The Gatekeeper

How a little bureaucratic office became the biggest impediment to Barack Obama’s health care plans

It was January 2009, and Democrats were triumphant. Their party had won major victories in both the House and the Senate, and Barack Obama, arguably the most economically left-wing president in decades, had just won the White House on a promise to finally achieve what had eluded liberals for so long: universal health care.

As the new era unfolded in Washington, plans for overhauling one-sixth of the economy began to take shape. Health care reforms, Democrats vowed, would extend insurance to every American and be fully paid for without requiring middle-class tax hikes, all while cutting costs significantly enough to save the country from financial catastrophe. To sell these claims the party trotted out one of the most respected number-crunchers in town, Office of Management and Budget Director Peter Orszag, a former Brookings Institution health care expert obsessed with cost cutting. With 60 votes in the Senate, nothing seemed to stand in the Democrats’ way.

Nothing, that is, except the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), a nonpartisan federal agency that until this year was run by none other than Peter Orszag. As drafts of various health care bills began to emerge on Capitol Hill, the CBO, responsible for devising Congress’ official legislative cost estimates (known as “scores”), released a series of reports that demolished key Democratic claims. According to the CBO, both the “tri-committee” bill proposed in the House and the bill proposed in the Senate Finance Committee would cost in excess of $1 trillion over 10 years, might leave tens of millions uninsured, and would not curb rising health care costs. Indeed, both would add substantially to the budget deficit in the long term. As the year progressed, the CBO proved a more effective check against key elements of the Democrats’ domestic agenda than anything concocted by Republican strategists or libertarian wonks. In an October article, The Washington Post concluded that the CBO had “essentially condemned two legislative proposals by slapping them with trillion-dollar price tags.”

Created as an afterthought and initially intended as a low-profile congressional calculation service, the CBO has quietly risen to a place of unique prominence and power in Washington policy debates. Widely cited and almost universally respected, it is treated as judge and referee, resolving disputes about what policies will cost and how they will work.

But the agency’s authority is belied by the highly speculative nature of its work, which requires an endless succession of unverifiable assumptions. These assumptions are frequently treated as definitive, as if on faith. In practice, this means the CBO is not merely an impartial legislative scorekeeper but a keeper of the nation’s budgetary myths, a clan of spreadsheet-wielding priests whose declarations become Washington’s holy writ.

Birth of a Budget Office

The CBO’s history goes back to the 1974 Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act, one of many mid-’70s attempts to wrest back power from an executive branch that had expanded to new levels under President Richard Nixon. The act, which passed over Nixon’s veto, was part of an ongoing effort to get Congress more involved in the budgeting process, which many legislators felt was too dominated by the White House. It launched the House and Senate Budget Committees, changed the way the annual budget was prepared, and created the Congressional Budget Office.

Few in Congress knew what the new agency would look like. As CBO Special Assistant David Mundel recalled in a 1988 case study prepared for Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, “I don’t think anybody had the faintest idea what this place would be—if it would be two people, if it would be a group that advised the budget committees only, if it would ever come to exist.”

Before birthing their new bureaucracy, the House and Senate had to reconcile sharply different ideas about how the agency would be run. The House, according to then–Special Assistant and later CBO Director Robert Reischauer in the Harvard study, wanted a quiet, low-profile organization, “basically a manhole in which Congress would have a bill or something and it would lift up the manhole cover and put the bill down it, and you would hear grinding noises, and twenty minutes later a piece of paper would be handed up with the cost estimate.” It was to be “noncontroversial, the way the sewer system is.”

The Senate, by contrast, envisioned a more prominent office, one that would provide not only calculations but extensive analysis—a full-service congressional think tank. After a protracted power struggle, the Senate conception won out. Senate Budget Committee Chairman Ed Muskie (D-Maine) helped pick the economist Alice Rivlin as the first CBO chief, with a mandate to remain objective and nonpartisan, providing detailed analysis but avoiding policy recommendations.

