Coronavirus

Despite Coronavirus, Sweden Refuses To Shutter Businesses and Limit Gatherings

The Scandinavian country is betting against draconian restrictions and in favor of the free movement of people and goods.

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The lights are going out all over Europe, the U.S., and increasingly the rest of the world. Borders are closing, cities are shutting down, and governments are imposing export bans. It looks like one of the first victims of the new coronavirus is globalization. 

The World Bank has estimated that 80 to 90 percent of the economic damage from epidemics usually comes from aversion behavior, not from disease, deaths, and the associated loss of production. This time, due to the massive scale of the shutdowns, that cost is going to be much bigger.

Perhaps not in Sweden, though. It's hard to predict even the next few hours or days, but it is interesting that Sweden—the one European country that did not want to shut its borders, did not close schools, and has not banned gatherings of fewer than 500 people—so far seems to be containing the spread better than other countries have.

With beautiful exaggeration, Bloomberg News reported that "Swedes Try Laissez-Faire Model in Controversial Virus Response." Sweden did not do this out of libertarian zeal, but because of a tradition of listening to experts and health authorities, who thought it better to track individual cases within the country than to shut everything down. When everybody is awaiting the latest epidemiological data to make decisions, there is less room for political grandstanding and strongman rhetoric. 

There is also a case to be made that the culture of personal responsibility and interpersonal trust makes it easier for the Swedish government to leave the ultimate decisions to the people. When the public health agency recommends working from home and avoiding unnecessary gatherings, most Swedes abide by it, even without putting police on the streets and imposing stiff penalties. That leaves necessary room for local knowledge and personal needs. Individuals, organizations, and businesses can go ahead anyway, if their particular situation makes it especially important that they remain open or move around freely. 

And by the way, it might help that Sweden is a country of introverts, famous for distant relations between generations. Swedes did social distancing before it was cool.

There are reasons to fear that this near-consensus toward cordoning off whole nations will strengthen an already ongoing global reactionary impulse against the movement of people and goods across borders. If we can't find our way back to an open world after this, our reaction to COVID-19 will hurt us even more than the virus. After decades of unprecedented progress at combating poverty, hunger, and disease, these trends would be reversed, and we would be even less well prepared for the next nasty surprise nature throws at us. 

Despite the popular perception, our best hope against pandemic is continued trade and cooperation across borders. Travel bans are mostly "political placebo" as U.K. health researcher Clare Wenham puts it, and the World Health Organization is advising against it, for the simple reason that COVID-19 is already everywhere, but vital supplies and medical equipment are not. 

In fact, one reason why Italy has suffered terribly seems to be that closed borders gave them a false sense of security and made them underestimate the spread already going on within the country.

It is easy to see the political logic behind bans on the export of essential equipment, implemented by countries like Germany and France at an early stage. You have to serve your own population first, right? But it's the same logic as toilet paper hoarding, and it has the same result. It forces others to do the same, which means that it is not on the market when you really have to go.

During the global food price crisis of 2010–11, many governments banned food exports to secure local supplies. But afterward, we found out that those bans were part of the problem. In fact, they accounted for 40 percent of the increase in the world price of wheat and almost a quarter of the increase in the price of corn.

So even though the world often moves in a nationalist direction during crises, it is exactly the time when we have the most urgent need for international agreements to forego beggar-thy-neighbor policies. 

Wealth, communications technology, and open science have made our response to new diseases faster than ever. In a poorer and more closed world, without mass transportation, microorganisms traveled slower but they traveled freely, recurring for hundreds of years, until they had picked almost all of us off, one by one. Today our response is also global, and therefore for the first time, mankind has a fighting chance. 

Hospitals, researchers, health authorities, and drug companies everywhere can now supply each other with instant information. They can coordinate efforts to analyze and combat the problem. By organizing clinical trials of therapeutics in many countries simultaneously, they can reach a critical mass of patients they would never have found at home.   

The pace of the response has been extraordinary. After having tried to conceal the outbreak for weeks, China announced that it had found a new coronavirus on January 2. Using technologies developed on the other side of the globe, Chinese scientists could read the complete genome of the virus and publish it on a new global hub for medical research in just a week. This information enabled researchers in Berlin to develop a test to detect infections in just six days. This is what we now use to track infected people around the world—except in the U.S., where the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention insisted on keeping it out and developing a domestic, faulty test, which set back American efforts several weeks.

