Coronavirus

Good News: COVID-19 Vaccines Stimulate the Production of Both Antibodies and T-Cells

Antibodies may decline, but T-cells could provide effective long-term protection.

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The COVID-19 vaccine being developed by researchers at Oxford University and the pharmaceutical giant AstraZeneca reportedly stimulates the body's immune system in early trials to produce both antibodies and killer T-cells. Antibodies protect against infections by binding to pathogens in order to prevent them from entering or damaging cells, and by coating pathogens to attract white blood cells to engulf and digest them. Longer-lasting killer T-cells work by finding and destroying infected cells in the body that have been turned into virus-making factories.

If this pans out, it's great news. Recent studies have shown that protective antibodies decline steeply in a large proportion of people who have recovered from COVID-19 infections. Swiftly waning levels of antibodies might mean that people could be reinfected and that the vaccines that are being rushed through testing and production would only offer transitory protection against the novel coronavirus. But if the vaccines provoke the immune system to produce T-cells, they could still offer some longer-term protection against coronavirus infections.

While more research needs to be done, some preliminary data suggest that the COVID-19 vaccine being developed by Moderna may also elicit the production of T-cells that react to the coronavirus.

The idea that T-cells could offer protection against the COVID-19 coronavirus is bolstered by new study in Nature. It reports finding T-cell immunity in people who recovered from both COVID-19 and SARS coronavirus infections. The researchers also identified T-cells that react to both coronaviruses in about 50 percent of healthy study subjects who had never been infected by either virus. "This could be due to cross-reactive immunity obtained from exposure to other coronaviruses, such as those causing the common cold, or presently unknown animal coronaviruses. It is important to understand if this could explain why some individuals are able to better control the infection," said study co-author Antonio Bertoletti in a press release from the Duke-National University of Singapore (Duke-NUS) Emerging Infectious Diseases program.

Earlier studies by Swedish and German researchers have also found that a substantial number of subjects who had never had COVID-19 produced a T-cell immune reaction to the virus. It's still speculative, but it looks increasingly likely that a good portion of humanity may already have developed some T-cell immune protection against the novel coronavirus. Nevertheless, the Swedish researchers caution, "It remains to be determined if a robust memory T cell response in the absence of detectable circulating antibodies can protect against" the virus.

"While there have been many studies about the [COVID-19 coronavirus], there is still a lot we don't understand about the virus yet," said Duke-NUS researcher Jenny Low in the aforementioned press release. "What we do know is that T cells play an important role in the immune response against viral infections and should be assessed for their role in combating the [COVID-19 coronavirus], which has affected many people worldwide. Hopefully, our discovery will bring us a step closer to creating an effective vaccine."

Even as COVID-19 vaccines are being tested in clinical trials to determine their safety and efficacy, production for several is being revved up in order to deliver them (if they work) as early as this fall. AstraZeneca announced in June that it planned to manufacture 2 billion doses of its vaccine, with 300 million slated for delivery to the United States and the United Kingdom by the end of this year. Moderna plans to deliver about 500 million doses per year, and potentially up to 1 billion annual doses starting in 2021. An effective vaccine against this scourge cannot come too soon.

NEXT: Potential Key to the 2020 Election: Voters Who Can't Stand Both Trump and Biden

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  1. Great. More “studies”.
    Still can’t trust them. Ever.

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    2. I’m confused. Libertarians don’t trust capitalist companies anymore?

      1. Capitalist companies? What the hell is a capitalist company?
        Not Oxford University.
        Not global giant AstraZeneca operating in more left wing countries than there are on the planet.

        1. Operating in a left wing country makes a company evil???

          Since when? And why?

          1. Since 1930’s Italy, and fascism.

      2. Not libertarians. Conservatives that hate science.

      3. FYI: there are now Trump 2020 masks on Amazon. Go get’em, guys!

        1. Are there any “Fuck the Pope” masks??

          1. I have a Sell the Vatican! shirt

          2. Yes, but only in child sizes.

            1. I LOLed. We’re going to hell for sure.

            2. love it.

