Drugs

DEA Still Insists Marijuana Has No 'Accepted Medical Use'

In the DEA's view, the fact that most states allow patients to use marijuana for symptom relief is irrelevant.

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This spring, nearly five years after the Obama administration promised to end the federal government's longstanding, anomalous monopoly on marijuana for medical research, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) tentatively approved applications by several independent suppliers. But the DEA still maintains that the plant belongs in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), a category supposedly reserved for especially dangerous drugs with no accepted medical use.

At the center of both disputes is the Arizona-based Scottsdale Research Institute (SRI), one of the organizations that received preliminary DEA approval to grow marijuana. SRI President Suzanne Sisley, a psychiatrist who has studied marijuana's usefulness as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, is asking the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit to reject the DEA's rationale for keeping marijuana in Schedule I. Sisley says the agency is wrong to ignore state recognition of marijuana's medical utility.

The CSA gives the DEA the authority to reschedule drugs in consultation with the Department of Health and Human Services. The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws filed the first petition asking the DEA to reclassify cannabis half a century ago. But neither that case nor subsequent challenges made much headway, because federal courts have deferred to the agency's interpretation of the CSA's scheduling criteria. According to the DEA, marijuana has "no currently accepted medical use" because it does not satisfy a five-part test that the agency invented, which demands the sort of evidence that would be required to win approval of a new medicine by the Food and Drug Administration. In the DEA's view, the fact that most states allow patients to use marijuana for symptom relief is irrelevant.

"Based on the statutory text, structure, history, purpose—and the original understanding of the statute—'currently accepted medical use' means 'legitimate' or 'lawful medical purpose,'" says the petition for review in Sisley v. DEA. "This is the only interpretation that captures the cooperative federalism vision of the CSA and respects state sovereignty." In determining whether medical use of marijuana is legitimate, Sisley says, the drug's legal treatment by 36 states surely should count for something.

"Can DEA deny that marijuana has a 'currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States' when more than two-thirds of the States have enacted legislation greenlighting marijuana's use as medicine?" Sisley's opening 9th Circuit brief asks. "The unambiguous text of [the statute], canons of construction, the CSA's history and purpose, and common sense all converge on a single, resounding answer: 'No.'"

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85 responses to “DEA Still Insists Marijuana Has No 'Accepted Medical Use'

  1. When marijuana has an accepted medical use, then there is less of a need for the DEA. So business as usual. Maybe the DEA can be the authority that makes visits to unvaccinated to…suggest they get the injection.

    1. Bullshit. There is no good use for pot, medicinally or recreationally.

      It’s addicting, psychosis- inducing, and suppresses immune function.

      As medicine, it’s more toxic than standard pharmaceutical products, with more adverse effects.

      As recreation, it’s more toxic than alcohol and tobacco and other drugs that could be dosed more effectively.

      There is no good use for weed.

      1. Someone only ever got their info in weed from a 1970s textbook.

        1. Nah. A degree in pharmaceutical studies and ethnobotany.

          But nice try.

          Ketamine is a much safer drug than pot that could be manufactured for low-dose recreational use. Same with MDMA.

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          1. Produce some cites then.

            Medicinal use is a red herring btw.

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          2. Did you really just say that ketamine is safer than marijuana?
            As a board certified anesthesiologist with 30 years experience, I have a lot of experience with using ketamine on patients.
            It’s Popularity has come and gone over my career,and has many side effects.
            While marijuana has its own problems , it is the least toxic drug of all.

            1. Which side effects? BP increase and the obvious dissociative effect are the only two I can think of that are an issue at low doses. Nausea, perhaps?

          3. Marijuana got me to stop having PTSD driven nightmares back when I was having problems with that. It’s possible that ketamine would have done that as well, like it later did to snap me out of being actively suicidally depressed.

            In either case, the government shouldn’t be involved.

        2. Reefer Madness was a credible documentary.

      2. One of Rick Santorum’s sweater vest brigade chimes in.

      3. psychosis- inducing

        Why just look at what the mere mention of marijuana did to M4019597.

