The Moral Foundations of Occupy Wall Street

An illustrated guide to the signs at Zuccotti Park

From a rational perspective, joining a protest rally is like voting: a complete waste of time. The odds that your voice or your protest sign will make a difference are no better than the odds that your vote will change an election. Yet people do join protests, and people do vote. They do these things not to advance their rational self-interest but to express moral passions and moral identities.

In Lower Manhattan’s Zuccotti Park, home base of the Occupy Wall Street movement, a noisy, festive crowd of hundreds was doing just that when I stopped by on October 8. In an attempt to make sense of the goals and motivations of the protesters there, I brought along a small camera and Moral Foundations Theory, which I developed with psychologists at the University of California at Irvine (Pete Ditto), the University of Chicago (Craig Joseph), and the University of Southern California (Jesse Graham, Ravi Iyer, and Sena Koleva). This theory, which is based on ideas from the anthropologist Richard Shweder, outlines six clusters of moral concerns—care/harm, fairness/cheating, liberty/oppression, loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, and sanctity/degradation—upon which, we argue, all political cultures and movements base their moral appeals. 

The foundations are like the taste receptors on the tongue: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and savory. Each culinary culture creates its own unique cuisine using some combination of these tastes, including elements that lack immediate appeal on their own, such as bitterness. Similarly, each political movement bases its claims on a particular configuration of moral foundations. It would be awfully hard to rally people to your cause without making any reference to care, fairness, liberty, loyalty, authority, or sanctity. 

My colleagues and I found that political liberals tend to rely primarily on the moral foundation of care/harm, followed by fairness/cheating and liberty/oppression. They are very concerned about victims of oppression, but they rarely make moral appeals based on loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, or sanctity/degradation. Social conservatives, in contrast, use all six foundations. They are less concerned than liberals about harm but much more concerned about the moral foundations that bind groups and nations together, i.e., loyalty (patriotism), authority (law and order, traditional families), and sanctity (the Bible, God, the flag as a sacred object). Libertarians, true to their name, value liberty more than anyone else, and they value it far more than any other foundation. (You can read our complete research findings at www.MoralFoundations.org.) 

So what is the mix of moral foundations at Occupy Wall Street (OWS)? In my visit to Zuccotti Park, it was clear that the main moral foundation of OWS is fairness, followed by care and liberty. Loyalty, authority, and sanctity, by contrast, were very little in evidence. 

Fairness/cheating

The psychological meaning of fairness is proportionality. Human beings have been engaging in cooperative enterprises for hundreds of thousands of years, and we are now vigilant for signs that anyone is taking out more than he is putting in. We really hate cheaters, slackers, and exploiters. By far the most common message I saw at OWS was that the rich (“the 1 percent”) got rich by taking without giving. They cheated and exploited their way to the top. As if that were not bad enough, we the taxpayers then had to bail them out after they crashed the economy, and so now they really owe us for saving their necks. It’s high time they started paying what they owe (see photos 1 and 2).

As a point of comparison, a similar look at signs found at the Tea Party rallies (based on a systematic study done by Reason Foundation Polling Director Emily Ekins) suggests that protesters there are also chiefly concerned with fairness. The key to understanding Tea Partiers’ morality, though, is that they want to restore the law of karma. They want laziness and cheating to be punished, and they see liberalism and liberal government as an assault on that project. The liberal fairness of OWS diverges from conservative and libertarian fairness in that liberals often think that equality of outcomes is evidence of fairness (see photo 3). 

When everyone’s contribution is the same, the proportional outcome is equality. But in a free market system, where some work harder or are more talented or lucky, it will always be the case that some people make a greater contribution than others. They therefore end up taking home a larger share of the pie. Fairness as proportionality guarantees that outcomes will not be equal. This, I believe, is one of the main reasons why modern leftists (but not classical liberals) are often hostile to capitalism itself, as were some at the OWS protest (see photos 4 and 5).

Another feature of liberal fairness is that it is often blended with concerns about care for the downtrodden and oppressed. This brings us to the next foundation:

Care/harm

The second most common moral foundation on display at OWS was care. My colleagues and I find that liberals score higher than conservatives and libertarians on all measures of compassion and empathy. Liberals are more “soft-hearted,” and this was evident in many signs (see photos 6, 7, and 8).

Liberty/oppression

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  • Sensationalism||

    Hardly representative of the signs I've seen.

    Oh right, you're KOCHsuckers.

  • anon||

    You live in a suburb of Pittsburgh.

    There's a lot of the world you don't see.

  • Cronyism = Capitalism||

    More representative signs.

  • Red Rocks Rockin||

    I suddenly feel a lot better about my long-term employment prospects--if these goons are my competition, I have nothing to worry about.

  • Major Johnson||

    If the intent was to show that they're bunch of economically ignorant people with stupid and meaningless slogans I'd say that was pretty representative.

    I'm with Red Rocks, if that's the job competition even my dog has a decent shot at a good job.

  • ||

    #21 made me LOL.

  • Grego||

    The Koch brothers employ thousands of people. Who do you admire? Saul Alinsky? Michael Moore? Stupid Hollywood celebrities that bitch about the 1% while flying in their Gulfstreams? Hey Russel Simmons, I'm talking to you.

    The Koch brothers are millionaires fighting for freedom! They are fighting for a country with less regulation, less government, and less BS from stupid liberals who don't create any jobs.

  • Good boy, there.||

    Here's some toilet paper; clean up your face.

  • Reasonable Man||

    Exactly. In fact OWS has degenerated into a strange Lord-of-the-Flies type of society:

    http://in-other-news.com/2011/.....all-Street

    They told rape-victims to shut up and offered councelling to the rapists.

    That's pretty extreme.

  • Bhopal||

    We don't fuck around with little shit like that. We do 25,000 at a time.

    ~Union Carbide

  • ||

    peanuts!

  • George S.||

    Hey you got some of my spunk on youre chin sensationalism...don't worry I know you want more and barry's here to provide it.

  • George S.||

    Hey you got some of my spunk on youre chine sensationalism...don't worry I know you want more and barry's here to provide it.

  • lol||

    drunk?

  • George S.||

    Just like to show my loyal supporters how much I care. They better be loyal...that why I pay them to post here.

  • ||

    The irony is this - OWS and the Tea Bags stem from the same outrage - Bush's TARP.

    Now, I am no fan of either group. Both groups are poorly informed and lack insight into how we got into this massive debt problem.

    By the way - this is a decent but feeble start -

    http://wp.mises.org/blog/change_by_prez1.jpg

  • Douglas Fletcher||

    Sorry, you're wrong again.

  • ||

    Yes, that is the irony. Another irony is that neither side - at least not the hardcore members - will admit it.

    The thing with OWS is that it's a delayed reaction. It's like the left waited three years to realize what a grotesque injustice TARP was and get pissed off. Where the hell were they?

    I have two explanations: A) They just didn't want to protest while a Black Democrat was in office, B) They just hate Republicans so much they couldn't bring themselves to protest when the Tea Party started.

  • ||

    Nah to both A and B. They just didn't get it, i.e., the essence of what was happening and the ramifications. TARP and government fiscal matters are terra incognita for most folks, libertarians being an exception.

  • ||

    Hmm. I hadn't considered that, but yeah, that's a definite possibility. Especially for OWS. Most of the socialist/communist types I know positively refuse to try to understand economics, regarding it as a fake field whose purpose is to provide moral rationalizations for capitalism. They sincerely believe that the economy can work whatever way "the people" want it to.

  • ||

    Why the delay? Their unemployment *finally* ran out and/or they finally graduated into the job market created by the Hopey McChanger they voted in.

  • ||

    The major difference is that the Tea Parties hated the cronyism in crony capitalism. The OWS crowd hated the capitalism.

  • Cronyism = Capitalism||

    There is no difference, save for the true believers.

    Or is a crony No True Scotsman?

    Communist pulled the same bullshit about how communism in the Soviet Union wasn't PURE® Communism, Comrade Bill.

  • ||

    You're an idiot. A reasonable set of straightforward criteria define the distinction between a grant of political largesse and an arms-length business transaction.

  • CrossTimbers Coalition||

    So they all are big spenders, Bush exploded the budget and Obama has maintained the exploded Bush labels. What else is new?

  • CrossTimbers Coalition||

    So they all are big spenders, but Bush exploded the budget and Obama has maintained the exploded Bush spending levels. What else is new?

  • anon||

  • anon||

  • ¢||

    Do Burma-Shave signs next.

  • ||

    From a rational perspective, joining a protest rally is like voting: a complete waste of time.

    There is something to say for getting the media's attention, especially now that the news isn't something you just watch. It's something you talk about on a website somewhere.

    If people in Peoria have an opinion about what's going on with the protest movements in Sacramento, New York and Tunis, then those protesters' efforts weren't entirely futile.

  • Hugh Akston||

    Voting, however, remains a busywork game for the special ed students.

  • ||

    I wish voting were merely pointless.

    Voting is what the statists use to legitimize the horrible shit they do to us...

    Me and my friends got together and had a popularity contest, and I won! And we decided that it would be in your best interest if we put you somewhere where you can get the help that you need!

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LoF_a0-7xVQ

    My rights aren't a popularity contest, and when we vote? We contribute to the impression that they are. That politicians are the solution to our problems.

    The only people who have a right to complain are the people who don't vote.

  • ||

    You are soooo wrong, Ken. I've been informed by a lawyer, who works for the government (TOP MAN!), namely John, that your rights are whatever 51% of the 20% of people that vote say they are.

  • protefeed||

    My rights aren't a popularity contest, and when we vote? We contribute to the impression that they are.

    Not if you vote LP, where you're making the point that your rights aren't a popularity contest.

    A blank ballot sends a weaker version of that message.

    Not voting for statists doesn't legitimize statists who seize power.

  • ||

    I think the process is part of the problem.

    When I'm asked to vote in California on whether gay people's right to marry should be respected, I can't figure out why gay people should have to ask me for permission. How do I cast a ballot to express the idea that my vote shouldn't matter?

    When you're voting for someone to fill a political office, where some politician's job is to make decisions on your behalf. You are endorsing the concept of a political office where someone else makes decisions on your behalf. There's no escaping the contradiction of your participation in the process.

    I want to make my own choices. I have no illusions that anyone in Washington DC will ever represent me or my ideas. I do hold out some hope that the less people participate, the more of a restraint there is on the number and size of things our politicians attempt.

    That's what the politicians in Libertopia do. They'll be just like the politicians now; it's just the people who vote for them will be different.

    Hardly anyone will pay any attention to the politicians in Libertopia--and hardly anyone will vote becasue the results won't matter. The politicians will have so little power that what they decide won't really have any impact on anyone's lives. So why would they care who the politicians are?

    If the Libertopians notice that their politicians are doing something? Those politicians will get voted out on their ass. It'll work like a great waiter at a fine restaurant--where the waiters go completely unnoticed.

    Anyway, Libertopia happens when people stop voting. We'll never vote Libertopia into power. Voting for politicians to give themselves less power is like trying to put out a fire with gasoline.