When someone reveals the mechanism of the virus, researchers and algorithms everywhere can get to work on ways of attacking its weak spots. On March 25, not even three months after China admitted a new virus was on the loose, America's National Library of Medicine lists 143 potential drugs and vaccines against the virus, already recruiting (or preparing to recruit) patients to participate in clinical trials.

Those companies are, just like our health care systems, disproportionally reliant on immigrant workers. According to the immigration advocacy nonprofit Partnership for a New American Economy, eight out of 10 medical patents from leading U.S. universities are invented by someone born outside of the country. In other words, immigration bans kill Americans.

That is not all. Globalization might even prevent many pandemics from happening. A 2019 study by researchers at the universities of Oxford and Tel Aviv showed that frequent travel between populations makes us catch a lot of bugs, but also increases immunity against new strains. So apocalyptic outbreaks become less likely. This is the reason why previously isolated populations are most at risk—from Native Americans after 1492 to the swine flu in 2009, when 24 of the 30 worst affected countries were island nations.

Human mobility is like a "natural vaccination" says Oxford's Robin Thompson. The researchers speculate that this might help explain the absence of a global pandemic as severe as the Spanish flu in the last 100 years. 

That doesn't help at all when a virus that previously only affected animals mutates and jumps to humans, like the new coronavirus. Then we have no resistance and it can spread quickly.

But if the researchers are correct, the jet engine has saved millions of lives from pandemics only in the last few decades. And as even Sweden's governing Social Democrats emphasize right now, the greatest threat to our economy, our jobs, and our health is that the planes stop flying and the trucks get stuck at the border.

That is also worth taking into account before we turn off the last lights.

NEXT: First World Problem, Resolved: Hilton to Extend 2020 Status Till 2021

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  1. Meanwhile Bernie Sanders has a stroke….

    1. Damn!

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    2. Article is buzzing along nicely, then the part about immigrants? And the usual conflating of “immigrant” with “illegal immigrant”. Let’s say it again: No one is against immigration, only illegal immigration!

      1. And democrats don’t want to take your guns. If nobody is against legal immigration, then why have we reduced the number of visa’s that are being issued?

        1. Merl3noir: Perhaps so the corporations hire American workers? You know, those college graduates who are passed over by the big corporations in favor of cheap foreign labor.

        2. People who like food try to eat less all the time. I don’t see the issue.

      2. There are plenty of people against immigration in the US – or at least, against immigration resulting in giving political status to masses of people coming from very different cultures. The argument is that a guest migrant program like those in the Gulf States of the Middle East may work fine. But importing and providing citizenship to millions of people hostile to the ideas America was built on, such as freedom, free markets, and individual responsibility may not be a good idea.

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  2. I wonder what Bernie thinks of this. Or AOC.

    1. *high five*

    2. Your first mistake is assuming they’re even capable of thinking beyond the intellectual ability of a child.

    3. Do either of them think beyond concepts already ingrained?

  3. When the public health agency recommends working from home and avoiding unnecessary gatherings, most Swedes abide by it, even without putting police on the streets and imposing stiff penalties.

    The sheep will be the last ones standing? We cannot allow this, I say!

  4. It’s still cool/cold there too 45F during the day.

    Even with the cooler weather, their positive rates are only going up at less than a hundred per day.

    1. The niqaab assists in social distancing, and Scandinavians were never big on social contact anyway.

      1. If you want to know what the opposite of social distancing does to rates of contagion look at Louisiana. They have yet to see the real impact of Madrid Gras.

        1. A heavy price for getting to see (and touch) some boobs. .

    2. More importantly, they are sub-exponential.

      1. yeah, and soon all this will be over

  5. it is exactly the time when we have the most urgent need for international agreements to forego beggar-thy-neighbor policies.

    Just wondering how effective these international agreements will be in time of crisis. Can you really force China to export masks or India to export drugs when their populations are in dire need of them?

  6. Good. We have a control group to use against the likes of Newsom and Cuomo when they try to claim that they Saved the World.