Rivlin had been (and remains) a senior fellow at the center-left Brookings Institution, where she has worked, on and off, in various capacities since 1957. Now 78, Rivlin is a petite woman with short, dark hair, and the wry, knowing confidence of a longtime Washington hand. She holds a visiting professorship at Georgetown University’s Public Policy Institute, serves on the board of the New York Stock Exchange, and was a 1983 recipient of the MacArthur Foundation’s “genius” grant. Rivlin was not merely the first head of the CBO; she was one of the agency’s architects as well, quickly expanding its mission beyond what even the Senate had in mind.

Early on, Rivlin pushed for, and received, independence in hiring. Staffing on Capitol Hill back then was rife with nepotism—Rivlin has described it as a “schmoozy, good ol’ boy Hill culture”—and those making hiring decisions were expected to play along when powerful legislators sent their former staffers out with recommendations. Muskie largely shielded Rivlin from such expectations.

Thanks both to Muskie’s protection and the agency’s vague conception, Rivlin had a great deal of leeway to staff and organize the CBO as she saw fit. Disregarding the Senate’s estimate that 158 staffers would be sufficient, Rivlin and her initial team hired 259 instead, every one of whom she made a point to interview herself.

Rivlin’s goal was for the CBO to be respected by the budgeting community. Analysts kept their judgments conservative by relying on pre-existing economic models. Even when pressed by legislators, Rivlin says, she “religiously” avoided policy endorsements. The result was an agency that quickly attained a high degree of respect and authority on Capitol Hill.

From the beginning, CBO figures provided meaningful reality checks for big-ticket items on both parties’ legislative wish lists. In 1975, for example, the agency estimated that a health care bill proposed by Ted Kennedy would cost $185 billion over five years—three times higher than the number put forth by Kennedy’s staff. In the 1980s, Rivlin turned the CBO into a staunch opponent of Ronald Reagan’s supply-side economics, insisting that tax cuts could not bring in enough revenue to pay for themselves.

Though there has been some periodic pushback against the agency, over the years the CBO has accumulated enough authority to be seen as one of the last honest arbiters in Washington. As Brookings budget analyst Henry Aaron recently told The American Prospect, “It’s not infrequent to hear people say it doesn’t make any difference what [a bill] really costs. It only matters what CBO says it costs.” When the president declared during a September 2009 prime time address that he would not sign a health care bill unless it was deficit neutral, the universal assumption was that the CBO would make that particular call.

But looking into the future is an inherently uncertain enterprise, as much magic as science. Just how accurate is the CBO’s crystal ball?

Making Assumptions

During the last major push for health care reform, under President Bill Clinton in 1994, the CBO drew up a model of the existing system, extended that model into the future, and calculated how the future would change under the proposed legislation. In doing so, the agency made scores of estimates and assumptions, both about the state of the existing system and how millions of individuals might react to the proposed changes.

In order to determine how much the bill would cost, it had to account for dozens upon dozens of variables, including how many people had health insurance and how many didn’t, how many people with insurance got it through an employer, what types of plans those people had, the total amounts of their premiums, the percentages of the premiums the employers paid, the coverage and cost-sharing requirements of those plans, whether or not uninsured individuals had options to obtain insurance and what those options might be, the health of the insured, the frequency and type of care used by the insured, the nature and size of the companies providing insurance for their workers and the business reasons that led them to do so, regional breakdowns of health care use patterns, how new treatments and new medical technologies would change medical practices and costs, the impact of hospital consolidations and other developments in the business of medicine, how enforceable and effective new cost controls would be, and what choices patients would make with regard to doctors, medicines, and treatments under the proposed legislation.