        1. Before you pick on him, let me inform you that under New Jersey‘s brand new recreational cannabis regulations, all cannabis products having a THC concentration over a certain level must contain a warning, in 10 point type, that the product they are about to consume may lead to psychosis.

          I am just pointing out that a state that recently legalized cannabis while scoffing the “reefer madness” mentality apparently also believes that marijuana can cause psychosis.

          1. Dude. It’s Jersey. This isn’t even close to the stupidest regulation we have here.

            NJ even has an officially designated state dirt. Not making that up.

      4. dammit mom I said stay off Reason.

      5. Irrelevant as to whether government should destroy the lives of it’s citizens for making a personal medical decisions for themselves.
        Who owns you?

      6. Marijauna is less addictive than alcohol or nicotine, both of which are legal. It also causes fewer problems than either. To claim its more toxic than either is grossly ignorant. (And I’m only considering nicotine alone here – the toxicity of tobacco as prepared for cigarettes is astounding).

      7. There is no good use for pot, medicinally or recreationally.

        As someone who came of age during the mid-1970s I can assure you that you are completely full of crap.

      8. “It’s addicting” not really.
        “psychosis- inducing” for a few people, yes.
        “suppresses immune function” false.

        “As recreation, it’s more toxic than alcohol and tobacco ” is a completely meaningless statement.

        “There is no good use for weed.” That’s what a paternalistic Democrat would say. As a libertarian it’s none of your concern and none of your business.

      9. There’s still a preconceived notion out there that substance (ab)users are but weak-willed and/or have somehow committed a moral crime.

        We now know pharmaceutical corporations intentionally pushed their very addictive and profitable opiate pain killers — I call it the real moral crime — for which they got off relatively lightly, considering the resulting immense suffering and overdose death numbers.

        1. It’s both. Addiction is at heart a willpower problem. And pharma companies are guilty of pushing unneeded drugs on unsuspecting ignorant patients.

      10. Your argument lacks some fundamental elements. Cannabis has been demonstrated to not be addictive nor the “gateway drug” that was promoted by Henry Anslinger and his cronies for 32 years. It can indeed cause psychosis with daily use of high potency THC but not in the occasional recreational user.
        What evidence can you cite that it is more toxic and has more adverse effects? I would like to see you actually back this claim with examples of the adverse effects pharmaceutically created anti-depressants, anti-convulsive, sedatives and sleep aides, and opioids compared to the side effects of cannabis used for medicinal purposes. Alcohol, is a known contributing factor for alcohol poisoning leading to death due to respiratory depression violence, lethal accidents, suicides, depression, and pathological disease. Nicotine is highly addictive and leads to cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory disease. Please cite legitimate references for your claims, otherwise one can only believe your claims are self-made.
        Over dosing on Cannabis does not cause respiratory depression regardless of how much is ingested. The study claiming cannabis was responsible for an increase in accidents completed by the American Highway Safety Association was seriously flawed. They linked a positive THC post- accident to cause of accident as an assumption that the person was impaired. It is well known that THC remains in the system long after the effects of THC is gone.
        A plethora of well designed research is surfacing to demonstrate the efficacy of cannabis as medicine. We now know that our bodies have an Endocannabinoid system and we create endocannabinoids that mirror almost exactly those that are found in cannabis.
        Endocannabinoid deficiency has been identified and linked to several chronic conditions.
        We have research showing that cannabis does help with Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, chronic pain syndromes, seizures, insomnia, opioid and alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
        Below are only a few of the many references that support my statements but in no way an exhaustive list of sources I have. I could add more but you can see there is plenty of research to debunk your archaic belief system.
        Bele´n G. Ramı´rez, B., Cristina Bla´zquez, C., Go´mez del Pulgar, T., Guzma´n, M., & and L. de Ceballos. M. (2005). Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Mediated by Blockade of Microglial Activation. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(8), pp. 1904 –1913. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4540-04.2005
        Grof, C.P.L, (2018). Cannabis, from plant to pill. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84, pp 2463-2467. DOI:10.1111/bcp.13618
        Lucas, C.J, Galettis, P., & Schneider, J., (2018). The Pharmacokinetics and the Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84, pp 2477–2482. DOI:10.1111/bcp.13710
        Riana Longo, R., Oudshoorn, A., & Befus, D. (2021). Cannabis for Chronic Pain: A Rapid Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials. Pain Management Nursing, 22(2). pp 141-149. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2020.11.006.
        Russo, E.B., (2016). Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research
        Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1(1), pp 154-165. DOI: 10.1089/can.2016.0009
        Shenglong Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. International Journal of Molecular Science, 19(833). doi:10.3390/ijms19030833
        Yanes, J.A., McKinnell, Z.E., Reid, M.A., Busler, J.N., Michel, J.S., Pangelinan, M.M., Sutherland, M.T, Younger, J.W., Gonzalez, R., & Robinson, J.L. (2019). Effects of Cannabinoid Administration for Pain: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(4), pp 370–382. doi:10.1037/pha0000281.