    1. It will be excused for one reason or another. No two countries are identical, so there’s always an excuse.

      1. Look at Louisiana. The opposite of social distancing definitely causes disaster.

        1. Your wife’s name is Louisiana?

  7. who thought it better to track individual cases within the country than to shut everything down

    Wish I lived in a country that did the first part. Is it possible that the second part follows from the first part? Or can we just ignore the first part and go straight to the second part because ‘this isn’t even the flu and until it kills more that should be obvious’?

    As an aside though – are the other Nordics doing the same sort of thing? Superficially Sweden is doing the worst of the Norway, Denmark, Finland lot

    1. You seem super upset that people aren’t stupidly overreacting as much as you want them to.

      1. Every country before us has gone through these discussions. Why can we not learn from those who have already been through it? “Well, surely we don’t need to shut down the economy. Surely this won’t be too bad…” said every single one of them, up until the point they realized that wasn’t going to work.

        I agree that there is a point of diminishing returns and there needs to be a cost/benefit analysis, but this dismissive horseshit is just wasting time and undermining any efforts that actually are being taken.

        The only GOOD thing about the virus is that it will relieve the pressure on the social security fund…. That, and it has done more to stop mass shootings than any gun control law ever could.

    2. In fact, one reason why Italy has suffered terribly seems to be that closed borders gave them a false sense of security and made them underestimate the spread already going on within the country.

      Lol, no. They got fucked by a perfect storm of the importation of Chinese workers to do heavy labor, Chinese tourism, stupid, “hug a Chinaman to wash away your racist sins” stunts, and having an older population.

      The result has been the average age of death is 78.5, and a mortality rate of less than 1% when the “uncounted” infected numbers assumed by Italy’s own statistician are factored in.

      1. not to mention the thousands of Chinese expat workers in the textile plants in norhtern Italy who went back home to,… pay attention now, WUHAN CITY for their annual big all district week long celebration.
        Yup. And the Italian customs and immigration folk never thought twice about letting them ALL back in,unchecked.

        I’ve also seen some stats on the co-morbidity rate in Italy…. half had three or more factors BESIDES COVID 19, half of the rest “only had” two, and another fifteen percent had only one such factor. The percentage of deaths written in the record as DUE to coronavirus was some ninety percent with one or more attendant cause of death factors, These WOULD< with a high likelihood, have died within a short time if CV had never come round for a visit. Yet these nubers pad the "death rade DUE to COVID 19" by several multiples.

        There are lies, damn lies, and statistics. The world-dominationg ying media tweaked the numbers by deliberatly leaving out the co-morbitidy factor, putting all deaths WITH COVID 19 as DUE TO COVID 19.

        Liars.

        Same thing as happened with the deaths at the Kirkland rest home… infected by one family that had recetnly returned frum Wuhan, ALL the deaths there had multiple co-morbidity factors. Yet they are using those to pad the statistices trying to make CV to be far more lethal than it is.
        Liars……

        1. good catch. Covid 19 would be a lot less scary if we could get some actual info on it and everyone wasn’t trying to play political bullshit games covering their asses.

      2. I think there is also a cultural difference, in “personal space”. Most Americans and northern Europeans prefer to be about 3 feet apart when conversing. In my limited experience, Italians move in to about half that distance. That considerably increases the number of particles transferred from one person to another.

    3. Stuff your PANIC flag up your ass, stick first.

  8. microorganisms traveled slower but they traveled freely, recurring for hundreds of years, until they had picked almost all of us off, one by one

    I’m sorry, what?

  9. If they don’t blink, we will have a control group. It is actually vitally important to the world to get some sense of whether any of this had a real effect.

    1. Scientists at McMurdo Station (78ºS Latitude) swim nekkid in the hot springs next to Mount Erebus on Ross Island, and even rub noses eskimo style. No communavirus there! The farther from the Equator, the more folks can thumb their noses at non-venereal diseases. The kleptocracy knows this. Look at the effort and expense they put into keeping the Libertarian Party off the ballot in Alaska!

    2. South Korea is a better example IMO. They contained the virus with extensive testing and case isolation without shutdowns.

  10. In fact, one reason why Italy has suffered terribly seems to be that closed borders gave them a false sense of security and made them underestimate the spread already going on within the country.

    To say nothing about they sold their souls to Communist China to get loans and infrastructure projects, staffed by hundreds of workers travelling back and forth like carbon based petri dishes.
    Oh, wait. They DID say nothing.

    1. Reason is cranking up the Big Lies for Globalism as the pandemic highlites all the disasters it causes.

      Italy is fucked because of Globalism.