To build their working model, CBO analysts worked with data pieced “together from several inadequate or dated surveys and sources,” according to a 1995 article in the journal Health Affairs by Robert Reischauer and Linda T. Billheimer, the CBO’s director and deputy assistant director, respectively, during the 1994 debate. Surveys and census data were used to the greatest extent possible, but by and large the necessary information simply did not exist. So the analysts did what they could, and what they still do today: They guessed. Specifically, they estimated that the Clinton plan would raise the deficit by about $70 billion over the first six years, contradicting the White House’s estimate that the proposal would lower the deficit by $60 billion.

To be sure, their guesswork is as good as it comes. On the left and the right, most economists will testify to the CBO’s general excellence. Even those who criticize the office tend to do so delicately. In an August New York Times op-ed arguing that the agency’s health care numbers were consistently unreliable, Jon Gabel, a senior fellow at the University of Chicago’s National Opinion Research Center, began by praising the office for its competence, integrity, and well-earned respect.

Nevertheless, even good guesswork is still guesswork. As the George Mason economist Arnold Kling says, “it is literally an impossible task” to accurately make the sort of projections the CBO specializes in. “We don’t do controlled experiments in economics,” Kling says. “So when you’re talking about figuring out the effects of health care policy, it’s very difficult.”

Part of the difficulty is that the CBO is trying to replicate systems it can’t really see. To understand the problems with building an economic model, consider what it takes to make a working scale-model train. To build that train, you’d first need accurate information about how the full-size train works: how big its parts are, at what speed those parts move, its power consumption and control system. Imagine trying to build a model train without ever being allowed to look inside the engine compartment. A smart engineer would be able to make reasonably educated guesses about the internal workings by measuring the outside and by looking at various external controls, but those guesses would almost certainly come with a high margin of error.

That’s no small part of the problem for the CBO. When scoring legislation, they’re essentially trying to build small-scale working models of systems using fairly limited data sets. For example, according to Reischauer and Billheimer, the National Health Interview Survey provided CBO analysts with data on “health insurance coverage, health states, use of health services and socioeconomic variables.” But these sources provided “no data on premiums or cost-sharing requirements, and no indication of the exact share of premiums paid by employers.”

These days, CBO analysts are scoring bills using intricate computer simulations based in large part on survey data. The raw information is interpreted through academic research on how human beings respond to various economic assumptions. In an interview with The Washington Post, the CBO’s chief health care analyst, Phil Ellis, compared the process to playing Sim City, a computer game that simulates urban development. But even the best model is still only as good as its input data. And for policies that have no real-world antecedent, it’s extremely difficult to come up with accurate input data.

In theory, it would at least be possible to know with reasonable precision, say, what the spread of employer contributions to the cost of health insurance actually looks like. But all the data in the world still wouldn’t solve the main problem: human beings. According to Jim Manzi, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute and the founder of an applied artificial intelligence company, “The fundamental problem is that no one has a good model of the human mind.” We can know what people have done, but not why they did it, and certainly not how that reasoning will translate into future decisions. Moreover, Manzi notes, “It’s not just one mind. It’s many human minds interacting.”

A capable modeler can introduce variables to adjust for any number of factors. But the more detailed a model, the more moving parts it needs. Inside every CBO formula is a patchwork of sketchy assumptions about both human behavior and the state of the current system, many of which, as in the case of Clinton’s health care plan, are backed by remarkably little data. Each of these assumptions increases uncertainty.

The CBO, to its credit, is entirely open about both the significant uncertainties in its reports and the general problem of modeling. Testifying to Congress in 2002 about the agency’s budget projections, former CBO chief Rudolph Penner was blunt: “No one forecasts anything very well. That is true whether one looks at pundits forecasting the course of the war in Afghanistan, demographers forecasting worldwide birth rates, or pollsters forecasting the French presidential election.” He was equally candid in his assessment of the CBO’s work. “I recently studied the history of errors,” he said, “and I would like to submit my results for the record. They are pretty discouraging.”