    It works that way in Libertopia, and I think it works that way incrementally, too. The politicians aren't afraid that we'll vote for a third party--they're afraid that we'll stop voting. They're afraid their partisan constituents will stay home.

    Voter apathy is our only chance.

  • mad libertarian guy||

    How do I cast a ballot to express the idea that my vote shouldn't matter

    Your premise is flawed in that we are ALREADY a statist society in which we either have to defend what freedoms we have remaining vigorously, or fight like hell to get them back.

    In this atmosphere where most everyone feels they have a right to answer these questions for everyone else, it's essential that we tell them to fuck off via our own votes.

    Only in a society where these kinds of votes aren't sought because they would have no value is not voting a true option.

    Only in libertopia can you express the idea that voting shouldn't matter by not voting.

  • ||

    We are ALREADY a statist society in which we either have to defend what freedoms we have remaining vigorously, or fight like hell to get them back.

    That's what keeps us in this cycle.

    The first rule of getting out of a clusterfuck? Let go of whatever you're holding onto.

    This is the delusion that most people are under--they didn't want to vote for George W. Bush either, but since they're fighting like hell to preserve what they had, they had to vote against John Kerry. ...because Kerry would be worse!

    The swing voters didn't want to vote for Obama--but they have to fight for what they have! And Sarah Palin and John McCain would be a whole lot worse!

    That's a never ending game that we will never win. Stop playing the game.

    The good intentions of your vote are inconsequential anyway--this post is absolutely right about that. The great news is that what we say to each other online and elsewhere, around the Thanksgiving table, at Christmas, in the lunch room, at the bar and at church? That's much more important in terms of the consequences anyway.

    Every vicious dictator in the history of the world has been scared to death of what people were saying to each other about him, and our politicians spend most of their time raising money so they can try to influence--what we think about them. Obama stays up late every night thinking about what people like you are going to say about him. That fear drives everything he does and everything he says.

    People feel like they'd powerless or something if they didn't vote, but that's not true. We can do things to influence other people. That's how Jesus and Lenin got started, and their ideas ended up taking over the the Roman Empire, the Soviet Union, China and influencing huge chunks of the rest of the world.

    I think you get bigger bang for your effort giving money to Reason, anyway, which does more to influence people than casting a vote does. It's all about influencing people, though. Your vote's spit in the ocean, but you have more influence on your friends, coworkers and family than you think.

    You don't have to legitimize the process by which they screw us in order to make an impact.

  • ||

    Hey man, with me yer preachin' to the quire.

    I've long advocated that the LP should stop wasting resources on electing dog catchers and vying for 2% of the presidential vote. I think the money would be better spent on propaganda in its various forms.

    Electoral victory is basically unattainable at this point. We're going to have to change the way people think of the world to effect change.

  • ||

    I think you get bigger bang for your effort giving money to Reason, anyway, which does more to influence people than casting a vote does. It's all about influencing people, though. Your vote's spit in the ocean, but you have more influence on your friends, coworkers and family than you think.

    We're all Kochtopi now!

  • Tony||

    That was the best fundraising letter ever!

    The only thing that will save this country is rigorously improved education standards. Bring some semblance of worldliness to the redneck lands before they start burning books.

  • ||

    Education is too important to be left to labor unions and government bureaucrats, Tony, but you don't need a college degree to know that making choices for yourself is better than other people making choices for you.

    And it wasn't a fundraising letter--it's a fact. Influencing public opinion is more important and more effective than voting. Like I said before, Jesus and Marx got their ideas across without any ballot box to speak of; trying to change things through the ballot box is putting the cart before the horse.

    First comes the change in public opinion, and once that coalesces, it doesn't matter who we vote into office.

    If you look at what's happening in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Syria right now, it's about public opinion coalescing. "Oh, you mean we're not gonna take this shit anymore?" Once that idea coalesces and solidifies, it doesn't matter who the politicians are--they'll get out of the way.

    The Egyptians and Syrians are going back and forth over how deeply their commitment to freedom runs--how far they're really willing to go. I'm not sure I'd have the guts to go out there and protest in the street if the government had snipers taking pot shots at protestors myself. I'd like to think I'm that kind of person, but hopefully, I'll never find out for sure...

    My response to "Give me liberty or give me death" was always, "Um...how 'bout give me liberty or I'll bitch and moan about it?"

    Anyway, public opinion is way more important than voting. What you say to your friends is way more important than how you vote. That's one of the great things about free markets--you get to represent yourself in the market. I don't need a politician to represent me to my friends and family in the free market of ideas; I can say it myself.

    An organization like Reason that makes the case for freedom to the general public--is the next best thing. Again, Libertopia, the future where people get to make their own choices, won't happen through legitimizing politicians by way of the ballot box--to make decisions on our behalf? And whether I think you should give money to Reason is completely beside the point.

    Influencing public opinion is the means to change. Voting is futile. Jim Crow and segregation didn't come to an end in the South because of the ballot box. It came to an end becasue a critical mass of black people decided they just weren't gonna take it anymore. ...and a whole lot of other people decided they weren't gonna support stickin' it to black people anymore either. First the change of heart in the general public happens--then comes the change.

    The times when people vote for change--before they've changed their minds? I can't think of a time when that's ever happened.

  • nanda||

    "It came to an end becasue a critical mass of black people decided they just weren't gonna take it anymore. ...and a whole lot of other people decided they weren't gonna support stickin' it to black people anymore either"
    oppression is normal. many would like to escape but they can't because their oppressors won't let up. in India the english let up, white people let up, blacks made them ashamed. that reaction is western, the christians tried that in Egypt, they were massacred. blacks were attacked with hoses and dogs when they demonstrated, some were killed, but the cops or the army never just went out and massacred hundreds of black people. in fact the army was called in to defend black people. If white people really wanted to they could have stopped civil rights no matter what black people decided. It is the framework of american, that is, western culture that allowed civil rights to happen. hundreds of millions around the world can never employ those means because they will just be killed and that will be the end of it.
    the freedom of the arab spring turns out to be freedom to live according to strict Islamic rule and to oppress minorities. In Libya, hundreds of black africans have been murdered. but the rhetoric of freedom continues. You could say that after the US had its revolution, blacks were still slaved, yet there was freedom for whites. so the Muslims have freedom to chose how they want to live and that includes burning churches. but if we don't let the US off the hook and we condemn slavery, the same has to apply to the arab spring.

  • ||

    hundreds of millions around the world can never employ those means because they will just be killed and that will be the end of it.

    I suspect there is something to the suggestion that societies with "do unto other as you would have them do unto you", hovering prominently in the background, helps make protest movements especially effective when the state police is in the media cracking skulls.

    That being said, cultures heavily influenced by Islam are also hypersensitive to questions of social injustice. The protest movements we saw explode during the Arab Spring certainly weren't inspired by Western mores. They were organically North African.

    The U.S. has always been hypersensitive to the authorities shooting peaceful protestors--going back to when Paul Revere made that famous engraving of the Boston Massacre. Just because that sort of tactic became especially effective in the U.S. first--in step with the development of print media able to mass produce images like that--that doesn't mean it hasn't been effective elsewhere or isn't effective now in other societies. Satellite television and the internet made it possible for people to see images that enrage them--beyond the control of the vicious dictators they were living under. I'd credit the emergence of relatively free media outlets, accessible by satellite and on the internet, more so than anything unique about Western mores.

    [If] the freedom of the arab spring turns out to be freedom to live according to strict Islamic rule and to oppress minorities.

    The American Revolution didn't mean the end of slavery either. Who thinks the American Revolution was ineffective just becasue we ended up fighting a Civil War over the issues surrounding slavery some 85 years later?

    If the new revolutions don't achieve universal freedom immediately, that likewise doesn't mean they were ineffective. The ongoing revolutions in North Africa and elsewhere have started those nations down the path--and that's important.

    I imagine they'll have all sorts of difficulties. Seeing the Islamists having to actually form a consensus and govern (or misgovern) might be just what the doctor ordered. It's easy to be an Islamist revolutionary when you're never responsible for actually running anything. Now that they've got some power and are actually expected to produce some results?

    They may end up like Iran, or they may end up like the new democracies of Eastern Europe. Heaven or hell, just like always, it's up to the people themselves. I suspect the people of Egypt right about now are starting to wonder whether Mubarak really had much leeway. I'm not sure Mubarak could have behaved much differently if he'd wanted to--the Egyptian military may not have allowed it.

    You see people still going out to protest in Egypt and Syria, though, despite all the beating of protestors and outright shooting of protestors, and the first thought that springs to your mind is, "Those people don't have the resolve to achieve real freedom"?!

    In Libya, hundreds of black africans have been murdered.

    Gadaffi used black Africans from the south to oppress Arabs in the north of Libya the same way the Chinese government used troops from the countryside to smash the protest movement at Tienanmen Square.

    There's no justification for arbitrarily killing people because they're black, but it seems to me that was a reaction to black Africans have been used to oppress the Libyan people...

    There certainly isn't anything about a culture being predominantly Muslim that makes them hate black people.

  • nanda||

    Ken S, but you are justifying the arbitrary killing of blacks. lynching could be just as easily justified, after all, quite often it was not malicious. white people did really think that blacks were dangerous and prone to anarchy and that if one black did something (or they thought he did it), he had to be punished and the others shown that what they did was wrong. whites were just reacting to justifiable concerns about the nature of blacks, as they thought it was.
    many of the blacks killed were Libyan citizens who were happy to see Gad taken away, until they became targets.
    You see how anything can be justified and excused.

  • ||

    Ken S, but you are justifying the arbitrary killing of blacks.

    No. I'm explaining it.

    I can explain why someone joins a gang and robs people--that doesn't mean I'm justifying it. Explaining is not justifying.

    You seemed to be ascribing racist behavior to Muslims becasue they're Muslim--or at least because they're not "Western".

    I'm merely pointing out that the reason they targeted blacks had nothing to do with being Muslim.

    It had to do with them associating black skinned individuals with the thug security forces Gaddafi used to oppress his people.

    You can tell I didn't justify the killing of black people becasue I wrote, "There's no justification for arbitrarily killing people because they're black".

    It's in my post right above yours. How could you miss it?

  • nanda||

    Ken S, but you are justifying the arbitrary killing of blacks. lynching could be just as easily justified, after all, quite often it was not malicious. white people did really think that blacks were dangerous and prone to anarchy and that if one black did something (or they thought he did it), he had to be punished and the others shown that what they did was wrong. whites were just reacting to justifiable concerns about the nature of blacks, as they thought it was.
    many of the blacks killed were Libyan citizens who were happy to see Gad taken away, until they became targets.
    You see how anything can be justified and excused.

  • nanda||

    the reason Gad used the black africans in the first place is because they were so badly treated by the arabs, so he knew that by posing as their protector (to a degree) he could get their loyalty and use them. and he did. blacks did not suddenly jump up and say we love Gad. He shielded them and used them. If not for their terrible status in the arab world, he would not have been able to do either.