        2. I am holding out for the one that proudly proclaims “ineffective but mandated”.

          1. Nice.

          2. That would be great on some underwear or swimming shorts.

          3. The balance of evidence is weighted extremely heavily toward community mask use being effective.

            Imagine being on the operating table. An anesthesia mask is placed over your mouth and nose.

            “Inhale and count backwards from 10.” you are told.

            Just before losing consciousness, you hear the voice of your surgeon, “I have rights! I will not wear a mask during this surgery! Haven’t you heard how bad it is to breath your own CO2?!”

            1. Would not bother me.
              Studies have shown that surgical masks are ineffective in the operating theater as far as preventing infections. The infection rate with and without masks is identical, yet they keep them because people like you freak out about it.

              The balance of the evidence has long been that community mask wearing is ineffective, which is why that has been conventional wisdom for long before we knew about COVID. SARS, colds, and influenza are not stopped by masks, which is why the CDC and WHO (and others) advised against their use in the beginning.

              Now we have this sudden about face, and we’re supposed to believe that the new advice is the truth and the conventional wisdom (which was conventional for a reason) about respiratory viruses not being inhibited by community masks is wrong.

              What Fauci told us, that they lied before to protect supplies of masks for health care workers, is too nutty to believe. Was there a shortage of old T-shirts or bandannas? That’s what they have been telling us to use since they changed their minds. If they knew that masks work, why would they poison the well by saying that they don’t just because of a temporary shortage? They could have told us then to use makeshift face coverings until the shortage ended, and it would have communicated what they want us to believe (now), but that is not what they said.

              I’ve seen several of the “studies” that show that masks are effective. They center on the mask’s ability to stop particles of the size of emitted respiratory droplets, which everyone has been saying is the main way the virus spreads. Now they’re discovering that whaddaya know, it spreads in aerosols just like the flu and cold (many colds themselves being coronaviruses). So you talk or breathe or cough or sneeze into your mask, and the thing stops the droplets that might be full of virions. Ok, great, study over, it worked, everyone go home, right?

              Well, what happens to those virions after that? Are we to assume that they will evaporate along with the droplet?

              The droplet evaporates, leaving the virions behind, sitting there on the mask. Then the person exhales, and whoosh! Bunches of those virions are swept up in the flow through the mask (which offers no resistance to particles as small as a virus), and are now floating around in the room as an aerosol, where they can remain for hours. Each time a virus shedder exhales or talks, droplets are expelled and converted into aerosols by evaporation, adding to the concentration of virions in the room.

              The mask, which was “proven” effective by virtue of its ability to stop droplets, is able to convert those droplets (that fall to the ground in around six feet, hence the six foot distance rule) to aerosols (that easily penetrate masks and remain in the air for hours).

              That’s not any kind of protection. It’s the reverse of protection. But the study did correctly demonstrate that the mask can stop a droplet!

              People have been taught to believe that governments are the solvers of all problems, so when we have a virus problem, they expect the government to fix it. More lockdowns will, like the first round, harm more than they hurt. So what is a government agency to do?

              People demand action, though, so they get action… CDC reverses its own advice and now says to wear a mask, so don’t bother them anymore about doing something. Now the buck has been passed to the state, county, or city governments, so the frightened action-demanders can focus on them instead. Now it’s on those governments to use the CDC advice to justify a mask mandate, and those who still remain scared can yell at the people who recognize that the masks are infection control theater.

              1. Excellent summation. Masks are binkies for a freaked out populace. It helps the freaked out rest easy because gubmint is doing something, lol.

            2. The balance of evidence is weighted extremely heavily toward community mask use being effective.

              Imagine being on the operating table. An anesthesia mask is placed over your mouth and nose.

              “Inhale and count backwards from 10.” you are told.

              Just before losing consciousness, you hear the voice of your surgeon, “I have rights! I will not wear a mask during this surgery! Haven’t you heard how bad it is to breath your own CO2?!”