Penner’s testimony focused on the CBO’s woeful record in both budget forecasting and estimating “revenue and expenditure feedbacks”—basically, in correctly identifying behavioral responses to policy changes. On the budget, Penner noted that “the average error made in the forecast of the budget balance used to formulate the budget resolution is over $100 billion for the first year covered by the resolution and over $400 billion five years out” and that “the projection for the budget balance in 2007 changed over $800 billion between early 1997 and the summer of 2000.”

Less wonky are the criticisms made by partisans. CBO scores frequently provoke annoyance from both Democrats and Republicans, although the complaints tend to center on different issues.

For Democrats, the CBO’s biggest sin is its failure to score savings from changes to government-run health care programs. In July Bruce Vladeck, formerly a top staffer at the Health Care Financing Administration, argued in Roll Call that “the CBO has routinely overestimated the costs of expanded government health care benefits and underestimated the savings from program changes designed to reduce expenditures,” pointing specifically to its overestimation of the five-year cost of the Medicare prescription drug benefit. Sen. Max Baucus (D-Mont.), chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, huffed at a February hearing that “we’re not in the old situation where whatever the CBO says is God.”

Republicans, on the other hand, tend to worry more about the office’s record on taxes. According to a report that the Joint Economic Committee, a panel of economic advisers to Congress, prepared for then-Rep. Dick Armey (R-Tex.), CBO analyses in 1989 and 1990 “failed to take into account the effects of higher capital gains taxes after 1986, producing huge forecasting errors.” In a 2003 essay for National Review Online, Rep. Mark Kirk (R-Ill.) noted the office’s repeated failures to accurately forecast the budget and complained that the agency did not do enough to provide “real-world estimates that account for the interaction between federal taxes, federal programs, and individual behavior.”

But the agency’s inaccuracies must be judged relatively. “They’re the second worst source of forecasts on the effects of health care policy,” says Arnold Kling. “As far as the worst, all the rest are tied. I’m sure that their forecasts are flawed and subject to huge error. But the next question to ask is: Compared to what?”

Manzi concurs. “No matter how bad the situation is,” he says, “would no scorekeeper at all be even worse?”

Other approaches are unlikely to produce better results. Releasing a range of scores, for example, would underline the uncertainties, but it would also provide greater ammunition to partisans, who would simply pick the numbers that favored their position. Rivlin contends that the question is moot. “Decisions have to be made in light of the best information available,” she says. “There isn’t really an alternative.”

Not Just a Scorekeeper

With the estimated costs for the Senate and House health care bills both coming in at $1 trillion or more, the CBO proved one of the most powerful roadblocks for the president’s agenda over the summer. But anyone depending on the CBO to blockade reform reliably will be disappointed.

When the Senate Finance Committee released the preliminary draft of its health care bill in September 2009, the accompanying CBO analysis reported that the legislation, as written, would reduce the budget deficit over the next two decades. This projection was based on the highly dubious assumption that Congress would follow through on the bill’s proposed Medicare payment cuts—cuts Congress has been loath to make in the past. The report acknowledged these past failures, but the CBO is prohibited from making judgments about the likelihood that Congress will keep its own promises.

After a year of relying on the CBO’s scores to prove the high cost and disastrous deficit effects of health care reform, congressional Republicans and other ObamaCare opponents were suddenly faced with an analysis that confirmed the Democrats’ most contentious fiscal point: that over time the changes would more than pay for themselves. The CBO projection of deficit reduction was arguably the best break the Democrats had gotten in months. The bill’s prospects improved overnight.

But based on what? The CBO admitted in its report that its “estimates are all subject to substantial uncertainty,” particularly those dealing with deficit effects in the second decade. Yet neither the inherent uncertainty nor Congress’ history of reneging on planned Medicare cuts had much effect on the ensuing debate. All that mattered was the score.

The CBO had effectively given the bill a go-ahead—and revealed, once again, how influential the agency is in determining the success or failure of major legislation. It’s not just the scorekeeper; it’s the gatekeeper.

“That,” Rivlin says carefully, “is what I’ve known all along.”

Peter Suderman is an associate editor at reason.