  • ||

    There's no justification for killing black people for being black--my understanding is that he used them becasue they were from the south and in oppressing Arabs in the north, they were less likely to feel like they were oppressing their own people.

    Regardless, if you're suggesting that the Libyan people shouldn't have overthrown their vicious dictator becasue some of the Libyan people might subsequently kill black people unjustifiably? That would be like suggesting that the North shouldn't have freed the slaves in the South during the Civil War--because that might make some southerners form the Klan.

    Does not compute.

  • ||

    Nice post.

  • KP||

    Why are there politicians in Libertopia at all?

  • ||

    Libertopia won't happen because libertarians seize power and shove libertarianism down everybody's throats; it would happen because people became slowly disaffected.

    Think sort of how the Catholic church used to run everything. Nowadays, here in the U.S. anyway, you pretty much only have to pay attention to the Catholic chruch if you want to. But they're still there!

    I figure there's gotta be a transition period with the vestiges of rotten government dragging on. Most Libertopians will talk about the drug war then like we talk about transubstantiation now.

    Maybe it'll be sort of like the Queen of England is now. Still there but basically toothless.

  • Tony||

    Sounds like what a cult tells itself. How many years without a social safety net are people willing to suffer through to get to the allegedly superior alternative on the other side of a free market cleansing? You have to sacrifice at least a generation right? Oldies vote... want them to, say, not vote for a while? Maybe as you crush your boot down on their neck? Tempting?

  • ||

    The social safety net you're so proud of is false advertising.

    It's actually the cause of a lot of poverty and prevents people from saving for their own retirements--and when they get old and can't work anymore, they often find themselves in a nursing home or subsidized housing somewhere, completely dependent on a government bureaucracy for everything.

    I lived in a small apartment building on the edge of Compton for a few years, where everyone else in the building had their rent paid for by the government except me. What a miserable, dangerous place that was.

    If that's your idea of a social safety net, then shame on you for not having enough imagination to see that we can do a whole lot better than that.

  • ||

    Yes, and by not saving for their own retirement they leave themselves at the mercy of politics.

    How much they get in retirement is going to totally depend on fiscal policy decisions at the federal level.

  • ||

    How much they get in retirement is going to totally depend on fiscal policy decisions at the federal level.

    Yeah, I'd rather make my own choices.

  • Tony||

    Objections to the safety net are always anecdotal. But you can't say how much worse things would be without it, you're just claiming they'd be better in the face of the obvious reality that it would mean even less money in those people's hands. When there aren't enough jobs for job seekers I don't see where a psychological theory gets us. Where are these people supposed to get the money to save for retirement? Wages that have been stagnant for decades? You really think 17% poverty rate is the result of poor people being too coddled?

  • ||

    There's no reason we need to know exactly how much better things would be without the stupid central planning of our retirement and the rigid bureaucracy. It's enough to know, simply, that we would all be better off generically if we were free to make our own choices.

    Oh, and although my experience may be anecdotal? There's nothing anecdotal about the social safety net you're defending being a nightmare. The places where people are forced to live and their utter dependence on the bureaucracy isn't anecdotal. It's a fact.

    I wouldn't wish a life of having to live on government assistance on any child. If the people in the projects have any life left in them at all? They start trying to find ways to get themselves or the kids out of the projects just as soon as they get there. They want to escape it like a trap.

    Capitalism can do a better job taking care of the poor than that.

  • Tony||

    Capitalism merely ensures that those currently receiving benefits would simply be cast into poverty. You cannot with a straight face say capitalism by itself can end poverty. If those on the take are living such objectionable lifestyles, maybe they aren't getting enough? I shudder to think how you'd apply your quasi-puritan morality of capitalism to the truly impoverished. Anything other than "let them remain in squalor" would entail providing some kind of support. But it's not actually keeping people out of poverty that you celebrate as us "all being better off." It's the extra liberty everyone would have access to. The problem is that would only be theoretical access to most everyone.

  • ||

    I wonder if by depriving the legistlature of power, what we will end up with is a very powerful judiciary, with a different set of problems.

    What if the only power legislators and executives have (or voters!), is selecting judges. Wouldn't the judicial selection process become extremely politicized with interest groups simply demanding judges tyhat will decide cases their way?

  • ||

    Perhaps the advantage of having three branches of government, is that it tricks everyone into thinking that the judicial branch is the least important. So the selection of judges is less politicized than the selection of the President or the Legislature.

  • ||

    Wouldn't it be great if our politicians limited themselves to things like confirming judges?

    This is more of an idea to spread than a prophecy. It's hard for people to imagine that not voting--en masse--could be part of the solution to our political problems. But if they use our voting for them to justify and legitimize the horrible things they do to us, then we need to stop carry wood for the people who are using it to build a gallows to hang us with.

    So much of the American psyche is plugged into the right to vote. No taxation without representation is older than our nation. So much of the minority experience--from the three-fifths compromise to the civil rights struggle of the '60s--is tied up in the romanticized idea of the vote...

    But we're much more powerful than our votes. Once people stop obsessing with their votes--as if that were their only chance at participation in civil society--a few of the other ways in which they really are powerful will become apparent.

    If they stopped focusing on voting as the main way to participate in civil society, we could point out to them how free markets are more democratic than representative democracy.

    We might get them to start thinking about ways to solve their own problems instead of looking to install some false savior in the White House--to inflict their will on the rest of us.

    Once we get people to stop equating winning an election with legitimacy, they'll start focusing on whether what politicians are doing really is legitimate for other reasons. Is what the politicians are doing consistent with respecting our rights?

    If I win a popularity contest, everybody thinks I get to make Hazel's choices for Hazel?! If that's the way it is, we need to stop legitimizing the popularity contest.

    50% of the people out there are of below average intelligence--you add one drunk in the voting booth above that, and whoever wins gets to make decisions about me, my paycheck and my life? That would be a ridiculous premise to everybody if it weren't wrapped up in the American flag.

    If voting is what these statists thrive on, if that's what they use to justify the horrible things they do to us, then we need to stop carrying their water for them. It's not as if there will ever be anyone in Washington who will ever make the choices you would make for yourself anyway--so let's stop pretending!

    Our problems would not disappear if we all just picked the right politicians anyway.

    And if the politicians start to respond by limiting the number and magnitude of the things they attempt? Then maybe we should start participating again. Let's cross that bridge IF and when we get to it.

    Like anything else, I can always be persuaded, but for the time being, I will not vote for anyone to be my emperor. I don't even want to bow to a libertarian emperor.

  • Shocked||

    Ken,

    Your comments are refreshing on a website that is notorious for childish inside jokes and half-witted one liners.

    Keep up the reflections on democracy. Your insights are intriguing.

  • ||

    And there's your point made, Hugh. That was fast.

  • ||

    Good, even-handed article, if a bit outdated, because so many OWS rallies have already descended into violence and vandalism, and so the public has already turned away from them somewhat (aided by much of the media, which seems to have reduced coverage because they aren't too interested in covering the downsides of OWS).

  • first||

    With her unique young innocent beauty, perfect shape and proportions Jula is one very special treat! Just turned 18 this student of architecture, is an absolute stunner with delicate features and hair like a lion’s mane.

    Jula has a great career in front of her and Petter Hegre tips her to be the girl most likely to be crowned Miss Ukraine some day in the future. With her kind and calm personality, Jula is a photographer’s dream – a girl with the looks, the body and the right attitude. With an enjoyment of all things aesthetically pleasing Jula’s primary interest is fashion.

    Beautiful in many ways Jula is a young girl who melts hearts wherever she goes.

    http://www.hegre-art.com/models#action=show&id=158

  • ||

    Anyone ever check this thing out. Is it legit?

  • mad libertarian guy||

    Looks good to me.

  • first||

    Thank you.

  • first||

    Yep

  • AlmightyJB||

    The pics/vids are pretty hot. Very nice.

  • first||

    Thank you.

  • Douglas Fletcher||

    Since I run on linux I'll connect, what the hell.

  • first||

    What does linuz have to do with anything.

  • KW6||

    If he's on Linux, all of the malware your site tries to send him won't work even if it gets through.

  • Douglas Fletcher||

    Yeah, I bet she's innocent.

  • first||

    She is!

  • Live Free or Diet||

    Yeah, I bet she's innocent.

    Uh-huh. I never believed in ghosts or vampires.
    And I haven't believed in teenage virgins since 1975.

  • first||

    She is!

  • A Serious Man||

    Don't you fear that by unambigiously showing the goods on the preview page you'll lose potential subscribers?

  • ||

    Then you'd miss out on gems such as these:


    Screaming Anal Enema Massage - Hegre-Art.com

    When she wants to freshen up, there are no half measures for her. The bottom line for this girl is that she craves deep fingering of her ass.

    Craves, indeed.

  • first||

    Indeed

  • first||

    Nope, the best can only be found by either subscribing or by downloading it for millions of semi legal torrents throught the internet that are more likely to give you a virus than artistic nudes.

  • ConfusedGender Coalition||

    Give me that virus, give me that virus, ooh I want that virus.

  • El Duderino||

    This is a really nice site, though I wish there were more unshorn women. . . Hmm I'm kinda high right now and a song came on that I usually skip, but for some reason I like it right now, it's Van Halen's 316.

    Oh anyway, the reason why I liked the site, besides the beautiful naked women is the variety of options available. I would like to make a few more recommendations on top of unshorn women (yes please, schwiiing) I would add some plus sized women (not fat, not that there is anything wrong with that) and some older women, not wrinkled prunes, but classy older ladies.

    Oooh, now Conway Twitty is singing "You've never been this far before" bum ba bum . . .

  • first||

    Okay I'll take that into acount.

  • El Duderino||

    We need more people like you in this world.

    Smiley face.

  • Sanjuro Tsubaki||

    Can't wait for the next article when they explicate the next Bad News Bears movie. This article is only slightly less retarded than the "We are the 99%" slogan.

  • BakedPenguin||

    Loved your movies, btw.

  • Sudden||

    Another dog bites man story. OWS focused on their definition of fairness; news at 11.

  • Untermensch||

    At least it wasn't one of those “conservatism and libertarianism are pathologies” articles that tend to pick one definition of morality and try to show how those ideologies ignore it. This one is interesting because it uses the same bogus logic but in a subtle way undermines it: ooh, look, there are six moral dimensions and OWS only pays attention to 1.5 of them, but the Tea Party gets all six. This is actually a useful antidote for the “pathology” articles because it provides a way to deconstruct them (and itself) on their own turf.

  • ||

    Liberals tend to be wary of authority.

    Oh man that is funny.

    Tony meet Mr. Haidt's mistaken notion, Mr. Haidt's mistake notion meet Tony.

  • A Serious Man||

    Almost as rich as the claim I frequently hear from self-described liberals that they are free thinkers rather than just collectivist sheep.

  • mad libertarian guy||

    ^^THIS^^

    Both teams are full of sheep.