              Would you feel better if he wore a mask and then committed some other mistake that killed you? Because that’s much more likely. Depending on the procedure and the surgeon, putting on the gas mask is the most dangerous part.

              You remind me of my wife. She was planning and booking one of our vacations and found a deal on a flight, when she said, “Oh no, we can’t take that flight. It leaves on Fri. the 13th. What if the plane crashes.” I responded, “So if we spend more on a plane that crashes on Sat. the 14th you’ll be OK with that?”

              You don’t have any rational reason to be scared, you just want to be scared. Worse still, you feel the need to accost others with your fear.

    3. Also, the implications of the study end, not wherever anyone with passing reasoning abilities might surmise, but only where experts say it does.

      Study after study has demonstrated cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses. Which means that both the R0 and herd immunity levels are much lower than not just original predictions but even the clinical estimates based on infected and suffering individuals. There are loads of people out there partially or even effectively immune to the disease without ever encountering it.

      The lockdowns were dumb as fuck and, at this point, I likely wouldn’t take the vaccine even if they paid me.

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  3. I see people talking like a vaccine will make everything go back to normal. Millions of people will get the vaccine and then be shocked when things don’t go back to 100% normal. You’ll see headlines like, “Sure, millions have taken an effective vaccine now, BUT…” and there will excuses why it’s not over and why we can’t go back to the way it was.

    1. I think you are likely right about that. The difference is that I don’t think the public will tolerate that answer. I think finally they will have had enough of that nonsense. The petty tyrants didn’t think a vaccine was possible this quickly. So, they convinced people things couldn’t go back to normal until their was one. They are going to play hell walking back from that.

      1. And there’s always the “I Am Legend” outcome.

      2. Right. Just like 9/11.

      3. The vaccine research is not done, not even close. This is just phase one. The earliest this could be ready after phase 3 is October and more likely the beginning of 2021. The reason your “petty tyrants,” also known as experienced immunologists to others, said this is because that’s how long the clinical trials take. They weren’t trying to oppress anyone, but to share their knowledge.

        1. Juice: ” “Sure, millions have taken an effective vaccine now, BUT…” and there will excuses why it’s not over and why we can’t go back to the way it was..”

          How does your comment address his concern? When/if a vaccine appears, the immunologists can go back to their day jobs and leave us alone.

          1. It depends, if Biden wins the media will tell us all the nightmare is over and we can go back to life as usual. If Trumps wins the media will continue amplifying the immunologists (the ones they agree with anyway) to keep people scared

            1. Then maybe we should elect Biden so they’ll leave us alone. I’m serious. A Trump win may be too expensive.

      4. They’ll just use more race grievance riots to keep the people in our place

    2. Politicians especially will use the hope of a vaccine as justification for extending lockdowns. Flattening the curve has long since been discarded.

      1. It went from flattening the curve to “no one can ever get the virus anywhere and you will remain locked in your home until that happens”.

        1. Is there any doubt now that lockdowns are to “flatten the Trump?”

          1. None whatsoever.

    3. The dirty secrets of these vaccines like the flu vaccine is that coronavirus and flu strains mutate yearly. The flu vaccine is at best a guess as to which strain will be most prevalent that year based on early case data. It is less than 50% odds to be the right choice.

      We have seen the coronavirus mutate even this season, so any vaccine will at best be a yearly guess like the flu vaccine.

      Yet we are still locking shit down.

      1. That’s not a “dirty secret” . That’s how viruses work.

        1. That’s not a “dirty secret” . That’s how viruses work.

          You mean Hepatitis? Measles? Mumps? Chicken pox? Smallpox? Rubella? Polio? All viruses mutate yearly and require regular vaccinations in order to be effectively prevented and/or eradicated?

          Fucking dumbass.

      2. The dirty secret part is that the Communist Chinese Virus is no different; the only difference is the fascist response actually being accepted.
        The “mask”, actually a “cloth face covering”, is the new yellow star. This time they are going after everyone WITHOUT the designator.