Editor's Note: We invite comments and request that they be civil and on-topic. We do not moderate or assume any responsibility for comments, which are owned by the readers who post them. Comments do not represent the views of Reason.com or Reason Foundation. We reserve the right to delete any comment for any reason at any time. Report abuses.

  • ||

    Nothing, that is, except the Congressional Budget Office

    ... and those meddling kids.

  • Grumpy old fart||

    I would have gotten away with....

  • ||

    But hey! At least the stimulus is working.

  • The preppy one||

    So it was you all along Old Man Karl Marx

  • ||

    This is why you say 'its not the price that matters, its the thought that counts'.

  • wjustin||

    The thoughts are very well laid out and it was refreshing to read. I was able to find the information that I was looking for. I just wanted to leave a comment as a token of appreciation. Thanks for sharing this on the Net.
    Hair transplant in Lahore

  • ann cain||

    Kindly provide hairstyle and hair color of the men named in the article -- also their height, please. Essential that I have this information so as to understand their official actions.

  • christina julia||

    Thanks for sharing the link. Was very thoughtful of you.
    Pensionskasse

  • Humphster||

    Interesting and informative article.

  • ghinahealth||

    I think so its very interesting,.

  • Kroneborge||

    Great piece, what's the solution?

  • sarahrichard||

    Well that's awesome article! We serve various industries with our quality range of industrial casting such as valve casting, industrial die casting, valve body casting and pump casting.thanks for the sharing this great and very informative post with us.
    Study In UK

  • ||

    Gatekeeper?
    Are we looking for the Keymaster as a minion of Gozer?
    Everyone, quick think of the Staypuff Marshmellow man. He would never hurt anyone.

  • Abercrombie and Fitch||

    Good!

  • abercrombie online||

    very good!

  • jessie||

    Thank you for this informative post.

  • abercrombie london||

    very good

  • battery||

    very good post,thanks,it is very useful for me

  • vibram shoes||

    Thanks for sharing !So nice to see you !I will buy a wallet for my best friend!vibram fivefingers kso.

  • abercrombie milano||

    My only point is that if you take the Bible straight, as I'm sure many of Reasons readers do, you will see a lot of the Old Testament stuff as absolutely insane. Even some cursory knowledge of Hebrew and doing some mathematics and logic will tell you that you really won't get the full deal by just doing regular skill english reading for those books. In other words, there's more to the books of the Bible than most will ever grasp. I'm not concerned that Mr. Crumb will go to hell or anything crazy like that! It's just that he, like many types of religionists, seems to take it literally, take it straight...the Bible's books were not written by straight laced divinity students in 3 piece suits who white wash religious beliefs as if God made them with clothes on...the Bible's books were written by people with very different mindsets

  • gatekeeper||

    “Given that Outkast’s worst albums happened post-Badu, I would say that they’re sort of a bad example for whatever point this is meant to make.”

    Actually since Outkast’s worst albums were POST BADU it means they were seriously affected by Baduizm… Wouldn’t that make them the perfect candidates for treatment?

    Anyways this was funny as hell – good work! cute belly rings

  • 5.11 tactical||

    This is a good post, I stumbled across your article while looking for song downloads. Thanks for sharing, I’ll be sure to recommend this site to others.

  • ||

    They rent office capable of proposing detailed budgets and relocation plans that not only win interested in loud noise your funds, however also the requests of your contract and the desires of your staff. This may possibly come as a rude shock near many, but the realism is to buildings designed and constructed before 2002 look after not even meet the least quantity seismic activity safety values prescribed by the Government. Entrepreneurs get urbanized their company website but forget fashionable the direction of invest on its Search Engine Optimization. The right office equipment charter option choice give you business offices to rent flexibility you basic just before keep your cash flow open.

  • christian louboutin platform p||

  • christian louboutin platform p||

  • ||

    Very good information, thank you very much by the article and the quality of your Web site.