  • Not an Economist||

    Hey, just because I hold all the same beliefs as my fellow travelers and change my mind at the exact same time to the exact same positions as they do does not mean I'm a sheep!

  • ||

    I keep seeing this asserted, and it's so preposterous that I have to LOL. The question is, do they actually believe this, or is it just one of those moronic TEAM claims, like that TEAM BLUE is good on civil liberties or that TEAM RED is for smaller government?

  • ||

    I don't know, but if you define 'civil liberties' as "getting free shit from the government" then yes, TEAM BLUE is good on civil liberties.

    And if you define 'small government' as "bombing brown people to keep the war-boner erect" then yes, TEAM RED is very small government.

  • Mensan||

    Going by those definitions, then TEAM RED is also good on civil liberties, and TEAM BLUE is also good on small government.

  • MJ||

    The implication is they are a bunch of betas who demand that their alphas pretend they are betas so as not to make the actual betas feel bad. They are not against authoritarianism just overt display of a leader.

  • HermanLame||

    Somewhere, Ellsworth Toohey is smiling.

  • ||

    My colleagues and I find that liberals score higher than conservatives and libertarians on all measures of compassion and empathy.

    No, you find that Leftists score higher in feigned compassion and empathy. How many believe that reducing a person to a dependent is OK because you are "helping" them? Too many.

    Attempting to steal from others in the name of helping people isn't "compassion". Believing that a person can't survive without your benevolent intervention isn't "empathy", either.

  • ||

    I was going to raise a similar point. Do they base the score on how people answer questions or how they live their lives.

    Is a liberal more likely to take in a dying relative for end-of-life care or will they put a gun to my head and make me pay for their relative's hospice care? One speaks of compassion, the other of thuggery.

  • Anonymous Coward||

    My colleagues and I find that liberals score higher than conservatives and libertarians on all measures of compassion and empathy.

    I hold little stock on the measure of "compassion" as some people's idea of compassion would involve incarcerating people against their will for holding "incorrect" ideas (remember the good ol' days when TEH GHEYNESS got you a trip to a sanitarium?)

  • Apatheist||

    Santorum is an expert on sodomy:

    http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-.....odomy-case

  • Mensan||

    Santorum is a result of sodomy.

  • ||

    Again, over thinking 101. Some times a cigar is a cigar. Some times frustration is only frustration, like a bad day at the office. It is life. We move on.

  • mad libertarian guy||

    And all of the time, sometimes is spelled sometimes.

  • rather||

    onetime I dropped my glasses in the toilet and I got them out but it was poop instead.

  • ||

    Were you policing your stool?

  • El Duderino||

    Although this is an interesting article, I could care less about which moral foundations OWS protesters favor when they make their emotional arguments because their arguments are almost completely based on emotion. Their sense of "fairness" and "justice" and "kindness" is driven by emotions and are therefore meaningless to anyone else but them. These people just want to feel good about themselves, they want the joy of being a part of something. They live for the chemical rush that comes from a shared emotional understanding. OWS is no different than a circle jerk. Everybody sits there tugging away at the fairness emotion, the anger emotion, the Gaia emotion and it feels really nice but means nothing.

    Here is the layout of our reality. You have the people who identify with OWS, the people who don't identify with them and everyone else who inexplicably hasn't formed an opinion. Those that identify with OWS get to watch and even join in, but it's all just masturbation to them. The people who don't identify with OWS are not likely to be swayed by anything they see especially if it is simply driven by emotional appeals. The idiots in the middle who haven't already formed an opinion on any of the topics at hand are either uninterested and dispassionate or they may be dim enough to get sucked into an emotional appeal. Those people who get sucked in by emotional appeal will undoubtedly enlarge the circle jerk for OWS, but politically speaking, the right and left both use emotional appeal to suck in these morons in limbo and they generally cancel each other out, maybe not exactly, but enough to keep the score reasonably close. So now here we are, with two completely retard factions, each trying to suck in as many lemmings as possible so they can "win" and yet no matter who wins, everybody gets screwd because both sides FEEL compelled to "do something" about the things that tug on their emotions and since both factions are fighting for political representation in a system that grants them authority to make law, their most logical outlet to "do something" will be through legislation. And this is why I think no entity should be granted the authority to make law. I think a society can have a constitution that protects life, protects property and enforces contracts, but after that does not allow anyone to create laws ever. Look at how much time and energy this country wastes on politics. I mean, seriously, I love Reason, but if politics didn't exist in any significant sense and it was just people doing their own thing, then imagine how much more time would be spent actually doing something useful, like curing disease, exploring space, eliminating hunger and on and on. Government wants to do these things, but it fails because it is fundamentally dysfunctional due to the fact that it is designed for self nullification, not creative expression.

  • ryan||

    "[...]imagine how much more time would be spent actually doing something useful, like[...]exploring space"

    Uh-huh...

  • El Duderino||

    What's wrong with exploration, is it not a more useful endeavor than politics?

  • ryan||

    Perhaps, but you didn't say "more useful". You implied that politics is not useful, but space exploration is. Any action's usefulness is relative to the cost compared to the ends achieved. Considering the huge amount of capital required for space exploration, added to the cost of one's time which, to explore any significant portion of space, would be high, I can't imagine how you would justify it as being useful. Still, you might personally prefer it, but to use it as a generic example of 'useful activity', I perceive it to have been given a greatly exaggerated importance, which I believe was thoroughly explained by my "Uh-huh...".

  • ryan||

    As for what is wrong with exploration, that would require a separate discussion held within the context of particular, predefined circumstances.

  • El Duderino||

    Yes, space exploration is a high risk endeavor, but as a libertarian, I believe that this is a risk that an individual or an incorporated group of individuals may choose to take.

    There are a lot of potential benefits to exploration of space. First is that the development of the technology needed for this exploration will generate more commercial benefits much like the early space program did with aeronautics, commuter tech ology and material technologies to name a few. Space is also full of valuable resources. The asteroids in our solar system are a tremendous resource for all sorts of minerals, many of which a used in our technology. There is also the unknown scientific value of space exploration. Who knows what sort of information or insight we will gain and how it will contribute to our evolution.

    The whole point of my post is that political activity only exists because politicians insist on claiming authority and our political system encourages them to do so. As a result of this system, we spend a lot of time talking about politics, which essentially means we spend a lot of time talking about how best politicians can impose their own values on others. As a libertarian, I believe that individuals should choose which values (if any) they should impose on their own lives and definitely not what others should impose. I believe that letting individuals control their own lives makes for a more efficient and therefore productive society because you don't have an entire class of people who spend all their time trying to force others to comply. If these people are not spending their time forcing others to comply, then what are they going to do with their time. Presumably these people have ideas of their own that probably never get expressed because they are too busy making sure you have a permit to grow fucking vegetables in your front yard. And because there is a whole class of people who spend their days trying to get everybody else to comply with arbitrary rules and regulations, there is necessarily a society that spends a considable amount of time politicking to ensure their particular POV is enforced. Right now, I am taking my limited time on this earth to discuss politics because I know that the outcome of politics will directly effect me, but I have ideas of my own that are not getting as much attention because I am constantly having to politic with others to preserve the liberties I have, because without these liberties, my ideas and ambitions are harder to pursue.

  • El Duderino||

    Yes, space exploration is a high risk endeavor, but as a libertarian, I believe that this is a risk that an individual or an incorporated group of individuals may choose to take.

    There are a lot of potential benefits to exploration of space. First is that the development of the technology needed for this exploration will generate more commercial benefits much like the early space program did with aeronautics, commuter tech ology and material technologies to name a few. Space is also full of valuable resources. The asteroids in our solar system are a tremendous resource for all sorts of minerals, many of which a used in our technology. There is also the unknown scientific value of space exploration. Who knows what sort of information or insight we will gain and how it will contribute to our evolution.

    The whole point of my post is that political activity only exists because politicians insist on claiming authority and our political system encourages them to do so. As a result of this system, we spend a lot of time talking about politics, which essentially means we spend a lot of time talking about how best politicians can impose their own values on others. As a libertarian, I believe that individuals should choose which values (if any) they should impose on their own lives and definitely not what others should impose. I believe that letting individuals control their own lives makes for a more efficient and therefore productive society because you don't have an entire class of people who spend all their time trying to force others to comply. If these people are not spending their time forcing others to comply, then what are they going to do with their time. Presumably these people have ideas of their own that probably never get expressed because they are too busy making sure you have a permit to grow fucking vegetables in your front yard. And because there is a whole class of people who spend their days trying to get everybody else to comply with arbitrary rules and regulations, there is necessarily a society that spends a considable amount of time politicking to ensure their particular POV is enforced. Right now, I am taking my limited time on this earth to discuss politics because I know that the outcome of politics will directly effect me, but I have ideas of my own that are not getting as much attention because I am constantly having to politic with others to preserve the liberties I have, because without these liberties, my ideas and ambitions are harder to pursue.

  • ryan||

    Well that's fine.

    I wasn't responding to the whole point of your post, but merely to the use of 'space exploration' as an example of a useful activity. And of course, there are potential benefits to space exploration, but I question whether they are useful relative to other possibilities which you or anyone else could conceive. It's a question worthy of consideration, most important to those actually seriously considering exploring space, but that's a subject for complex philosophical debate and this isn't a good forum for that.

  • ||

    I believe that it is important to cite the Founding Fathers, don't you. When Thomas Jefferson rode the band of angels down from Heaven to help found this great nation he gave us the most important rule of all - revolution and new government every 20 years. As Jefferson said.

  • mike c.||

    "revolution and new government every 20 years"
    Recipe for disaster.

  • ||

    My own take on revolutions is that they are like playing Russian Roulette with a six shot revolver with five rounds chambered. Witness the Arab Spring in Egypt most of the writers here were so enamored of a couple of months ago.

  • ETC||

    I say conservatives are stupid from inbreeding.

  • Live Free or Diet||

    This from a guy who thinks General Relativity applies to everybody, but Special Relativity requires at least "kissin' cousins."

  • Relay||

    joining a protest rally is like voting: a complete waste of time

    "A majority vote is not an epistemological validation of an idea. Voting is merely a proper political device—within a strictly, constitutionally delimited sphere of action—for choosing the practical means of implementing a society’s basic principles. But those principles are not determined by vote."
    -Ayn Rand

  • ryan||

    Why does your statement have quotation marks around it and why is Ayn Rand's name at the bottom?

  • Relay||

    Quotation marks enclose a quotation. The following name gives attribution to the quotation. Hope this helps.

  • ryan||

    So is that your statement or is it Ayn Rand's statement? If hers, why is she making statements? She's dead. If yours, I again present the questions you answered previously.

  • Besides.....||

    If voting or going to a protest rally is a waste of time, COMMENTING on the vote or rally is Time Well Spent.

  • ryan||

    ?

  • anon||

    OT: Ron Paul support shoots her latest album sales up 800%.

    800 percent.

    Is there reason to be hopeful that the Establishment pulls its head out of its ass yet?

  • anon||

    Er yeah, her being Kelly Clarkson. I meant to link it. Oh well.