      3. These are mRNA vaccines. They should still be effective even if the virus mutates.

        1. Slightly, not totally, and only until it mutates.

          They have been working on this shit since the 60s.

    4. “You’ll see headlines like, “Sure, millions have taken an effective vaccine now, BUT…” and there will excuses why it’s not over and why we can’t go back to the way it was.””

      That’s why we should never have given the authority to any government officials to wield emergency powers that go beyond what they would normally have. To a government, or any individual within it, “temporary” means “only until the sun goes nova and engulfs the earth,” and “emergency” means “whatever we say it is.”

      Whatever threat is out there, the government itself (any government, take your pick) is a bigger one.

    5. You’ll see headlines like, “Sure, millions have taken an effective vaccine now, BUT…” and there will excuses why it’s not over and why we can’t go back to the way it was.

      Just like the bullshit with the flu vaccine, this was never about preventing the people who are immune or healthy enough to survive it. From before shit started in Wuhan this was about making 90+% of the population engage in a particular activity to benefit the other <10%.

      Collective socialist idiocy so stupid several species of hooved mammals have figured out not to engage in it. It’s the immunological/epidemiological equivalent of suggesting that the entire herd of buffalo slow down so that the wolves don’t catch the slowest one.

  4. “Recent studies have shown that protective antibodies decline steeply in a large proportion of people who have recovered from COVID-19 infections. ”

    Could Dr. Bailey please explain the clinical significance of that observation? How does it differ from the human bodies response following recovery from other forms of viral infection?

    1. Please address “cross-immunity” also, Ron.

    2. Antibodies to measles vaccination can be detected for years.

      It’s even a way to tell if you were immunized as a child but don’t have the records.

      “ An MMR test is commonly used to check for MMR immunity by students and employees who need to prove MMR immunity as part of compliance requirements.”

      1. Antibodies to most all vaccines can be detected for years. That’s not what I was asking.

        1. I’ll cut to the chase. Please understand that ‘decline steeply’ in no way indicates ‘ceases to be detectable.’ But it may create a false implication of that in the ignoranti.

          1. Even if free circulating antibody ceases to be detectable, antigenic memory can, and usually does, persist in the patient for years. Not for a lifetime, but a long enough time to be worthwhile. Sometimes it can take a couple of presentations (via a booster, say, a few months later) to get the maximal memory effect.

            1. Yes, because not detectable does not mean absent.

            2. The number of B cell memory cells that remain after an infection is cleared can be low. That does not mean the body will not be able to mount a rapid immune response if the antigen is encountered again in the future.

          2. ‘Detectability’ of an antibody in a lab is not a measure of how an antibody works in the body in response to the antigen that that antibody works against.

            Prevalence of antibodies in the body is the far better measure. Unless you are assuming that the plasma cells (which produce those antibodies afaik) have different production speeds – really fast if the antibody is barely detectable, really slow if the antibody is prevalent

      2. The measles vaccine is a live, attenuated virus. Such viruses continue to multiply at a low rate in the body, presenting a continual “booster” to the immune system.

        The SARS vaccines currently in development to my knowledge are all killed or component vaccines.

        1. Generally no. While the attenuated virus is ‘live’ and does infect cells and replicate, it is a weakened form of infection that usually causes no lasting harm and (like even a full strength wild infection) is eventually cleared by the immune response resulting in no ongoing infection and persisting immunity to any subsequent exposure.

    3. I can address it: It’s typical response to viral infections.

      1. And yet – it’s not.

        One of the major reasons the 1968 flu was pandemic for only a brief time before then going into the endemic (more like seasonal flu) phase was because a significant portion of the population had a partial resistance to it in their bodies from antibodies produced by the 1957 flu and the vaccines post-1957. Those previous antibodies weren’t specific to the 1968 strain – but they provided some degree of ‘assistance’. Which meant the needed level of infection to achieve herd immunity (roughly the threshhold at which pandemic stops and endemic can begin) was lower. That however is roughly 11 years later.