        1. Weed can obviously be addicting. Just ask people who smoke everyday. It’s not good for you. There is so much pushback against the weed is evil idea that has gone way too far and seems to think weed is just fine and, like democrat spending has zero costs.

          Im a support of full legalization, have smoked more than my fair share, and do believe it is much, much less harmful than alcohol, both mentally and physically.

          But there are negatives. How would weed not affect immune system? It does. How would it not affect lungs? It does. How would it not affect your psyche? It does. Just ask people who are addicted to weed. It hampers sleep (a symptom of this is little to no dreaming), it saps motivation, it makes people less happy. I’m talking heavy habitual users here. Sure, smoke every now and then, totally fine, but there are too many people who smoke wayyy to much weed that rely in part on input from dumbasses saying weed is totally fine to continue their harmful habits.

      11. You may well be right. But you might just as well be wrong. Both sides of the marijuana legalization issue have dome so much exaggeration and flat out lying that it’s hard to tell what is fact, what is hyperbole, and what’s is absolute tripe.

        What is fairly obvious, however, is that drug prohibitionists learned absolutely nothing from the passage, enforcement, and repeal of the Volstead act. The War On Drugs has been going on, at varying levels of intensity, since the early 20th Century. In that time if there has been a period of any length when it was impossible to buy any popular street drug in any major city, I have not heard of it. In return for this fundamental failure we have seen the acceptance of no-knock warrants, asset forfeiture, dynamic entry raids, and many other erosions of basic legal rights. And, of course, none of these tactics have been limited to actions against drug dealers.

        The spreading legalization of marijuana threatens a lot of little bureaucratic empires. That’s probably not the ONLY reason the Feds are against it, but is almost certainly A reason.

        I’ve know potheads and I’ve know dedicated drug prohibitionists. The potheads were mostly sad wasted people, but they were better company than the prohibitionists.

  2. “In the DEA’s view, the fact that most states allow patients to use marijuana for symptom relief is irrelevant.”

    That most states allow marijuana for symptom relief is irrelevant to whether it has a medical use. The DEA’s test is irrelevant to whether it has medical use. What is relevant is whether medical professional’s use it and can show it has efficacy.

    1. I’m pretty sure lots of medical professionals use it and can attest to its efficacy.

    2. But, all we have to do is make it illegal to test such things in a clinical environment and publish the data so, officially, there will never be an accepted medical use!

      It’s win win. Lots of DEA jobs, and all the proper rhetorical arguments to keep them.

  3. Defiantly keeping MJ on Schedule I has shown us how easily the government is manipulated by ideologues, and I’m friends with a guy who cites its Schedule I status as a reason why it should be kept illegal. (…pauses to take an early morning bong rip in a state where MJ is still quite illegal.) The DEA has done such a good job keeping people from getting access to it.

    This one weed grows out of the ground and the government extorts us to pay farmers millions to grow it then spend tens of millions telling us not to smoke it and it’s for sale everywhere. This other weed grows out of the ground and they put people in jail for it.

    Thank goodness for federalism.