  • ||

    Is it me just being a class unconscious dolt, or do those signs lack coherence?

  • Mr. FIFY||

    "private ownership of industry is theft"

    Fucktards. How do they work?

  • ||

    They don't

  • Stupid Hippies||

    They waste all day arguing with strangers.

  • Fuck||

    Let's seize the coal mines -- and turn them over to the government, of course!

  • Mr. FIFY||

    Didn't Obama's Gang float the "nationalize the oil industry" trial balloon not that long ago?

    Give that fucker a second term... he'll find a way.

  • OWS||

    We wants your moneys! Gives them to us!

  • Old Mexican||

    Threadjack!

    CNN Excludes Democrats and Independents From Iowa Caucus Poll

    Summary: CNN headlines driven by the decision to exclude Democrats and Independents from poll.

    If "adjusted" for these voters, results are dramatically different:

    CNN poll:
    Romney 25%
    Paul 22%
    Santorum 16%
    Gingrich 14%

    "Adjusted" CNN poll:
    Paul 26%
    Romney 22%
    Santorum 14%
    Gingrich 14%

    "[...]therefore, it remains true that the CNN headlines were substantially misleading."

    Ya think????

  • Tony||

    RP in the lead isn't near bland enough to be newsworthy on CNN.

  • Tony||

    But in a free market system, where some work harder or are more talented or lucky, it will always be the case that some people make a greater contribution than others.

    How do the lucky make a greater contribution? Isn't the ratio of luck to hard work/ingenuity as they contribute to financial success all-important when determining a work-based ethic of distribution?

    Correcting for luck is not the entire project of liberalism, or even an important one, but its existence justifies redistribution if we're talking about a work-based ethic.

    They therefore end up taking home a larger share of the pie. Fairness as proportionality guarantees that outcomes will not be equal. This, I believe, is one of the main reasons why modern leftists (but not classical liberals) are often hostile to capitalism itself, as were some at the OWS protest (see photos 4 and 5).

    It's not a lack of total egalitarianism, and to expect outcomes in any economy to be egalitarian would be absurd. In fact it's a minor redistribution by historical standards that liberals are clawing tooth and nail to hang onto. I realize they're more easily dismissed if they can be thought of as revolutionary communists, but all the crazies in this country are on the right. And they've had a lot of power for a long time. The more they impose themselves on society--you know those people who don't trust book lernin' even in its top tier of politicians--the more radical the liberal correction will be. Eventually.

  • ||

    ...but all the crazies in this country are on the right.


    Still winning hearts and minds with reasoned, respectful dialogue.

  • ||

    The people I hate, despise, and scorn most, with an apocalyptic fury, are communists. I have no sympathy for communists. I have no capacity for tolerating their noxious bullshit. I utterly detest them with all the passion in my heart, and I'll die wishing eternal hellfire unto their ideology and the abominable troglodytes advocating it.

    And that's exactly what a sizable portion of these protesters are doing, unwittingly or otherwise -- advocating a path to socialism/communism.

    Your economic model is one of pernicious fascism. All you have to do now is start spewing racist and eugenic horseshit, and you'll be a total badass in neo-Nazi circles.

  • William Ayers||

    Well some of us on the left like to try to blow people up!!!

  • MJ||

    "...you know those people who don't trust book lernin' even in its top tier of politicians..."

    Not fetishizing an Ivy League degree is a far cry from "don't trust book lernin'". Especially when someone on the right has an Ivy League degree, it somehow does not count. Besides, leftist academics have a shameful history of subscribing to the totalitarianisms of the recent past.

  • Red Rocks Rockin||

    Considering that it was those with all that "book learnin'" who got us to the present state of affairs, a robust skepticism of credentialism is not only necessary, but eminently healthy.

  • Tony||

    Yes a much more reliable way of judging people's authority is whoever shouts the loudest. That's the equivalent to any other criterion you may have that isn't the established academic merit system.

    Which is still less ridiculous than the claim you just explicitly made: that smart people have been in charge all this time and things suck, so why not give idiots a shot?

  • Red Rocks Rockin||

    Which is still less ridiculous than the claim you just explicitly made: that smart people have been in charge all this time and things suck, so why not give idiots a shot?

    There's a big difference between actual intelligence and the cult of credentialism, Tony. You'd be able to figure that out if you weren't a charter member of the latter.

  • Tony||

    Perhaps, so what are your criteria for judging someone's intelligence?

  • ||

    Perhaps, so what are your criteria for judging someone's intelligence?

    By the fact that they don't spout the line " For the betterment of Humanity' at any point in their lives.

    Want a better place ?

    OR is you want a "Fairer" place for the sheep to live Tony?

  • Red Rocks Rockin||

    Perhaps, so what are your criteria for judging someone's intelligence?

    When they perform on the job, does the workplace operate better or worse when they aren't there?

    When given responsibilities, do they follow through and complete their tasks in a competent manner?

    Do they demonstrate actual knowledge and understanding of the subjects they discuss, or simply parrot what someone else told them?

    Are the institutions where they operate better or worse for that person being there once they move on to other endeavors?

    Do they possess a broad base of knowledge, not just an obsessive-like focus on one or two esoteric subjects?

  • MJ||

    "Correcting for luck is not the entire project of liberalism, or even an important one, but its existence justifies redistribution if we're talking about a work-based ethic."

    Luck is a nearly impossible thing to quantify as it requires skill and ingenuity to exploit the opportunities and mitigate the disasters random chance presents, so basing redistribution on that perception is a fool's errand. "Luck" is way for the terminally envious to explain away success they do not understand.

  • Mr. FIFY||

    Don't forget the old standby "winners of lifes' lottery", MJ. Team Blue cheerleaders love to pounce on that tiny subset of Evil Rich People.

  • ||

    That's exactly the problem. You can't really quantify who is "lucky" and who got there based on skill and hard work.

    So the only way to measure whether the system is "fair" or not, is some formula based on easily identifiable factor like equal income levels by education level and field, and then say something like "the average doctors income should be the same across all demographic groups".

    And then if they aren't, you figure that you have to correct for that unfairness by adding a spcial program or a tax credit to boost income to the more "disadvataged" groups. Until you get the income distribution you regard as fair.

    Problem is all this constant rule tweaking ends up becoming political football. Depending on how you define the demographic groups, you will get narrow interests trying to boost the special tweak or tax credit that helps their group. Plus it tends to help not entire groups, but individuals within a particular group. Eventually you make the rules complex enough and it's just a mechanism for rent-seeking by politically organized identity groups.

  • Tony||

    You can't quantify it but that doesn't mean you can ignore it.

    You can't justify an economic system on an individual work ethic and then do everything you possibly can to maximize the role of luck in that system.

  • Tony||

    And it doesn't have to be that abstract. Since Reagan the single overwhelming factor in one's success has been already having wealth. If you're already rich, you've gotten incredibly richer. If you're not already rich, you've stagnated. I don't see how a free market corrects for this.

  • ||

    Could it be that the reason wealth incrases you chances of staying wealthy is because it gives you more political influence? For instance, by being able to get the government to socialize your losses when you fail?

    In a pure free market, when the rich fail, they lose their money. In the current modern US economy, when the rich fail, Washington bails them out.

  • Tony||

    Yes that's a big part of it--we didn't get the wealthy-favoring policies by accident. But you can't just wish corruption away. Especially not while simultaneously advocating removing legal restrictions on business influence over government. You can't run a society on gentlemen's agreements. What mechanism does your pure free market employ to prevent bribery and corruption? And I'm not talking about defining corruption out of existence by making everything legal.

    The laws and repeals of laws that led to the corruption that led to such moral horrors as the bank bailouts was sold to us under the pretense of being pro-free market. I know you won't take credit for a single bit of it, but it's simply logical that to prevent corruption you need stronger government, not weaker.

  • MJ||

    "I don't see how a free market corrects for this."

    Since you are seeing things that are not so, it is not surprising. While the "rich" quintile may have grown faster it does not account for churn within the populations of them.

  • Brother Grimm||

    The answer is actually a lot simpler than that; people tend to get better at the things they practice. Wealthy people are good at being wealty. They practice the things that it takes to be wealthy (like knowing how to HAVE money instead of just MAKE money) and get better at it. The poor tend to practice the things that make and keep people poor (such as debt, poor personal choices, and above all reliance on subsidies) and guess what happens? That's right. They get better at being poor.

  • Mr. FIFY||

    "all the crazies"

    Bullshit.

  • jdb79||

    "Correcting"

    There's your problem.

  • ||

    Correcting for luck is the least bad part of liberalism.

    The really bad part is the tweaking all the rules until you get the income distribution you want. Not to mention the type of products you like produced in the right proportions - small family own business or cooperatives of minority women using organic locally grown hemp.

    Liberals would not be nearly as intolerable if they just focused on passing out checks, instead of trying to design targeted tax credits to help minority basket weavers compete against the evil multinational pottery conglomerates.

  • Tony||

    There must be constant correction because economically powerful entities have proportionate political power. Now multinational corporations with no allegiance to the US have unprecedented influence over US elections in the service of their bottom line. The needs of the people should be prior to the demands of the market. If the market isn't addressing those needs then what good is it?

  • ||

    "The market" IS the demands of the people. The actual, objectively measureable demands. Measurable by their appearance in price signals, relative to supply.

    The constant modification of the regulation in order to "correct" for whatever inequalities your preconceptions tell you are unjust is what makes it possible for powerful economic entities to manipulate those regulations in their favor. A clear set of simple, minimal, unfirom rules, equally enforced, and rendered difficult to change, would vastly reduce the ability of powerful economic entities to use the government to manipulate the rules in their favor.

  • Tony||

    Market demand isn't the same thing as need. The whole point is that the market leaves some people out (those who have no money but still need to eat). Their democratic voice is supposed to have authority over the market. That's because a legitimate government is one that represents people fairly, i.e. one person one vote. A 'government' in which one dollar equals one vote is a form of tyranny. And despite the fallacy that there can ever be such a thing as limited government, that's exactly what you get increasingly as you shift authority to private actors. Your explicitly want to give private actors this extra authority. You're not ridding the world of power, you're just giving it to less democratic and accountable entities.

  • El Duderino||

    One question Tony, how big is the "pie"?

  • ||

    The author makes a very serious error by simply taking the protestors at their word.

    They may say they want fairness, which the author equates to an approximation of justice (to each his due). In fact they want only to bring those with more down. They are egalitarians, a vicious and nonsensical philosophy.

    In an article examining moral views the author's perspective is oddly lacking in any ethical analysis. That's likely due to trying to remain academically neutral in an area where values are at the core of the dispute.

  • MJ||

    "As if that were not bad enough, we the taxpayers then had to bail them out after they crashed the economy, and so now they really owe us for saving their necks."

    The bailouts were the result of the anti-free market thinking the OWS subscribes to. Institutions that behaved in lazy, corrupt, stupid could not be allowed to fail as that would damage our economy too much. OWS are not so much protesting the fact that the bailouts happened, they are protesting that (in their perception) they did not get their cut of the loot.