        One of the speculations about why the 1918 flu caused little disruption in 30-60 year olds (it seriously affected under 30’s and over-60’s) was that one of the 1890’s flu pandemics (1889, 1894, 1898) created an antibody response that helped protect against the 1918 outbreak and speeded its move from pandemic to endemic. It makes sense as a hypothesis – but there has been little/no research on any flu outbreak pre-1918 (and can’t be at this point). If true – that’s 20 years later.

        re covid – obviously flu antibodies are irrelevant. Antibodies produced against other strains of coronavirus may work partially or kind-of against this particular strain. But those aren’t actually very prevalent. Virtually no one outside Asia/ME has SARS or MERS antibodies. And the other ‘common cold’ coronaviruses are not really common causes of the ‘common cold’ (less than 15% – and there are well over 100 viruses that cause those symptoms which is the main reason there is no ‘vaccine’). So hopefully they work partially against covid19. Because that would lower the herd immunity threshhold needed to move covid19 from pandemic to endemic

        1. Which meant the needed level of infection to achieve herd immunity (roughly the threshhold at which pandemic stops and endemic can begin) was lower.

          So, since the same/similar cross-reactivity has been shown for COVID both though antibody studies, immunity testing, *and* vaccine trials you’ll now admit that not only the Imperial College’s models but even many models generated after, which don’t take this into account, were fatally flawed, right?

          Or are you going to deny the science?

        2. Antibodies produced against other strains of coronavirus may work partially or kind-of against this particular strain. But those aren’t actually very prevalent. Virtually no one outside Asia/ME has SARS or MERS antibodies. And the other ‘common cold’ coronaviruses are not really common causes of the ‘common cold’ (less than 15% – and there are well over 100 viruses that cause those symptoms which is the main reason there is no ‘vaccine’).

          Unquestioned and absolutely fucking stupid doesn’t describe your “Yup, no SARS here.” ideology. I’d say you’re an embarassment to your peers but really that level of stupidity puts you in a group by yourself. I don’t generally understand suicide but yours would make perfect sense to me.

  5. I’m much more concerned with long term safety of these vaccines. Is that even a concern right now? Really going to leash millions or billions of doses of a new vaccine in less than a year? That’s a no from me…..

    1. As long as it is enough to calm the Karens and get the government officials to back the f off, it’s good enough. I’m not all that concerned by the virus, but the hysteria over it concerns me greatly.

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  7. It’s common for circulating antibodies from B cells to decline gradually after an infection, since it would be wasteful for the immune system to have them circulating when they’re no longer needed. The usual situation is that not only does T-cell mediated immunity persist, but that B memory cells can proliferate and ramp up production of antibody rapidly on a subsequent challenge.

    So what this means is that antigens derived from SARS-CoV2 behave the expected way for virus antigens.

    I’d want a lot of testing before I’d take such a vaccine, considering that severe Covid-19 disease does not seem to be a common result of infection by the virus, but rather from a somewhat delayed and deranged response by the immune system to antigens from the infection in a small subset of those infected. How will we know any given vaccine won’t cause the same disease? I’d want to know if there’s an adequate IL-4 response to keep generalized inflammation from occurring.

    1. Wanting a lot of testing is partly why I avoid the yearly flu shots. They are different every year, some work better than others, and I rarely get colds of any kind, so my attitude is mostly why mess with success? If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it, etc, especially with such a sorry track record of efficacy as those flu shots have.

      1. The regular annual flu vaccine is a mix of three different viral strains (hence the ‘trivalent’ part of it’s name) consisting of two type-A and one type-B influenza. The specific strains are a ‘best guess’ of what is likely to show up in the US during flu season as chosen from multiple strains sampled from various places around the globe in the later half of the prior year. there is also a four strain version ‘quadrivalent’ as well.

        So yes, some years it works better than others.

    2. This is pure speculation on my part, so don’t rely on this to make your decision about whether to take this vaccine when it becomes available. The reason this coronavirus can cause such a deranged response from the immune system might be from the spike protein infecting via the ACE2 receptor. Since this receptor is found in the lung epithelial tissue, but also in the arteries, heart, kidneys, and intestines, if the virus spreads to these other tissues, it may lead to the cytokine storm that results in the widespread inflammation associated with the severe reactions to this virus. The mRNA vaccines would not be able to spread and infect other tissues through the ACE2 receptor, since they would not form complete virions.