      The Italians sold factories in northern Italy to the Chinese, who were flying in their own workforce of 100k from *Wuhan*.

      The US is fucked by Globalism by the lying CCP, the complicit WHO, and our globalist friendly ruling class who backed them and resisted attempts to shut down air travel. Globalism is the collaboration of the international #DeepState. They’re on *their* side, not ours.

      The US is fucked by Globalism because we gutted our medical manufacturing, making us dependent on the dictatorship determined to supplant us, and other countries like India who are naturally withholding those supplies now that their citizens need them.

      The US is fucked by Globalism because a *service* economy is of course naturally dependent on human interaction for those services, and can’t produce them during an epidemic.

      Turns out when the shit hits the fan, those who produce *stuff* will still have stuff, and those who don’t, won’t. Who knew?

      1. “ According to the immigration advocacy nonprofit Partnership for a New American Economy, eight out of 10 medical patents from leading U.S. universities are invented by someone born outside of the country. In other words, immigration bans kill Americans.”

        What the fuck? In other words you are a dishonest ideological hack.

  11. I’ll be damned, fucking Sweden really is more of a free country than the United States now. That kind of makes me want to cry, and it also makes me wish death on the lefty scum in the government/media complex who did this to us.

    1. Sweden is NOT more free than the USA.

      The Swedish are just better at navigating the endless Socialist rules of the elite and government class. Swedes just ignore certain rules even though they are on the books. Additionally, Sweden has few police who are willing to go all Red Guards on their fellow Swede.

      1. > Sweden has few police who are willing to go all Red Guards on their fellow Swede

        What makes you say that?

      2. I’m guessing that is has something to do with the mandatory conscription in Sweden. When most of the folks in the country have the knowledge, and possibly the means to fight back, being a hammer to their nail maybe isn’t the smartest option.

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  13. Sweden should do what they want, but good grief…

    It looks like one of the first victims of the new coronavirus is globalization.

    that is the most Reason take on the coronavirus yet

    1. They’re right about that.

      The pandemic has exposed the flaws of Globalism for all to see. Globalism is toast.

      All but the most dogmatic globalist ideologues, i.e., Reason, can now see what a disaster the globalists inflicted on the US by enriching Emperor Xi, and worse, to make ourselves *dependent* on him for our very lives.

      1. I hope the idea of mostly outsourcing all your medical supplies dies a horrible death.

        1. Especially outsourcing all your medical supplies to an authoritarian government that doesn’t respect human rights or environmental or labor standards, and owns a big portion of your debt.

  14. “According to the immigration advocacy nonprofit Partnership for a New American Economy, eight out of 10 medical patents from leading U.S. universities are invented by someone born outside of the country. In other words, immigration bans kill Americans.”

    Medical students and fellows aren’t *quite* the same as “climate refugees” and “undocumented workers”. But please, continue… I think you were just going to tell us about how Sweden has never has any issues at all with recent immigrants?

  15. Sweden did not do this out of libertarian zeal, but because of a tradition of listening to experts and health authorities, who thought it better to track individual cases ”

    As opposed to all the other health authorities in this country who said shut it down. Choices were made, I like the Sweden model but our health authorities chose a different path. BTW this was clearly an open borders article that fails because this time of year Sweden does not have a warm weather border with millions of people trying to cross it, only the rich and healthy tourist

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  17. Yes Reason, the U.S. should be opening the borders to lessen virus overloads. The bonus is that sanctuary cities are natural small government, fiscal conservative, freedom loving, up off your knees individualists. The proof is in the super tuesday votes!

  18. For a second I thought the article said written by Jonah Goldberg

  19. Reason writers become a greater degree of dullard by the hour

    1. They’re cranking up the Big Lies in desperation. They know Globalism is over now.

  20. If we can’t find our way back to an open world after this, our reaction to COVID-19 will hurt us even more than the virus.

    News flash… the “open world is WHY this mess got so out of hand so quickly.

    ANyone else aware of Ellis Island, the small rock pile in New York Harbour that was THE gateway for all the immigrants coming from Europe and elsewhere to take up residence in the US?