  • RealityCheck||

    There are a few myths about liberals in the article such as "liberals tend to be universalists and internationalists". The Occupy group tried to shut down ports since many don't favor free trade. Many liberals hate the idea of a Chinese worker getting a job rather than an American. There is a nationalistic subset with overtones of racism among some.

    re: "Liberals tend to be wary of authority. I saw no signs suggesting respect for authority".Its libertarians that are wary of authority. Liberals wish to use the authority of government and blindly trust the government to keep us safe, seeming to forget how they rail against regulatory capture by corporations at other times.

    re: "Liberals tend to make less use of sanctity; they tend toward materialism ". There is a strong religious-like element to the green movement many liberals adopt which raises nature above humanity and is anti-science and anti-human creation.

  • Mr. FIFY||

    Team Blue loves authority as much as Team Red does... just in different ways.

  • ||

    The green's movement used to be called 'the watermelons' - green on the outside and red through and through. I have not seen this recently as the cult has been mainstreamed. Rubes like Romney, Gingrich, McCain and others members of TEAM RED paying it homage, thinking it will garner them votes from the 'middle.' TEAM BLUE has ridden this hag as far as she will go.

    Gaea is angry, give us your stuff, live in a yurt, eat veggies, and forgo hygiene (use less water). You are the hoi poloi, you should know your place.

  • Green Wienie||

    Don't forget to get on your knees and worship mother earth!!!!

  • AJ||

    "There is a strong religious-like element to the green movement many liberals adopt which raises nature above humanity and is anti-science and anti-human creation."

    I do not identify as a liberal at all but I am very sympathetic to the green movement. It's not that we value nature over humanity, it's that we recognize that humanity cannot exist without nature. Humanity is part of nature, and to act like we are separate from it is suicidal. As for science, we recognize the good things it has does but we also know that it's a large contributor to the horrible shape of the ecosphere in this day and age. Many of us do not believe that the solution to the problems caused by science is more science, just like libertarians believe that the solution to the problems caused by government is not more government.

  • Mitch||

    Yet environmentalists are just as sanctimonious as any holy roller. Sometimes they are worse and they are just as judgemental too.

    Oh and whats really bothersome is your true believers have solutions that would wipe out half or more of the human race just to save "precious" Gaia. And some of those idiots are in the administration.

    So all I gotta say to you and your kind is FUCK YOU.

  • rather||

    you forgot to wish him a happy new year too :-(

  • Mitch||

    Happy Fing New Year :)

  • AJ||

    Well I would reply to this but clearly you're not interested in having a rational discussion. I wish people like you would be banned from this site.

  • منتديات تلكيف||

    thanks

  • ||

    The liberal fairness of OWS diverges from conservative and libertarian fairness in that liberals often think that equality of outcomes is evidence of fairness (see photo 3).

    When everyone’s contribution is the same, the proportional outcome is equality. But in a free market system, where some work harder or are more talented or lucky, it will always be the case that some people make a greater contribution than others.

    I would frame this a bit differently. Libertarians are concerned with what is called "procedural fairness". Which means that as long as the rules of the game are fair, the outcome is regarded as fair. Generally, the rules are considered fair when they are the same for everyone, simple enough to not be easily exploited, and uniformly enforced.

    By comparison, liberals use equality of outcomes as a measure of fairness, and constantly asjust the rules until they get equal outcomes. The result is often a mash of complex selectively enforced rules that result in demonstrably unfair outcomes - acheiving neither equality of outcome not procedural fairness. Powerful interests, or narrow voting blocks, end up manipulating the complex rule-making apparatus to benefit themselves. Instead of having a system that is uniformly fair for everyone, politicis is turned into a battleground of identity groups vying for special favors.

  • ||

    Libertarians are concerned with what is called "procedural fairness". Which means that as long as the rules of the game are fair, the outcome is regarded as fair....liberals use equality of outcomes as a measure of fairness, and constantly adjust the rules until they get equal outcomes.

    Which is another way of saying that liberals don't believe in procedural fairness if they're willing to tweak the rules of fairness in an attempt to get the results they want.

    I'd also mention that libertarians aren't necessarily hostile to charity either. I've volunteered at homeless shelters--for free--becasue I care.

    Social problems are too important to leave to bureaucrats and government employees to solve.

  • ||

    Right. They just think that "procedural fairness" = "rules that produce fair (i.e. equal) outcomes".

    Where as for liberatians "procedural fairness" = "simple, minimal, uniform rules, that are equally enforced".

  • MJ||

    "Which is another way of saying that liberals don't believe in procedural fairness if they're willing to tweak the rules of fairness in an attempt to get the results they want."

    Which means that liberals are ultimately hostile to the underpinnings of civil rights. That is why liberals can talk a good game about civil liberties, one should never be surprised when they will abandon such in favor of a procedural tweak, which Reason writer's seem to be in constant amazement when this happens i.e. "Progressives should be angry at Obama because..."

  • ||

    Reason writer's seem to be in constant amazement when this happens i.e. "Progressives should be angry at Obama because..."

    Reason isn't just preaching to the choir. There are people out there who are marginally supporting progressives, and if we don't like what the progressives are doing, then those marginal supporters are the people we should target.

    Reason gets an amazing number of hits every month, and if some liberal or progressive journalist somewhere takes issue with something that was written, that drives liberal and progressive traffic to the site, too.

    People on the left should be angry at Obama. The more people on the left who get angry at Obama, the better.

  • MJ||

    The only reason to think the left should be angry at Obama is if you pay more attention to what the left says rather then what the left does. Reason writers seem to take what leftists say at face value.

  • ||

    Super article !!

    Liberty and Equality have never quite been compatible ( especially when those who favor equality are eager to use force ) With the French Revolution and the demise of hereditary power, that struggle has dominated the politics of just about every non-autocratic country.

    Put me on the side of liberty.

  • منتديات تلكيف||

    thanks very much

  • first||

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  • Fap||

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  • first||

    Good to see that you are enjoying my service.

  • ||

    The bailouts were the result of the anti-free market thinking the OWS subscribes to. Institutions that behaved in lazy, corrupt, stupid could not be allowed to fail as that would damage our economy too much. OWS are not so much protesting the fact that the bailouts happened, they are protesting that (in their perception) they did not get their cut of the loot.

    Exactly right, which is why so many of them are bitching that they have to replay their student loans.

  • ||

    "From a rational perspective, joining a protest rally is like voting: a complete waste of time. The odds that your voice or your protest sign will make a difference are no better than the odds that your vote will change an election. Yet people do join protests, and people do vote. They do these things not to advance their rational self-interest but to express moral passions and moral identities."

    So why then is expressing my moral passions and identities necessarily not in my rational self interest? It always disturbs me when people profess such a narrow definition of self interest for everyone. How then would any other political expression be in anyone's self interest? So it appears the writers premises include that it isn't in an individuals self interest to express political ideas. Why should I read further?

  • Mitch||

    So how many women did you rape at the OWS protest last week? Oh wait...you and your cronies paid them to be quiet...did you get any counseling for being a rapist?

  • Mitch||

    Yes I am beinga an ass....cause lots a messed up crap was overlooked. With a overiding media narrative of how noble and good the protesters were being pushed...what a load of crap.

    Yet the tea party has a several day news cycle of a suppossed racial slur on the major news outlets....rapes and assaults at OWS not so much.

  • Gov't Approved Shrink||

    Yes, but of COURSE the occupiers show no respect for authority. Hmmm, shall we look at how the current AUTHORITIES reacted to them:

    Immediate positive coverage in all major news organization. The president says he sympathizes with them. Local gov't gives them a pass on complying with regulations (and fees!) for holding demonstrations in cities/towns across the country. They're allowed to camp out overnight in local parks where this is usually strictly prohibited by the AUTHORITIES. Thousands of dollars worth of freebies, including free meals by major-league chefs from expensive, establishment-type restaurants, laptop computers, camping gear, etc.. provided by CORPORATIONS. The AUTHORITIES(Cities and towns) pay for clean-up when those folks are periodically forced to leave the public park they occupied (of course, they're allowed back, free of charge, when the cleaning's done).

    Hollywood (establishment) stars show up to provide support/publicity (Anne Hathaway, Kanye West, etc). Major CORPORATIONS ostentatiously state their support (Ben&Jerry;'s Ice Cream - subsidiary of Unilever Corporation, Men's Wearhouse, etc.)

    NOW, let's look at the authority's support for those "authority-respecting" conservatives (as our shrinky-dink author tags them)of the Tea Party:

    The media and president ignore them for as long as they possibly can (the president, when first asked about them states he's never heard of them. CNN reporters argue the authority's case with them at protests. They are held strictly to the law in holding their protest, made of fill out ALL of the authority's paperwork, pay ALL of the fee's including paying for all clean-up and for security and NOT allowed to stay overnight. Not even ONE night. Such is the disparity with which they're treated that Tea Party groups sue local AUTHORITIES to recover the fees and clean-up/security charges they had to pay in light of the fact the AUTHORITIES paid for those libs (who supposedly don't respect authority).


    NOW, Mr. Shrink, which group is a front for the establishment, and which isn't?
    Sheesh, I am SO tired of the establishment using the shrinks as apologists for their depredations. Truly, this is like the former USSR. Lame.

    Oh, and And now they have jackwagons like this author assuring us that these losers are most concerned with "fairness" - like requests that the taxpayers forgive all their undergrad and grad school tuition, just cuz. And they should be GIVEN jobs, just cuz- particularly in light of the fact that most of them are in the 1% -compared to the REST OF THE WORLD - which these supposed "internationalists" are a part of. Yes, right, they're internationalists. Of course. Riight.

  • Mitch||

    Fuck OWS....bunch of commie terds.

  • ||

    More accurately, the liberal media immediate being anyalyzing which evil corporate sponspors must be behind the tea Party and concocts explanations as to why they are "astroturf" campaigns that shouldn't be taken seriously.

    I don't think I heard the word "astroturf" uttered once with regard to OWS, even when the SEIU showed up to march with them.

  • ||

    I heard plenty of George Soros astroturf talk going on.. It seemed to me like the media was ignoring them at first too until it was just to big to ignore anymore. In the beginning I thought OWS was a great idea. I started going to the meetings and such. It turns out there are some decent people in the group, unfortunately most of them are loud obnoxious Marxist, Anarchist, and other anti-Capitalists. I just want to see a level playing field, not redistribution of wealth, student loan forgiveness or any of that trash..

  • ||

    "This is a community sacred space. Please feel free to contribute something to the altar"

    If I had been there I would have contributed that "Nothing is sacred" sign.

  • RealityCheck||

    Another myth about liberals I forgot to mention: "My colleagues and I find that liberals score higher than conservatives and libertarians on all measures of compassion and empathy. "

    This doesn't match the fact that non-liberals give more than liberals to charity. Non-liberals don't equate government spending with compassion. They equate it with the opposite, intolerance and liberals selfishly stealing from others to assuage their liberal guilt and feel better about themselves rather than necessarily being truly out of concern for others.