      1. This is pure speculation on my part,

        Yeah, it sounds like a parroting of bad collective guesswork of professionals that have no idea to me. There’s some indication of some rise in cytokine levels in some patients (Inflammation in sick people? No shit!) but nothing like the cytokine storm that other infectious diseases trigger. The ‘cytokine storm’ has become (yet another) medical buzzword that nobody can definitively diagnose or treat but that everybody waves around like a holy grail.

        Spanish flu causes cytokine storm. Ebola is notorious for causing cytokine storm. The people who act like this disease is killing people via cytokine storm seem to prefer to ignoring the obvious distinctions in both the epidemiology as well as the disease progression.

        1. There’s something wrong with the hypothesis that COVID-19 causes cytokine storms, which are overreactions by the immune system to the point of damaging tissue. Fatalities and serious illness from COVID-19 occurs mainly in people with a weakened immune system, which would seem to rule out the immune system raging out of control.

          When you see a pattern like the 1918 “Spanish” flu, of healthy young adults dying quickly and at nearly as high a fatality rate as children and the elderly, that is probably cytokine storms. COVID-19 has the opposite pattern: healthy young adults and teenagers are little affected, but nursing homes have a high fatality rate.

    3. How will we know any given vaccine won’t cause the same disease? I’d want to know if there’s an adequate IL-4 response to keep generalized inflammation from occurring.

      Isn’t that what the several rounds of tests are for?

      But I am with you. I won’t get vaccinated until it has been tried on about half a billion human guinea pigs.

    4. Define a lot of testing = I’d want a lot of testing before I’d take such a vaccine… Is Moderns P3 trial of 30K enough, or are you looking for something more extensive and lengthy?

      1. I’d be looking for testing they probably won’t do: testing on large numbers of the kind of population who have an increased risk of severe disease from Covid-19, followed for long enough.

    5. Cytokine storms are another hypothesis about why the Spanish flu of 1918 killed so many younger people compared to the older generation, which is the reverse of the normal paradigm. It could be that the healthier immune systems of the young people led to overreactions of the inflammatory system that caused more harm than the virus they were reacting to.

      1. Ebola is the prototype for cytokine storm. The hypothesis about the Spanish flu is based on it. That is to say, flu deaths have a predictable progression and epidemiology and the 1918 flu deviated wildly from the norm. Ebola doesn’t kill like the flu.

        The leap from ebola’s triggering of cytokine storm to COVID’s triggering of cytokine storm is extremely simple-minded (like no other diseases kill differently than the flu?) and steals several bases (it’s not 100% clear the 1918 flu actually did trigger cytokine-storm widely or to a large degree).

  8. I’m no big-city doctor type but do we ever beat cold viruses with vaccines?

    1. They did come out with a polyvalent vaccine against rhinovirus over 60 years ago. It didn’t work.

    2. This coronavirus is different. Everyone will be wearing a mask during the injections so it will be imbued with special powers

      1. No! That’s not how it works! You have to yell BLACK LIVES MATTER when they inject it.

        1. Shouldn’t that be “Blacks’ Lives Matter”?

          1. Depends on if you are a racist or just a clinger – – – – – –

    3. No , there are too many cold causing viruses, and multiple strains of those viruses to realistically create a safe and effective vaccine.

      1. Yeah, but they tried.

    4. I’m no city slicker myself, but what kind of fool would get a vaccine for a harmless little cold?

      1. This is actually another reason why a cold vaccine hasn’t been major target of research

    5. If these mRNA vaccines turn out to work well, then we might well be on our way to beat cold viruses as well.

    6. I’m no big-city doctor type but I would think that if you had a vaccine that was marginally effective you could use it to build up a pool of people who are generally ill and otherwise die from the flu.