  • ||

    I really loved reading your blog. It was very well authored and easy to understand.Free Trial

  • batteries||

    very nice,is it not?

  • gold belly rings||

    Your post gave me some nice new thoughts - a very solid read.

  • Vector Graphics||

    thanks you

  • gas nike||

    Such descriptions, which were common after Stevens announced his retirement in April, are based on a highly selective concern about state power. A closer look at Justice Stevens’ record shows that he has been anything but consistent in his opposition to government excesses and that in some ways he has become less inclined to protect constitutional rights.

  • Play Roulette Games||

    where thank you explorer ..
    Online Betting Tips |
    Urban Soccer |

  • blancpain replica watches||

    tje best of swwathces

  • 50 Inch Flat Screen Tv||

    I differ with most guys here; I started reading this blog post I couldn't stop, although it wasn't just what I had been searching for, was
    still a fantastic read though. I will instantly get your blog feed to keep in touch of coming updates.

  • discountinchina||

    Looking for great Wholesale Disney Toys Products for your business and want them at discounted wholesale prices?

  • nfl jerseys||

    hdtttr

  • sikis||

  • WOMENUGGS||

    you can grab the active participation of metal rouge Alpine Sheepskin Ugg Boots Classic. If not, you can aces Ugg Boots Online Store ? boots tenuous. we are in a suitable range to ensure that while the colors can be met in

  • WOMENUGGS||

    There is access to an abundance of classes, while in the United States Ugg Sheepskin Boots . outside about every man or woman can only aces the ideal start according to their favor. No access to the dim accurately struck the active color. in fact if Ugg Boots On Sale that admiration

  • WOMENUGGS||

    These Sheepskin Boots Sale boots are made, while in the skin of sheep, which are actually the album in the winter of Australia. constantly speaks, is capable of anything, a generous agreement added compared with the world.Women Uggs Access to the precise height for keeping warm.

  • ovulation symptoms||

    Please hairstyle and hair color of the men mentioned in the article - because of their size, thanks. Important that I have this information to understand their functions. ovulation symptoms

  • liposuction alternatives||

    By the way do you know any liposuction alternatives? I'm really afraid of the invasive surgery and the diet doesn't seem to help.

  • Ramona||

    Very interesting article and also nicely written. Really amazing to read things like this.
    Ramona Cole from Essay Help Service

  • vitamin b12||

    Is it really a "victory" for the Democrats? I mean in the truest meaning of victory.

  • tax credits calculator||

    I am very enjoyed for this site. Its year informative topic. It help me very much to solve Some Problems. Its so fantastic and Opportunity are working style so speedy. I Think It May Be help all of you. Thanks a lot for this beauty Enjoying article with me

    tax credits calculator

  • tax credits calculator||

    I am really impressed that there is so much information about this subject that have been uncovered and you did it so well
    with so much class. Thanks. tax credits calculator

  • ||

    I am really impressed by the success of Budget Office. Thanks for sharing interesting insights. Irena from refinance mortgage rates

  • دردشة||

    Thank you, my dear on this important topic You can also browse my site and I am honored to do this site for songs
    http://www.a6rbna.com
    This website is for travel to Malaysia
    http://www.m-arabi.com

  • Ketones||

    I didn't know there are so much information on the topic.

    Well done thanks!

    haemophilus influenzae |
    ketones |

  • ||

    This blog is perfect for me.This is such a wonderful useful resource that you'll be providing. You got so many points here, that's why i love reading your post. Thank you so much.!!!swollen glands

  • منتدى العرب||

    Thank you

  • منتدى العرب||

    Thank you

  • Apple iPad 2||

    This is exactly what I was looking for. Thanks for sharing this great article! That is very interesting Smile I love reading and I am always searching for informative information like this!

  • tourism egypt||

    I had been searching for, was
    still a fantastic read though. I will instantly get your blog feed to keep in touch of coming updates.

  • help with essay||

    Many institutions limit access to their online information. Making this information available will be an asset to all.