    In contrast to liberals who pay lip service to self esteem, many non-liberals empathize with the plight of others but recognize that people will feel better about themselves if they find a way to earn a living rather than relying on charity and developing an addiction to dependency.

    Liberals have difficulty empathizing with those who don't wish the government to force them to waste their money on government social programs rather than giving money to charitable causes that work or investing it in companies that create jobs which solve the problems liberals whine about.

    Many feel liberals don't truly care about others since they are unwilling to truly try to improve the human condition by doing the (to them apparently) the difficult job of understanding how the real world works vs. their naive fantasies of it. i.e. to understand business and real economics (the sort that recognizes that often dealing with aggregates is often done by those that don't have a clue about business and how it works). They don't care enough to learn about things like public choice economics and regulatory capture to understand how governments actually work rather than relying on wishful thinking about how they'd like them to work.

  • 16th amendment||

    Awesome post.

    This came up on the 5 on Friday, where the liberal said conservatives give more because they have more money.

    Also, liberals care about uplifting the poor a lot because they don't have to pay for it. Now let them pay some taxes, and they might become republicans.

    I took Caltrain back from San Francisco yesterday (New Year's eve). It was free. But it was so crowded. As soon as they opened the doors people from all directions ran to get into the train, pushing each other. So uncivilized. Now why on earth people bring their kids in strollers is beyond me, but a lady was there with her baby, and I have no idea why anyone would bring their babies out, but people started pushing the stroller from all sides. I tried my best to take some hits so the stroller wouldn't get hit. Anyway, when we got into the train, we waited another 15 minutes, so there was no need for all this pushing.

    Some interesting observations: (1) most people there were liberal (this is SF, and they looked liberal, and I heard a black lady who moved from Canada talking about how white women here were bitches) and did any of this mass of people care about the baby, running over each other? (2) free prices bring out the uncivilized in people. We took BART into the city, which was full price, and there were no problems.

  • Tony||

    The charitable giving numbers reflect the fact that more conservatives are religious, and religion is in part organized charity.

    But liberals have done far more good for the lives of human beings on a larger scale by helping secure equality of the franchise and economic policies that created the middle class and coincident widespread prosperity. Ensuring that everyone benefits in one's society's prosperity is better than mere charity.

  • Red Rocks Rockin||

    But liberals have done far more good for the lives of human beings on a larger scale by helping secure equality of the franchise and economic policies that created the middle class and coincident widespread prosperity.

    The middle class was already around before Progressivism, Tony. I realize you think that it was all uber-rich/desperate poor before 1916, but that doesn't necessarily mean your version of history is the correct one.

  • Tony||

    I'm not sure what you're referring to, but the middle class in America is generally understood as the thing created by the GI bill and other programs after WWII.

    I'm not denying capitalism's important role: the economy has to be prosperous and growing to sustain a middle class. Liberalism's task is to make sure the prosperity is shared. Not because they are thieving communists, but because it's the fair, democratic, and practical thing to do.

    Whatever it was that created the middle class, it was Reaganomics that largely destroyed it.

  • Red Rocks Rockin||

    I'm not sure what you're referring to, but the middle class in America is generally understood as the thing created by the GI bill and other programs after WWII.

    Um, no--the middle class is generally understood as those who were not amongst the common laborers, corporate executives, or aristocrats. They were generally the merchant and banker classes, and they made up the majority of businesses that American towns were built on through most of the country's history. Despite what your professors told you, there was a sizable middle class in this country long before government started sticking its fingers into everything.

    Liberalism's task is to make sure the prosperity is shared. Not because they are thieving communists, but because it's the fair, democratic, and practical thing to do.

    That might be liberalism's goal, but not progressivism's. Their motto has been and ever will be, "We need more, you have more." And the latter philosophy is what you and your fellow travelers aspire to.

    Whatever it was that created the middle class, it was Reaganomics that largely destroyed it.

    Reaganomics didn't do anything more than stave off for 30 years what began in the early 1970s--a gutting of the industrial economy brought about by the ever-increasing power of the EPA, and and the gradual destruction of the lower classes' ability to maintain social stability thanks to the Great Society and its mandate of perpetual government intervention. Not to mention the burgeoning influence of the academic class which promoted blue-collar work as something to "rise above" rather than the brick and mortar which held a country's economy together. Reaganomics was just the final attempt to kick the can of our downturn a bit further down the road.

  • XTimbers Coalition||

    Your Dream Party of benevolent liberals is a distant, faded dream that has been restaffed by jack-booted neo-progressives. Witness the DHS, War State, NDAA: these are not the lone province of the religious right -- look at Obama's actions.

  • Erath||

    Huh. Who knew "Steal from other people to give me free shit" counts as a moral foundation...

  • XTimbers Coalition||

    Or, forgive my student loan and I won't protest the war very loudly.

  • nanda||

    Haidt says that liberals are wary of authority, that is true only in regard to traditional authority. liberals are very much in favor of communistic leftwing big gov authority. Many years ago I had a conversation with someone who said that a fence between the US and Mexico was the same as the Berlin wall. I explained that the wall was to keep people from leaving, if not for that, the majority of the populace would have left. the US has no problem with people leaving, they are free to go. My friend saw no problem with forcing people to stay. she considered the west to be totally tyrannical, yet the fact that people wanted to leave East Germany she attributed to some kind of brain washing. If she had been better read, she would have talked about "false consciousness" a la Marx.

  • first||

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  • 16th amendment||

    OWS folk might not like authority, but their supposed policies (higher taxes, forced confiscation of wealth as in "private ownership is theft") lead to greater police powers, and along with it, greater authority. All dictators started off with ideas with a strong freedom-liberty ring. Even FDR had to increase the state, authority, regulation in order for liberal ends, which in their conception reference nothing about authority.

  • ||

    So, the moral of OWS is that hatred of oppression (or, more likely, of being oppressed) is much stronger than love of liberty (especially re other people’s); hating injustice is easy, while understanding just what justice is, is a bit fuzzy; and the the rich must be hated far more than the poor are loved? So, basically it's fun to hate things.

  • pablo||

    When I saw Professor Haidt's TED Talk, I was as excited as when I read Hayek. I thought this 5-axis stuff might be the answer, combining political science with evolutionary psychology. Then I downloaded his papers and actually read the questions he posed to his test groups. It was obvious that the fuzzy ambiguous multi-value nature of the questions let him put any question in any category and then he could skew the answers to fit his hypothesis. So rather than being the pathway to truth, I see all this as just an exercise in multi-dismal opinion. The dismal sciences of economics, psychology, and political theory combined. Judging complex value systems based on the signs people carry is pretty laughable, as is ascribing values to en entire group of people who you haven't even talked to. Oh, that would take social skills, and libertarians are, well.... just look at the comments in this thread to see what libertarians are like. I especially like the porn links. I am sure the editors, being good libertarians, feel that the market will take care of it, rather than moderating the comments. Then again, the Kochsucker lead-off comment was pretty precious, I never heard that one before. Maybe they have Doherty put it in as a troll comment to get all the irrelevant comments flowing from the true believers.

  • lol||

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    Related Zuccotti Park » Wall Street protesters » New York City Police Department » New York police arrest dozens of anti-Wall Street protestersReuters68 Occupy demonstrators arrested in New YorkCNN InternationalHighly Cited:OWS mob in clash with copsNew York PostFrom New York:Ellen Barkin tweets video of cop pushing her during New Year's Eve Occupy Wall ...New York Daily NewsSee all 239 sources »

    Daily Mail Manhunt at Mount Rainier after park ranger killed
    CNN - ‎1 hour ago‎

    By the CNN Wire Staff (CNN) -- Authorities scoured the national park around Washington's Mount Rainier on Sunday for a man they say fatally shot a park ranger and fled into the woods, a park spokeswoman said.
    Related Mount Rainier National Park » Park ranger killed by gunman in national parkCBS NewsMt. Rainier park ranger shot to death; suspect soughtLos Angeles TimesSee all 367 sources »

    CTV.ca About 5000 birds were found dead in the same town last New Year's Eve
    CNN International - ‎1 hour ago‎

    (CNN) -- For the second year in a row, dozens of blackbirds died overnight Saturday in Beebe, Arkansas, apparently after being startled by New Year's Eve fireworks, an official with the state's Game and Fish Commission said Sunday.
    Related Dead blackbirds » Arkansas » Not as many dead blackbirds in Ark. town this yearThe Associated PressBlackbirds Fall Out of the Sky in ArkansasABC NewsFrom Arkansas:Beebe blackbirds were targeted by fireworksToday's THVSee all 306 sources »

    USA TODAY After Giffords shooting, civility still elusive
    USA TODAY - ‎53 minutes ago‎

    By Shaun Mckinnon, The Arizona Republic PHOENIX - The finger-pointing started before authorities had even confirmed that one of the victims of a shooting rampage near Tucson was Rep. Gabrielle Giffords.
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    CTV.ca 450 take the Polar Bear Plunge into Lake Michigan
    Chicago Daily Herald - ‎37 minutes ago‎

    By Gilbert R. Boucher II Bravery or lunacy? Whatever you attribute it to, the 450 people who plunged into Lake Michigan Sunday won both bragging rights for themselves and benefits for special recreation in Lake County.
    Related Polar bear plunge » New Year » Cold and Wet New Year At Swimming ClubSacramento BeeWisconsin man, 82, calls 60th polar bear plunge his lastChicago TribuneIn Depth:Hundreds join L Street Brownies in annual New Year's Day polar bear plungeBoston.comSee all 219 sources »
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    Bloomberg Euro Leaders Aim to Buy Time to Save Currency
    Bloomberg - ‎1 hour ago‎

    Enlarge image Euro Euro Simon Dawson/Bloomberg A Euro sign sculpture stands in front of the European Central Bank's (ECB) headquarters in Frankfurt on Dec. 29, 2011.
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    The Guardian Venezuela Seen Getting Off 'Lightly' In $908 Million Exxon Payment
    Wall Street Journal - ‎52 minutes ago‎

    By KEJAL VYAS And ANGEL GONZALEZ CARACAS - An international arbitration panel awarded US oil major Exxon Mobil Corp. about $908 million in a verdict over oil assets nationalized by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez in 2007, the company said late ...
    Related Venezuela » ExxonMobil » REFILE-UPDATE 4-Exxon wins less than expected from Venezuela disputeChicago TribuneVenezuela Is Ordered to Pay $900 Million to Exxon MobilNew York TimesIn Depth:Exxon awarded $908 million to compensate for Venezuelan nationalizationWashington PostSee all 162 sources »

    Sydney Morning Herald Manufacturing in China Grows Only Slightly in December
    New York Times - ‎3 hours ago‎

    BEIJING - Big manufacturers in China narrowly avoided a contraction in December a survey showed Sunday, but downward risks persist and suggest that the Chinese economy will need fresh policy support to counter a slowdown in growth.
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    Boston.com Pricey picks: Powerball lottery tickets will double in price to $2 beginning ...
    Washington Post - ‎3 hours ago‎