    1. Not ever hit hard enough.

  4. Once gained the federal government is quite reluctant to give back power over anything

  5. It seems a general rule is evolving, that no federal agency with three initials is able to accept the truth.

    1. They will stick to defining the truth instead.

    2. Evolving? That’s been true for a long time.

    3. The IRS seems able to accept things. All your money is theirs. They may deign to let you keep some of it. It’s extremely honest.

  6. The answer to ‘can they’ is apparently yes.

    The problem is less that MJ is on schedule 1 than that the enforcement agency gets to determine what they enforce.

    1. Separation of powers is so quaint. Giving legislative and judicial powers to the executive is so much more efficient, and it allows elected people to claim their hands are tied when unelected bureaucrats run the show.

  7. Anecdotally, the only people I know of who buy CBD products are filthy pot heads and the “I use it to treat my nondescript pain” is a complete sham to get high.

    That’s not science. That’s just my experience.

    1. I know people who use CBD (you can’t get high on it) who never use THC containing product. I am not convinced of it’s value personally.

    2. CBD doesn’t get you high.

    3. lmao tell us more about these people you know who are getting “high” on CBD

    4. That’s just my experience.

      Your claim that people are using CBD products “to get high” is a clear indication that your “experience” is derived from nothing but your own ignorance-based assumptions.

    5. You are absolutely right it is your uneducated opinion. How about before you spout off your nonsense you try becoming a bit more educated on cannabis.

  8. DEA along with all the other TLA organizations in the federal government were militarized long ago. That’s not a sign of quality or capability. You want your 3.5 trillion lefties, start cutting those military, IC and DoJ orgs to the bone.

  9. Just like having Karen for your mom, you have to try to prove that something is good for you–and she has already decided that you can’t have it.

  10. Fuck the DEA. Fuck Joe Biden, as well.

    1. Has COVID completely erased concerns about STD’s?

      1. STDs aren’t nearly as bad as COVID, if they were there would have been a condom mandate

    2. No, please, I’m particular about where I put that.

  11. DEA’s job half depends on it still being illegal. No surprises here. Just more disappointment that we’re still treating marijuana as some terrible drug. Reefer madness needs to die.

    1. More than half. Some years ago I made a habit of following the DEA’s statistics on ‘regular drug users’ from year to year. Over the span of five years or so, their numbers were 15-16 million ‘regular’ users, of which 10-11 million were basically marijuana smokers. ‘Regular’ was defined as using once a month or more. So, close to two thirds of their work goes away if marijuana is legalized.

      Not that they seem to be making much headway on the others. I’ve seen it suggested that the harder drugs go in a cycle dictated by the addicts of one drug dying or getting off the drug, and new addicts seeing the effects of the previous drug doing something where the fallout isn’t so obvious. Don’t know if there’s anything to that.

  12. Let’s just accept the facts. The DEA is a terrorist organization.

    1. Almost all of us guys, as some gals, have as children fantasized about, and even planned for, a future as law enforcers in some form or another. But almost all of us, probably sooner than later, grew out of that dream, as it wasn’t reflective of our nature. …
      Sometimes law enforcers — be they private-property security, community police, prison guards, heavily-armed rapid-response police units or DEA — must be permitted to relax their nerves on a particularly stressful day by way of playing rough-’em-up and football-tackle with an ‘uncooperative suspect’, though not officially sanctioned. In itself, that may act something like icing on the cake of the primary-pay-and-perks authority-figure job role.

      It is a profession in which, besides the basic tackle and/or handcuffing, adrenalin-pumped employees might storm into suspects’ homes, screaming, with fully-automatic machineguns or handguns drawn, at the homes’ occupants (to “face down!”), all of whom, including infants, can be permanently traumatized from the experience. Occasionally the law-enforcers force their way into the wrong home, altogether; that is when open-fire can and does occur, followed by wrongful deaths to be ‘impartially’ investigated.
      Although that may sound cynical, I believe there is much truth to it. Albeit, it must also be kept in mind that there are people who leave law-enforcement professions after witnessing misconduct within.