  • Essay Writing Servie||

    I normally do not write comments on posts, but your post urged me to commend your writings. Thanks for writing this, I’ll definitely popular your site and arrive back once in awhile. Happy blogging.

  • دردشة عراقنا ||

    thnx u

  • دردشة عراقية||

    Thank you, my dear on this important topic You can also browse my site and I am honored to do this site for songs
    http://www.iraq3.com
    This website is for travel to Malaysia
    http://www.iraq3.com/vb

  • دردشه عراقيه||

    Thank you, my dear on this important topic You can also browse my site and I am honored to do this site for songs
    http://www.iraq3.com
    This website is for travel to Malaysia
    http://www.iraq3.com/vb

  • منتديات عرب||

    thnx u man

  • IRS Lawyer||

    I will always give a nice thrust look in to you from my bookmark feed. Coffee I don't actually comment and don't like to spend time in typing the comment. But here I have to do this because this deserves a good like.

  • rims financing||

    Quite possibly the most succinct and current info I came across about this subject. Sure pleased that I discovered that site by accident. I’ll probably be subscribing for your feed so that I will get the most current updates. Like the information here.

  • حجز فنادق مكة||

    thank you very much

  • Rent Car in Egypt||

    thank you

  • العراق||

    thnx u

  • ايجار سيارات مصر||

    thanks

  • دردشة العراق||

    thnx u man

  • Prawo Jazdy Bielsko-Biała ||

    Inspiring story :)

  • Prawo Jazdy Bielsko||

    nice collecion

  • undermount kitchen sinks||

    I will always give a nice thrust look in to you from my bookmark feed. Coffee I don't actually comment and don't like to spend time in typing the comment. But here I have to do this because this deserves a good like.

  • remedios hemorroides||

    Nice information, many thanks to the author. It is incomprehensible to me now, but in general, the usefulness and significance is overwhelming. Thanks again and good luck!.

  • دردشة||

    nice

  • بنت مصر||

    Thank you, my dear on this important topic You can also browse my site and I am honored to do this site for songs
    http://www.بنت-مصر.com

  • ليبيه||

    Thank you, my dear on this important topic You can also browse my site and I am honored to do this site for songs
    http://www.libyh.com
    This website is for travel to Malaysia
    http://www.libyh.com

  • granite countertop||

    Every day we face with countertop,you can have a high quality of life with granite countertop of yalitongstone,but we will also very pleased if you can see Huaxingstone's granite countertop.

  • ||

    I really enjoyed this site...Thanks for posting..bar supplies uk Thanks a lot again..

  • Sohbet Siteleri||

    Bietiful :)

  • ankara chat||

    thanks admin

  • yemek tarifleri||

    If you need to make

  • chat siteleri||

    thanks

  • sex izle||

    thank admin

  • nike shox||

    is good

  • قبلة الوداع||

    thank u man

  • دردشة عراقنا||

    thnx u

  • منتديات العراق||

  • sohbet odaları||

    thanks you

  • Dissertation Help||

    Really i am impressed from this post. The person who created this post is a genius and knows how to keep the readers connected.Thanks for sharing this with us. I found it informative and interesting. Looking forward for more updates.

  • domains||

    I liked how the thoughts and the insights of this article is well put together and well-written. Hope to see more of this soon.

  • Organic Guru||

    Don't you watch CNBC Barack? Bureaucracy is what slows people down. You have to embrace change.

  • مهرجان||

    Thanks

  • cirvesova||

    Thanks for sharing .Keep posting articles like this. A good example of content presentation.
    ropa cuna bebe ,
    ropa cuna

  • تركى||

    Thanks

  • cirvesova||

    Thanks for sharing .

    cunas baratas ,
    cunas bebe

  • Vicodin addiction||

    thank you!!

