk, stoned, or not at all, they eventually said, “Fuck it, we’re outta here.”

  14. I posted this over on the recycled Libertarian TV show thread. I want to put it here since I think it has a better shot of being seen.

    ———–

    Did this get mentioned elsewhere? I just stumbled on it this morning.

    Cindy Sheehan calls Democrats hypocrites for being quiet about wars under Obama unlike during the George W. Bush years because Obama is black and Democrat.

    1. OK, Cindy gets props for consistency.

    2. Well, in their defense, they are being consistent. They always ignore black on black crime.

        1. I had not. And that’s awesome. More power to him.

  15. …the Healthy Food Financing Initiative, “has distributed more than $500 million to increase fresh food access” in food deserts across the country…

    Nothing.
    Left.
    To.
    Cut.

    1. To the (free-range antibiotic-free) bone!

        1. I accidentally tried ‘Orangic, Vegan, Non-GMO’ ‘food’ once. I swear it made me sick the next day. I think I’m allergic to smug.

          1. “I think I’m allergic to smug.”

            I’d be dead.
            In my supervisory district, we have 4 candidates running. The incumbent who was a community activist before she got a position for direct payment by the taxpayers, three others who list their ‘occupation’ as community activist and one former business owner.
            So we have a choice between one guy who had a job and 4 people in the whine business. You know who is NOT predicted to win.

            1. Every time I’m bummed about living in CA, I think “gee, at least I’m not in SF”.

              1. And ya know SF’s slogan is ‘At least it’s not Oakland’!

          2. A friend took me to a vegan restaurant once. It was like eating a bowl of dirt.

    2. Think about this. Half a billion dollars…on nothing. And it’s done without a second thought.

      If you made $100k a year, you would work for 5000 years to have made half a billion dollars.

      1. I don’t understand. Can you dumb it down a shade?

  16. “It’s part of Michelle Obama’s “ambitious” plan, which she launched in 2010, “to eliminate food deserts in America completely in seven years.””

    Similarly, I pledge to rid the Earth of Dragons.

    It will not be easy – but provided large sums of money, and at least a half-dozen nubile virgins to help motivate me, I can promise that Dragon Sightings with be down to nil by the end of my campaign.

  17. Down at the NYT, Tim Egan haz a confuze

    Not by design, I’ve been visiting the life shrines of the 20th century’s greatest writer ? in Paris, at Lake Maggiore in Italy, at his home in Key West, and here at his final residence in Idaho. Mysteries about the source of his genius and his character flaws were not answered in this accidental pilgrimage. Sexist, bully, anti-Semite, adulterer, proud Paleo: how could such a great writer be such an awful human being?

    Leaving aside the highly suspect “greatest writer” claim, maybe pathetic wishy washy social justice warriors make lousy writers (like Egan).


    1. “how could such a great writer be such an awful human being?”

      It seems a great conceit to presume oneself capable of judging either. And a childish naivete that one would assume the two have anything to do with one another.

      People always express surprise that ‘great artists’ are not always moral paragons and role-models of human decency.

      It is an almost-religious assumption that ‘talent’ is a blessing granted only to people of superior moral fiber and noble character. We see a glimmer of greatness in a person’s work, and need to believe it springs from some core Virtue that must necessarily motivate the whole being.

      They say you should never meet your heroes. The reason why is partly due to the grand disappointment of learning that they are just ‘other people’, and not gods. And more often than not, they are selfish, lecherous, crude, drunk, boorish, petty, foul tempered cunts. They probably didn’t start out that way. But it is remarkable how consistently the greater the talent, the more repulsive the individual can often turn out to be.

      Either Egan is so naive as to have never grasped this, or he’s merely pandering to the attitudes of his lefty-readership, who revel in postmortem witch-trials. Hemingway was “20th Century Man”. We are now superior to that less-evolved creature. So, we should write a piece in the NYT that makes suburban proggys feel better about *themselves* by throwing Papa under a bus. Thus does civilization progress.

  18. And then there’s the radical notion that the food people ultimately choose to eat?even when faced with nearby healthy food options?”could also be due to people’s shopping and eating habits.”

    If only government could force people to have proper shopping and eating habits.

    1. Free cheese V-8.

    2. This.

      That’s why they invented “food deserts”. The government can’t legally force people to eat broccoli, but they CAN force the grocery store to sell it.

      And as long as they are forcing someone to “do something” about obesity, they can feel good about themselves for “helping”.

  19. Here is the real issue:

    By creating this idea of “food deserts”, it makes it possible for obese people to avoid responsibility for their own eating habits. People become victims of market failure, and claiming that people are obese because of their own poor choices now becomes victim-blaming. Thus obese people become yet another victim group who can blame their condition on society, and in particular on the “free market”. Plus, it justifies forcing the rest of society to pay for their medical problems, since those problems are no longer a result of their personal choices, but have been inflicted upon them by society. And finally, it makes people feel comfortably that there is an easy solution that government can address. Food deserts are something the government can do something about. People eating habits aren’t.

    1. Thus obese people become yet another victim group who can blame their condition on society

      Only the “right” obese people.

    2. Obese people aren’t the ones driving the idea of food deserts. Don’t blame them. The ones driving this are people who want to use high obesity rates as an excuse to grab more power.