    EVERYONE had to be insptected..including their stuff. This even included a brief but thorough MEDICAL EXAM. Anyone presenting any symptoms of any contagious disease was instantly quarantined, and returned to their country of origin on the next steamship headed for the rising sun.
    And the liberal nutjobs eant our borders erased? No chance. Italy allowed thousands of their resident expat textile workers to return to Italy FRO WUHAN CHINA after that city’s annual big celebration……. in January. GUESS why COVID 9 exploded in that region two weeks later?

    Trump has wanted to close our southern border since he took office. He also wanted to limit entry from certain known. possible sources of “trouble” of various sorts. But NOOOOooo we cna’t have that. Its RAY cyst. Idiots. That is precisely HOW the virus entered Washington STate to infect and take out all those folks at the rest home.Now it is running loose in the Lake Washington area, and can anyone here remember what specific population roams about that entire region, uncontrolled, less than third world sanitation, very close quarters, poor diet, multiple addiction/dependency factors, adamantely opposed to anyone or anything putting any limits upon their conduct or habits, AND who have been exempted from ALL the government controls imposed on the mere peons in that state?

    1. At least we saved a nickel on our medical supplies for years.

      Surely that was worth making ourselves dependent for our very lives on a dictatorship bent on destroying us.

      As I’ve been saying in response to Boehm for a long time:
      Enriching Slave Emperor Xi. What could possibly go wrong?

    2. in the Lake Washington area, and can anyone here remember what specific population roams about that entire region,

      I can’t. I’m not in your bubble.

      Perhaps Lake Washington means something to you like Crime Hills in Orlando means to me. Spell it out for us slow learners as if there are more places than Seattle in the world.

  21. I began calling it the Dutch Strategy, which some countries like New Zealand seemed to be adopting, if even accidentally, but the Netherlanders gave it up and the Kiwis have now abandoned it with a full shutdown and their police commissioner making silly threats over walking the dog.

    So it’s nice to see the Swedes sticking to their guns, but this is a poor article since it really doesn’t go into any detail about the response there and the data coming out of Sweden.

  22. And it seems like the US will go this route, too. Trump has no appetite for a shutdown; you can see how tiresome he finds the whole charade. His instincts are right although he expresses it inelegantly, but that’s far better than the likes of an Obama being oh-so eloquent about an authoritarian response. We get it.

  23. I am thrilled we will have a control country that did not give in to hysteria and shut down its economy.
    As a medical doctor, I have been amazed at what is being done.
    Social distancing, and quarantine of at risk people with Co morbidity makes sense.
    Shutting down every restaurant and gun store is crazy.
    30 million Americans got flu Last year, 30,000 died from it, including 144 children.
    No one suggested shutting down professional sports.
    I wish the media would show ordinary flu statistics

    1. I never heard that the flu overloaded all the hospitals and ICUs in a short time period. The problem is not the morbidity rate, but the speed of contagion rate. Duh.

      1. They “overload all the hospitals and ICUs” because we waste excessive resources on people we know are going to die anyway. 80-90% of COVID patients who die would have died within a year anyway. And it’s not clear what percentage of the rest would have recovered with less dramatic interventions. If you’re over 80, it makes little sense to give away ICU beds at taxpayer expense. And, frankly, if you gave 80+-year olds a choice between $250k or going into an ICU, most of them would likely choose the money to leave to their children.

        Our ridiculous combination of socialized medicine for the elderly and a monopolistic medical industry creates perverse incentives.

        1. Plus when grandma dies you have the house all to yourself.

        2. Sure, now repeat that when it’s your parents being triaged.

  24. Much of this article is correct but the bit about Italy and the virus is wrong. Last year, I travelled to Italy and commented on the number of Chinese tourists, who seemed to be greater than 50 percent of the total. I remembered that it used to be Americans in the majority. Because the PRC made the existence of the virus a state secret, many unsuspecting Chinese citizens spread it without knowing it. It is not beyond belief that Chairman Xi and his politburo thought that was a good idea. It is also possible that they didn’t need help to publish the RNA sequence because they built it themselves. Yes, tell me that’s impossible-and Sparta never threw sick, dead bodies into Athens to win their war. A high priority for China is to get rid of Trump and get the pro-PRC democrats in power. I think they may have been successful.

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  26. Sweden did not do this out of libertarian zeal, but because of a tradition of listening to experts and health authorities, who thought it better to track individual cases within the country than to shut everything down.