  • cirvesova||

    Thanks for sharing .Keep posting articles like this. A good example of content presentation.

    moises bebe ,
    moises para bebes

  • Best Online Cаsino||

    Nothing, that is, except the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), a nonpartisan federal agency that until this year was run by none other than Peter Orszag.

  • nutritional supplements||

    Really your post is really very good and I appreciate it. It’s hard to sort the good from the bad sometimes, but I think you’ve nailed it.You write very well which is amazing. I really impressed by your post.

  • con ty tham tu||

    really enjoyed this site...Thanks for posting

    tham tu | cong ty tham tu

  • michalesimon2012||

    Thanks a lot for sharing. Keep sharing as like this always.I just like the valuable information you provide in your articles.

  • chiropractor in wichita||

    Hello Bloggers, at first thanks for sharing your views with us. And after that I want to thank, the webmaster for giving us this kind of great contents.
    When someone searching something in internet and found this kind of blogs with this type of interesting contents.

  • swing set accessories||

    Fascinating thoughts makes me want to keep coming back for more.


    swing set accessories

  • ||

    It’s a good quality summary that you have written. There are a number of points however which I believe would do better if you went into a little bit more detail than you have done. just my opinion,along with I’m not trying to be critical at all. If you do follow this up then I would be interested. Thanks.water damage Northbrook

  • Trey||

    Thanks for the information. A worth bookmarking blog. I would be reading your articles regularly from now on.

  • Best essay writing service||

    I appreciate your efforts to make a good discussion here on this topic. It brings possibilities to find and move with some new ideas.

    All the best

    best essay writing service

  • Facebook Status Updates||

    Thanks for the useful sharing here. It contributes something new in my moves.

    Keep it up :) Funny Facebook Updates

  • Water Removal Bronson FL||

    Hey,nice post.Fantastic article with superb pics.She is really a gorgeous girl.Thanks for sharing this post with us.Keep sharing with us in future too.

  • ||

    I get pleasure the information you are providing in your website. I always prefer to read the quality content and this thing I found in you post. thanks
    Ada Compliant Pool Lift

  • منتديات الصقع||

    taaaaaank you

  • دردشة عراقنا||

    very nice

  • دردشة العراق||

    thanks

  • دردشة العراق||

  • minicunas||

    I never regret of stopping by to your website.

    moises bebe

  • minicunas||

    Every single detail about the topic has been highlighted in this article. You don't come across articles like this very often. But when you do, make sure you comment.

    This blog post interest me a lot because of your good insight about the topic.

    minicunas

  • minicunas||

    Every single detail about the topic has been highlighted in this article. You don't come across articles like this very often.

    cunas

  • minicunas||

    This blog post interest me a lot because of your good insight about the topic. Its informative with lots of ideas.

    cunas convertibles

  • minicunas||

    I enjoyed reading your articles. This is truly a great read for me.

    ropa de cuna

  • property in andalucia||

    I love your blog, I recommend to all people who love this kind of post to visit .

    sillas de coche,
    sillas coche

  • property in andalucia||

    You don't come across articles like this very often. But when you do, make sure you comment.

    silla de coche,
    silla coche

  • property in andalucia||

    Very informative and impressive post you have written, this is quite interesting and i have went through it completely, an upgraded information is shared, keep
    sharing such valuable information.

    sillas de coche bebe,
    sillas de auto

  • property in andalucia||

    I never regret of stopping by to your website.

    sillas auto,
    sillas de auto bebe

  • property in andalucia||

    I love your blog, I recommend to all people who love this kind of post to visit this site and blog of great interest to his listeners.

    sillitas de coche,
    sillitas coche

GET REASON MAGAZINE

Get Reason's print or digital edition before it’s posted online

  • Progressive Puritans: From e-cigs to sex classifieds, the once transgressive left wants to criminalize fun.
  • Port Authoritarians: Chris Christie’s Bridgegate scandal
  • The Menace of Secret Government: Obama’s proposed intelligence reforms don’t safeguard civil liberties

SUBSCRIBE

advertisement