      1. It’s not because they want to grab more power, it’s because they want to feel like they are doing something to solve the problem. (Even if they aren’t really solving the problem at all.)
        Plus evil capitalists are a familiar villain, and it helps if you can find a reason to blame a problem (obesity) on a familiar villain.
        And also, there’s sort of an inability on the left to blame people for their own problems. Poor people aren’t to blame for being poor. Fat people aren’t to blame for being fat. Criminals aren’t to blame for being criminals. There’s always some other external, societal reason.

        1. Criminals aren’t to blame for being criminals. There’s always some other external, societal reason.

          Unless drugs.

        2. That doesn’t contradict my statement. Blaming people for their own problems would imply that people are capable of running their own lives without leftists managing other people’s lives for them.

          The desire to force everyone to do what you think they should IS a desire for power.

      2. Just what the obese need; more food.

  20. If only government could force people to have proper shopping and eating habits.

    “Let the wookie win.”

    1. Yeah, I’m pretty sure this is exactly how it is that Michelle gets to inflict her little pet projects on the rest of us.

  21. I just looked at the food desert locator tool. That is the biggest bunch of bullshit I have ever seen.

    1. Furthermore, If I worked for an agency with no accountability and a virtually unlimited budget, I would have come up with something waaaay more crazy than “food deserts”. At least link it to the holocaust somehow. Jeez.

      1. Jew deserts?

    2. Agreed. That map is a good example of data that is precise, may be accurate, but meaningless. Looking at the large “food deserts” in areas that I know pretty well, it’s pretty obvious that this was drawn up by somebody who lives in a city, or affluent suburb. They also probably drive a Prius.

      Can I get my money back on this?

  22. At least link it to the holocaust somehow.

    “This restaurant is like a dessert holocaust!”

    1. Or a Soviet Supermarket. =D

  23. FYI – someone was speculating there’s something a’brewing inside North Korea yesterday?

    (Vice Mag has a piece saying that Kim may be sidelined, and that there’s been an effective coup by the military junta)

    Well, apparently the North decided on spur of the moment to do some talking with the South the other day

    This would be consistent with the idea that something’s changed behind the scenes. Poor Kim may not be long for this earth, sadly. Where is Dennis Rodman when you need him most?

    1. Forget Rodman, send Ray Rice.

    2. Kim Jong-un ‘so fat he has fractured his ankles’

      Damn Republican corporations, making Pyongyang a food desert. Though the high heels Kim was wearing probably didn’t help.

  24. When downtown Austin, TX is showing large swathes of food deserts, I’m gonna call bullshit on that food desert tool.

    1. The price per square foot there is probably way too high for a supermarket to be feasible.

      1. Yes, but if you’re in downtown Austin, surrounded by restaurants and food trucks and whatnot, it takes a pretty damn peculiar definition of food desert to label that plethora of choices that name.

  25. That food desert locator map has no relationship to reality. According to it my home at the end of a three mile long dead end dirt road on the outskirt sof town is not in a food desert while my office in the middle of town, with a grocery store across the street, is. Admittedly it’s not a big grocery store but it does have fresh produce. The nearest big grocery store is in an adjacent town right in the middle of the “food desert” area.

    1. Only poor areas can be food deserts. My house is shown as Low Access because the nearest grocery store is 3 miles. We have 5 within 5 miles, a farmers market at 3 miles and working farms within 10 miles. We have some poverty but it is below 20% and our median family income is above 80% of the region’s median. I guess that makes us a food chaparral.
      A bigger problem than distance for our local walkers is roads. Sidewalks are rare, shoulders are narrow and the roadside could be wooded or otherwise inaccessible. There is an elementary school 1 mile away that buses kids to a neighborhood next to the school because it is too dangerous for kids to walk 100 feet down the road.

  26. Let’s face it. As much as we want stupid and lazy people to eat healthy it just isn’t going to happen.

  27. What counts as a supermarket? AFAIK, the term originally meant a self-service grocery, i.e. one with open shelves where you’d collect your goods for purchase, rather than having someone behind a counter fetch them for you. Since nowadays hardly any of the old style of service exists except at the deli counter, the term seems to have become restricted to grocery stores over a certain size, and that size keeps increasing. The term “hypermarket”, which IIRC originated as an English appellation for a French mega-supermarket, fell out of fashion as more stores grew to that size.

    1. AFAIK, the term originally meant a self-service grocery, i.e. one with open shelves where you’d collect your goods for purchase, rather than having someone behind a counter fetch them for you.

      I’ve never even been to a non-self-service grocer in the US, and I’m no spring chicken myself. That style appears to have gone extinct in the 1960s.

  28. Only progressives could invent something so utterly useless, so amazingly idiotic, and so mindnumbingly convoluted as a fucking food desert.

    Also, I thought these poor people were all starving to death, why then are they so fucking fat?

  29. There are no ‘food deserts’. There are ‘intelligence deserts’.

    If you wanted to solve the this “problem”, you’d announce that in one month, you’re going to turn off EBT cards for two weeks. Those with any brains would buy food and survive. Those without would starve to death or kill each other for their twinkies or funyons or whatever.

    Progfascists believe in evolution, right? Well, that would be evolution in action. Adapt or die.

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