    DES MOINES, Iowa - Powerball lottery organizers are betting that bigger jackpots will entice more people to play, but gamblers are going to have to dig deeper into their wallets to try their luck.
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    CNET Will someone besides Amazon release the next Kindle tablet?
    CNET - ‎Dec 30, 2011‎

    by Eric Mack December 30, 2011 3:21 PM PST Follow @ericcmack Amazon sold millions of Kindles this holiday season, led by the company's first-ever tablet, the Kindle Fire, leaving some analysts wondering if other Android tablets might soon be flavored ...
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    BBC News Apple's Jonathan Ive gets knighthood in honours list
    BBC News - ‎Dec 30, 2011‎

    Jonathan Ive, Apple's head of design, has been awarded a knighthood in the New Year Honours list. Mr Ive, who can now style himself Sir Jonathan, has been made a Knight Commander of the British Empire (KBE).
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    Mirror.co.uk Katy Perry plans getaway to Mexico with Rihanna to get over split from Russell ...
    Mirror.co.uk - ‎41 minutes ago‎

    by Sarah Tetteh, Daily Mirror 2/01/2012 CRUSHED Katy Perry is being whisked away to Mexico by Rihanna following her split from Russell Brand.
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    KOvideo Mac Miller Brings 'Party' To 'NYE In NYC 2012'
    MTV.com - ‎5 hours ago‎

    During Saturday night's live MTV special, MC re-creates '80s -inspired 'Party on Fifth Ave' video. By James Dinh NEW YORK - Underground-turned-chart topping MC Mac Miller was treated quite nicely by 2011, and he ended the year on a high note when he ...
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    New York Times Shiny Bibelot From Shakespeare, Handel & Co.
    New York Times - ‎2 hours ago‎

    Forget “Auld Lang Syne.” The best music to ring in a new year is “Now a bright new day is dawning,” the joyous chorus that ends “The Enchanted Island,” the inventive concoction that had its premiere on Saturday night at the Metropolitan Opera.
    Related Plácido Domingo » Review: "Enchanted Island" a clever Met concoctionSan Jose Mercury News'The Enchanted Island' A Mashup Of Classic MastersNPRSee all 27 sources »

    E! Online Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez's Late Night New Year's Eve Party
    E! Online - ‎1 hour ago‎

    Got a question, comment, or just want to say "Hi?" Email what you've got to MarcMalkin@comcastnets.com. Just because Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez performed on different New Year's Eve television specials last night, doesn't mean they didn't get to ...
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    USA TODAY Colts lose to Jaguars, win Andrew Luck sweepstakes
    USA TODAY - ‎15 minutes ago‎

    JACKSONVILLE, Fla. (AP) - Peyton Manning insists he hasn't thought much about the NFL draft. By Matt Stamey, US Presswire Colts quarterback Dan Orlovsky (6) sits on the filed after losing a fumble in the second half of his team's game against the ...
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    USA TODAY Week 17 overview: Bengals, Broncos in; Pats get home field
    USA TODAY - ‎4 minutes ago‎

    By Nate Davis, USA TODAY With the regular season coming to an end Sunday, Week 17 has proven to be an eventful day in the NFL. The Huddle's blow-by-blow look at where the playoff picture stands: 7:28 pm: The Chargers knock off the Raiders 38-26, ...
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    USA TODAY Failed two-point try gives Titans win over Texans
    USA TODAY - ‎27 minutes ago‎

    HOUSTON (AP) - The Tennessee Titans' regular-season finale came down to a two-point conversion. By Troy Taormina, US Presswire Nate Washington (85) catches a fourth-quarter 23-yard touchdown pass from Matt Hasselbeck to give the Titans the lead .
    Related Houston Texans » Tennessee Titans » Matt Hasselbeck » Hasselbeck throws 2 TDs as Titans hold off Texans 23-22; playoff fate still ...Washington PostTexans lose 3rd in row, 23-22 to TitansThe Associated PressFrom Texas:Texans loss to Titans has silver liningFS HoustonFrom Tennessee:Tennessee Titans Survive To Keep Playoff Hopes AliveClarksville OnlineSee all 429 sources »

    FOXSports.com Dolphins end season with win; eliminate Jets from playoffs
    Chicago Tribune - ‎47 minutes ago‎

    A year ago, the Miami Dolphins were in a similar position. They were already eliminated from the postseason and playing in a meaningless game.
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    ESPN Kings: Cousins demands trade
    ESPN - ‎4 minutes ago‎

    AP SACRAMENTO, Calif. -- The Sacramento Kings say DeMarcus Cousins has demanded a trade and has been told to stay away from the team.
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    BBC News Nasa's gravity twins now circling Moon
    BBC News - ‎1 hour ago‎

    By Jonathan Amos Science correspondent, BBC News The US space agency (Nasa) has succeeded in placing two new satellites in orbit around the Moon.
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    msnbc.com NASA: Quadrantids meteor shower on display
    The State Column - ‎2 hours ago‎

    The 2012 Quadrantids, a little-known meteor shower named after an extinct constellation, will present an excellent chance for stargazers searching for some late-night meteor watching.
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    New York Times Insight: Shortage of ADHD drug Adderall seen persisting
    Reuters - ‎1 hour ago‎

    By Toni Clarke | BOSTON (Reuters) - A shortage of Adderall, which is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, shows little sign of easing as manufacturers struggle to get enough active ingredient to make the drug and demand climbs.
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    Daily Mail Counting the cost of the implant debacle
    Daily Mail - ‎31 minutes ago‎

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    CTV.ca Chinese bus driver infected with bird flu dies in city bordering Hong Kong
    Washington Post - ‎7 minutes ago‎

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    Fox News Facebook Could Be Route to New Kidney
    TIME - ‎2 hours ago‎

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  • lol||

    Please read: A thank you
    from Wikimedia Foundation
    Executive Director Sue Gardner
    Read now
    Ulmus parvifolia 'King's Choice'From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    Ulmus parvifolia
    Details
    Cultivar 'King's Choice'
    Origin Maryland, USA
    The Chinese Elm Ulmus parvifolia cultivar 'King's Choice' is one of the early American selections best known for its winter hardiness, able to withstand temperatures of -30 deg. Celsius. It was patented in 1985.

    Contents [hide]
    1 Description
    2 Pests and diseases
    3 Cultivation
    4 Etymology
    5 Accessions
    5.1 North America
    6 References

    [edit] DescriptionBushy in shape, its leaves turn yellow in autumn, but the cultivar lacks the attractive mottled bark for which the species is renowned[1][2].

    [edit] Pests and diseasesThe species and its cultivars are highly resistant, but not immune, to Dutch elm disease, and unaffected by the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola [1].

    [edit] CultivationThe tree featured in the elm trials [2] conducted by Northern Arizona University at Holbrook, eastern Arizona. 'King's Choice' is not known to be in cultivation in Europe or Australasia.

    [edit] EtymologyThe tree was named for Benjamin J. King, who made the original selection at King's Men Tree Farms, Hampstead, Maryland.

    [edit] Accessions[edit] North AmericaArnold Arboretum. Acc. no. 287-95
    Holden Arboretum. Acc. no. 92-94
    [edit] References^ HortScience, Vol. 26: 290-292 (1991).
    ^ Santamour, F. S., & Bentz, S. E. Updated checklist of elm (Ulmus) cultivars for use in North America. Journal of Arboriculture, 21(3): May, 1995.


    This Ulmaceae article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e

    Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ulmus_parvifolia_'King's_Choice'&oldid=425969908"
    Categories: Elm cultivarsUlmaceae stubsHidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformats
    Personal toolsLog in / create account NamespacesArticle Discussion VariantsViewsRead Edit View history ActionsSearch NavigationMain page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia InteractionHelp About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia ToolboxWhat links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Print/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionThis page was last modified on 26 April 2011 at 07:14.

    Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details.
    Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

    Contact us
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  • lol||

    Please read: A thank you
    from Wikimedia Foundation
    Executive Director Sue Gardner
    Read now
    Pietrărie TransmitterFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    Pietrăria transmitter (Romanian: Releul Pietrărie) is a 180 metres tall guyed mast for FM-/TV-broadcasting at Pietrăria, a village near Iaşi, Romania. Pietrăria transmitter has a square cross section and is much thicker than most other guyed masts of similar height.

    Deondrological park of Repedea is situated in the vicinity of the transmitter.

    [edit] See alsoList of tallest structures in Romania
    Seven hills of Iaşi
    [edit] ReferencesPredavatel.ro
    Coordinates: 47°05′09″N 27°38′48″E / 47.08583°N 27.64667°E / 47.08583; 27.64667
    Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pietrărie_Transmitter&oldid=340346708"
    Categories: Towers in RomaniaHidden categories: Articles containing Romanian language text
    Personal toolsLog in / create account NamespacesArticle Discussion VariantsViewsRead Edit View history ActionsSearch NavigationMain page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia InteractionHelp About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia ToolboxWhat links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Print/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable versionThis page was last modified on 27 January 2010 at 15:42.

    Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details.
    Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

    Contact us
    Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Mobile view

  • lol||

    Damn it, this server is extremely resiliant most servers would have crashed from this much spam. What kind of users is this website used to combating?

  • lol||

    Damn it, this server is extremely resiliant most servers would have crashed from this much spam. What kind of users is this website used to combating?

  • lol||

    Damn it, this server is extremely resiliant most servers would have crashed from this much spam. What kind of users is this website used to combating?

  • lol||

    Damn it, this server is extremely resiliant most servers would have crashed from this much spam. What kind of users is this website used to combating?

  • lol||

    Damn it, this server is extremely resiliant most servers would have crashed from this much spam. What kind of users is this website used to combating?

  • ShiverMeTimbers Coalition||

    Orientation challenged, upper-middle-class meat-eschewing political class drones.

  • Sevo||

    "Tony|1.1.12 @ 8:07PM|#
    "I'm not sure what you're referring to, but the middle class in America is generally understood as the thing created by the GI bill and other programs after WWII."

    Uh, no, shithead. That's a lie.

  • mgd||

    It's understood to mean that when you define the middle-class as "the thing created by the GI bill and other programs after WWII".

  • Sevo||

    Tony|1.1.12 @ 3:08PM|#
    "The charitable giving numbers reflect the fact that more conservatives are religious, and religion is in part organized charity."

    You just made that up, shithead. You don't have a single source to support that lie, shithead.

  • ||

    "If OWS protesters engage in acts of violence, flag desecration, destruction of private property, or anything else that makes them seem subversive or anti-American, then I think most Americans will quickly reject them."

    If? Must not have done any research for this story.

  • دردشة العراق||

    Thank you

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  • Scott||

    The Moral Foundations Theory has 5 foundations, and said to be a starting point. But then a judgement is made about "balance" since for "conservatives" all 5 foundations are important. If, for the sake of argument, I accept all 5 foundations, what is the evidence that these are co-equal foundations? And can be used to draw any conclusions about "balance"?

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