      1. The thing that always annoys me is when some total cluster-grope has had horrific consequences and some pious idiot tells the media “All relevant departmental guidelines were followed.”

        I wish, just ONCE, that the next sentence was, “So we’re firing the nitwit who wrote the guidelines, and the fools who approved them, and writing new ones a good deal more restrictive.”

  13. the fuck cares whether it’s medicinal or not it’s a goddam plant

    1. Did you really just say that ketamine is safer than marijuana?
      As a board-certified anesthesiologist with 30 years of experience, and a person who smoked marijuana while at University 30 years ago I can assure you that ketamine is an extremely dangerous drug.
      It has come in and out of popularity in Anesthesia over my professional career and has a lot of side effects.
      While pot has its’ problems, Marijuana is the least toxic drug of all.

      1. >>Did you really just say

        nope. either my mom or one of her bridge club is posting as m8675309 they said that. i’m on your side with the green and the molly

  14. For the past 5 decades, the DEA has aggressively protected and expanded the profits and crimes of/by illegal drug cartels and gangs, while absurdly claiming its goal is to reduce illegal drug cartels and gangs.

    Seems like nobody learned anything from America’s 12 year experience with alcohol prohibition a century ago.

    1. We learned a LOT from prohibition a century ago. We learned that the government can garner a lot of power for itself in the regulation of perceived vices.

      Nearly every liquor law in the country today came straight out of prohibition. There are still dry counties in the US. And even in the more educated, erudite areas of the country, “no liquor sales on Sunday, no liquor sales after 1am…” etc. also came straight out of prohibition.

      It also served as a dry run as to how you can regulate various products without just making them illegal. See: Marijuana “legalization” in the various states.

    2. The one good thing about Marijuana “legalization” is that its freed up to the police to pursue more important crimes, like saying mean things on twitter.

      1. Hence the human trafficking panic.

      2. Yeah and did any one take note that as more states began to legalize cannabis we suddenly had an opioid crisis. Now we have huge issues with illegal opioids coming into this country and killing more people. Way to go!

    3. Sorta like being told, “your chocolate ration has been increased from 30 grams to 20 grams this week.”

    4. not to mention making the drugs more dangerous and preventing users who get bad product from suing the manufacturer.

  15. Symptom relief… sort of like the COVID vaccines…

  16. Weed bad, vaping bad mmmmmkay, but being a shitfaced wife-beating beating alcoholic and lung cancer infested smoker A-OK.

    1. Leave sarc alone!

  17. It doesn’t. Medical marijuana is a farce. other than it’s obvious effects getting people high. At least it’s not out and out snake oil like CBD.

    That doesn’t mean it should be illegal, though.

    You shouldn’t be arguing X drug should be legal because it has some medical effect. You should be saying it should be legal because it does no harm to anyone except perhaps the user.

    1. Really? What do you base your statements on or is this just your uneducated opinion?

  18. The DEA is another useless money pit/ feral bureaucracy that needs to be shuttered. Those agents can then be put to better use cleaning up along the nation’s highways, picking up trash, used tires and burned out cars.
    Like the FBI, they accomplish very little but make a big noise when they bust some small time dealer. The only accomplishment is wasting the taxpayers money.

    1. you just want the children to die

  19. Hey, let’s have the DEA evaluate the new vaccines and boosters coming out!

  20. You know what else was approved by two-thirds of the states?

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  23. The Federal Government just needs to get out of the marijuana business altogether. I don’t partake, but I know for a fact that no one overdoses on it, and it does have some acceptable medicinal uses. Otherwise, if someone wants to use it recreationally, and they’re not driving or making a nuisance of themselves, who cares? Stick with going after heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and fentanyl, the ones which actually kill people. All they’re doing is maintaining a thriving black market which gives a means for cartels and other foreign entities to keep supplying it.

  24. The DEA long since lost the “war on drugs”. The DEA is simply a waste of money and needs to be closed. Agree marijuana is far less dangerous than alcohol or tobacco, both notorious killers.