      That is, until a slightly different or stronger respiratory illness that you didn’t have a vaccine for came along and wiped it out.

      I wonder what the flu shot ratio is among the COVID dead? My money’s on 95% or higher. Anybody wanna place bets?

  9. To quote the great physics professor Maximilian Arturo “once again biology is shown to be the last refuge for those who don’t have the math for real science”

    1. Modern biology requires high levels of math. What do you think is more complicated, elementary particle interactions or protein folding?

      1. I’ll take quantum mechanics for 1000, Alex.

      2. Modern biology requires high levels of math. What do you think is more complicated, elementary particle interactions or protein folding?

        Are you a biologist? Did you spend a lot of time writing protein folding equations? Do you do the math by hand? Do the professors mark points off if you don’t show your work?

      3. My father was a Biology professor, who changed his major to Bio after he flunked out of Chemistry due to trouble with the math. That was over 60 years ago, but has Bio changed _that_ much? Protein folding sounds more like organic chemistry to me.

  10. Phil Kerpen
    @kerpen
    Reporter asks Orange Co Fla health official if the two COVID deaths listed as in their 20s had any underlying conditions. Reply:

    “The first one didn’t have any. He died in a motorcycle accident.”

    Steve Wood
    @SteveWoodUS
    Replying to @kerpen
    “…but the fact that the individual didn’t die from COVID-19…died in the crash. But you could actually argue that it could have been the COVID-19 that caused him to crash. I don’t know the conclusion of that one.”

    1. But you could actually argue that it could have been the COVID-19 that caused him to crash.

      Damn, this is one insidious disease.

      1. Motorcycles were incredibly safe before the covid!

      2. No helmet and within 6 ft. of another motorist on your motorcycle? That’s how the COVID gets you!

      3. Was he wearing a mask tho?

    2. Nicole Saphier, MD
      @NBSaphierMD
      BREAKING: Health officials from numerojs states have mistakenly included positive results from antibody tests when reporting new COVID-19 cases to the CDC, grossly inflating new cases. The scientific equivalent to “double dipping.”

  11. “Very well….if everyone agrees to get the rushed-out-to-market vaccine we will end the lockdowns.”
    (Time passes)
    “Not everyone was vaccinated?! Too bad! I guess we will have to ban the things we dont approve of again!” *suppresses gleeful chuckle*

    1. “Very well….if everyone agrees to get the rushed-out-to-market vaccine we will end the lockdowns.”
      (Time passes)
      “Not everyone was vaccinated?! Too bad! I guess we will have to ban the things we dont approve of again!” *suppresses gleeful chuckle strokes nipples*

  12. As Bailey’s article was released, Sullum began to write his followup, “Bad News: COVID-19 Vaccines Don’t Do A Damn Thing”

    1. Not at all true;
      1. they generate magnificent profits, and
      2. have set the stage to dump safety protocols for every other disease.

      1. I’m trying to get people to think there’s a behind the scenes power struggle between Bailey and Sullum, based on no evidence at all. Your inability to get the joke is screwing things up.

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  14. Mr. Bailey….This article is significantly better. It is much more science oriented. Appreciated the links.

  15. It’s still speculative, but it looks increasingly likely that a good portion of humanity may already have developed some T-cell immune protection against the novel coronavirus.

    This seems KIND OF important.

    1. Yeah, a little bit.

      https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-020-0389-z

      In a study by Grifoni et al.1, reactivity was detected in 50% of donor blood samples obtained in the USA between 2015 and 2018, before SARS-CoV-2 appeared in the human population.

  16. How to determine which sheep gets it?

    This whole thing is smelling more and more like a scam.

    Nice economy you got there….

    1. How to determine which sheep gets it?

      Ask Tony.

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  18. Human beings sure are funny thinking they’re smarter than good ole mom nature. Good luck boys and girls. The last laugh is always on us.

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  20. Memories of the swine flu vaccine of 1976 comes to mind. I will not be taking one. Will let herd immunity take care of me, as those, except for sick and/or elderly, should.

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