    So THEIR experts (and the ones in the UK as well, though they were ignored) say something completely different from OUR experts. And here in the US, you’re called a “COVID denier” if you’re not completely on board with a federal takeover of the economy.

  27. I lived 10 years in Sweden. I’m not surprised.

    This might sound unfair, but I compare Sweden’s decision in the coronavirus case to Sweden’s decision to allow Nazi’s to use the Swedish railways to invade Norway. When it comes to weighing benefits to Swedes to benefits of people outside Sweden, there is no balancing. It is always selfish 100%, solidarity 0%.

  28. Why aren’t we hearing about the successful prevention and treatment of covid19 with the proven, cheap and available drug chloroquine?

    Massive testing and a fast treatment on infected with hydroxychloroquine has been successful in Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam.

    The French “reference daily” Le Monde, Facebook France and the French Ministry of Health undertook to censor a video of Professor Didier Raoult, one of the world’s most renowned infectiologists, because by announcing the existence of a proven drug in China against Covid-19, he highlighted the lack of a medical basis for the measures taken by President Macron.

    Governments in bed with big Pharma ignore cheap, proven and available chloroquine while the medical community becomes overwhelmed.

    They are part of the 1% that always comes out ahead, before during and after a Great Depression.

  29. This is brilliant! There are NO cases of Communavirus in Antarctica, or from Punta Arenas (53ºS Latitude) down to the imaginary Bozone Hole. Stockholm at 59ºN Latitude also has by coincidence a low infection rate. The solution then is to move Louisiana to the Chilean province of Magallanes or to Northern Iceland and things’ll be hunky dory, everybody kissing and hugging with no paranoid CDC goons spreading rumors of “menacing” or “neighborhood effects” as a pretext for bullying people. Q.E.D. The Dems are sure to add uninspected entry planks to their open borders platform once they read the article.

  30. Oh Sweden.

    Apparently they are always fine and nobody can replicate it.

  31. Wouldn’t it be really interesting if there were parity between the £ and the $ when the Corona Virus bans are lifted?, and the channels of business between the UK and US are very much open?

    https://www.wilddigital.co.uk/we-know-we-are-being-lied-to/

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  34. Canada’s Yukon Territory, Nunavut (alongside Greenland) and Northwest Territories all together have four (04) Communivius cases. This could be 3 allowing for false positives, but it works out to about one case per million square kilometers. So, the closer to Santa’s Workshop, the safer from Communivirus. And the same goes for the Antarctic Ozone Hole, which is every bit as real as the North Pole. Source: CBC.ca/news/

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  36. Interesting. Meanwhile, I heard on Mad Dog Sports yesterday someone is saying sports won’t return (at least with fans) until a vaccine is found.

    Sounds a tad excessive to me.

  37. “the culture of personal responsibility and interpersonal trust makes it easier for the Swedish government to leave the ultimate decisions to the people.”

    Bingo! and a gold star for Norberg. That’s the underlying truth for libertarians in almost every policy debate, from Medicare to gun control. If America had a culture of personal responsibility, we wouldn’t need the nanny state. So long as we have a country of irresponsible “victims,” a spoiled affluent class, and hordes of welfare brats, we will see our liberties eroded.

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  39. Interesting. Meanwhile, I heard on Mad Dog Sports yesterday someone is saying sports won’t return (at least with fans) until a vaccine is found.

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  42. I wonder what Trollberg has to say about any of this.

  43. Jesus. That doesn’t look good.

  44. A virus does not respond to drugs.

  45. Oh Jesus. STFU.

    Like all of the retarded globalists, you rattle off some of the pros of globalism, without ANY of the cons. Like the fact that China has the power to cut the USA off from 97% of our antibiotics!

    I’m all for smart aspects of internationalism, but all aspects aren’t smart. This recent situation shows exactly why it’s wise to be self sufficient in many areas. China is drowning in N95 masks, while we’re fucked, because we make virtually none of them here anymore. They won’t allow exports. That’s dumb. Ditto for a ton of other key supplies.

  46. If Sweden comes out as the next major Super Power after this pandemic, they completely earned it

  47. I have a message from the future. Sweden regretted this decision.

  48. I earned $5000 ultimate month by using operating online only for 5 to 8 hours on my computer and this was so smooth that i personally couldn’t accept as true with before working on this website……….. Read More

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