  25. Defund the DEA.

  26. Cannabis products are known to be a healthier alternative to tranquilizer use/abuse and therefor a potential threat to pharmaceutical industry profits. Other than to pander to big pharma, which logically loves THC-consumption legal obstacles just fine, there was/is no good reason (morally, ethically or national interest) to maintain THC consumption’s criminal status.

    But political hypocrisy too often prevails. I recall a then-president Bill Clinton deciding against fully legalizing (i.e. on a federal level) cannabis consumption after having championed it (or, at the very least, its decriminalization) prior to his election. Much worse, as president he greatly ramped up the ‘war on drugs’ — including against personal users, which needlessly unjustly destroyed lives — at the very same time he made it easier for bankers to become richer. And, still, Bill probably slept/sleeps well at night, ever since. I sure couldn’t.

  27. The fact that some states have opted to allow marijuana to be used “medicinally” does not trump the fact that no research conclusively shows any medical efficacy at all.

  28. Your argument lacks some fundamental elements. Cannabis has been demonstrated to not be addictive nor the “gateway drug” that was promoted by Henry Anslinger and his cronies for 32 years. It can indeed cause psychosis with daily use of high potency THC but not in the occasional recreational user.
    What evidence can you cite that it is more toxic and has more adverse effects? I would like to see you actually back this claim with examples of the adverse effects pharmaceutically created anti-depressants, anti-convulsive, sedatives and sleep aides, and opioids compared to the side effects of cannabis used for medicinal purposes. Alcohol, is a known contributing factor for alcohol poisoning leading to death due to respiratory depression violence, lethal accidents, suicides, depression, and pathological disease. Nicotine is highly addictive and leads to cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory disease. Please cite legitimate references for your claims, otherwise one can only believe your claims are self-made.
    Over dosing on Cannabis does not cause respiratory depression regardless of how much is ingested. The study claiming cannabis was responsible for an increase in accidents completed by the American Highway Safety Association was seriously flawed. They linked a positive THC post- accident to cause of accident as an assumption that the person was impaired. It is well known that THC remains in the system long after the effects of THC is gone.
    A plethora of well designed research is surfacing to demonstrate the efficacy of cannabis as medicine. We now know that our bodies have an Endocannabinoid system and we create endocannabinoids that mirror almost exactly those that are found in cannabis.
    Endocannabinoid deficiency has been identified and linked to several chronic conditions.
    We have research showing that cannabis does help with Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, chronic pain syndromes, seizures, insomnia, opioid and alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
    Below are only a few of the many references that support my statements but in no way an exhaustive list of sources I have. I could add more but you can see there is plenty of research to debunk your archaic belief system.
    Bele´n G. Ramı´rez, B., Cristina Bla´zquez, C., Go´mez del Pulgar, T., Guzma´n, M., & and L. de Ceballos. M. (2005). Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Mediated by Blockade of Microglial Activation. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(8), pp. 1904 –1913. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4540-04.2005
    Grof, C.P.L, (2018). Cannabis, from plant to pill. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84, pp 2463-2467. DOI:10.1111/bcp.13618
    Lucas, C.J, Galettis, P., & Schneider, J., (2018). The Pharmacokinetics and the Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84, pp 2477–2482. DOI:10.1111/bcp.13710
    Riana Longo, R., Oudshoorn, A., & Befus, D. (2021). Cannabis for Chronic Pain: A Rapid Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials. Pain Management Nursing, 22(2). pp 141-149. doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2020.11.006.
    Russo, E.B., (2016). Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research
    Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1(1), pp 154-165. DOI: 10.1089/can.2016.0009
    Shenglong Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. International Journal of Molecular Science, 19(833). doi:10.3390/ijms19030833
    Yanes, J.A., McKinnell, Z.E., Reid, M.A., Busler, J.N., Michel, J.S., Pangelinan, M.M., Sutherland, M.T, Younger, J.W., Gonzalez, R., & Robinson, J.L. (2019). Effects of Cannabinoid Administration for Pain: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27(4), pp 370–382. doi:10.1037/pha0000281.

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