Economics

Fight For $15 Meets Reality: D.C. Restaurants Lost 1,400 Jobs During First Half of 2016

In a shocking twist, D.C. is not exempt to the basic laws of economics.

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Washington, D.C., is getting a real life lesson in economics as the city moves closer to implementing a $15 per hour minimum wage.

During the first six months of 2016, restaurants in D.C. shed 1,400 jobs. That's a 2.7 percent decline in food service jobs in just six months, the largest drop seen in that sector in more than 15 years. Even during the 2008 recession, restaurant jobs barely dipped before continuing a steady, decades-long rise in Washington.

Mark Perry, an economist and scholar for the American Enterprise Institute, says restaurant jobs are often "ground zero" for consequences of minimum wage increases. The minimum wage in D.C. increased to $10.50 an hour in July 2015 and climbed to $11.50 an hour on July 1, 2016, with further increases planned in coming years until the goal of $15 per hour is achieved

It's telling that the decline in restaurant jobs appears to have struck only within the borders of the capital city, while restaurants in the Maryland and Virginia suburbs added 2,900 jobs during the first six months of this year.

"While it might take several more years to assess the full impact, the preliminiery evidence so far suggests that D.C.'s minimum wage law is having a negative effect on staffing levels at the city's restaurants," Perry wrote on his blog this week.

For the visual learners in the audience, here's how food industry job growth in Washington, D.C., compares to the city's nearby suburbs over the past decade:

American Enterprise Institute, Mark Perry

This shouldn't come as much of a surprise to anyone with a rudimentary understanding of economics. Making it more expensive to employ people will cause businesses to employ fewer people, particularly in industries like food service where margins are already tight.

Supporters of higher minimum wages will claim there is little actual evidence of job losses when one state raises mandatory wages and nearby states do not. Almost always they will point to a single study looking at Pennsylvania and New Jersey that found no negative economic consequences for workers after the latter state increased the minimum wage by a few cents in 1992.

That study has been debunked, but even if you buy the premise that small adjustments in minimum wages might not have catastrophic affects, there's another problem: progressive policymakers are no longer pushing for small increases in the minimum wage.

As a result, we're getting a real life economics experiment on a grand scale. In addition to Washington, D.C., local officials in Seattle, Los Angeles and New York have approved laws mandating $15 per hour. Whole states are following suit, with measures already passed in California, New York and Oregon.

It's no secret what will happen after these laws take effect.

"Economically, minimum wages may not make sense," admitted California Gov. Jerry Brown just moments before putting his name on a bill that could cause disastrous economic consequences for the already-impoverished rural parts of his state.

Cities are more likely to be able to absorb higher wage mandates, but the restaurant data from D.C. shows that even robust job markets are not exempt from taking a hit.

"Despite what we hear from unions, the Fight For 15 crowd and other minimum wage advocates, the evidence from D.C.'s restaurant industry—an industry often considered as 'ground zero' for minimum wage effects—demonstrates that demand curves for low-skilled workers actually do slope downward," Perry says, referring to the basic law of economics that says demand for a product or service will decrease as the cost increases.

In other words, making it more expensive to employ someone—as high minimum wages do—will cause fewer people to be employed. It's really that simple.

NEXT: University of Chicago Attacked Trigger Warnings, Safe Spaces. Did It Also Attack Academic Freedom?

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  1. Well color me shocked!

    1. What’ll really be shocking is if this idiocy goes federal. DC isn’t a cheap place to live. If DC is losing fast food jobs like this, just imagine how Podunk, OK is going to fare.

      1. I’m making $96 an hour working from home. I was shocked when my neighbour told me she was averaging $120 but I see how it works now. I feel so much freedom now that I’m my own boss. Try it out on following website, Start here this website…. http://goo.gl/dSy3He

    2. Clearly the answer is $35 minimum wage.

      1. $153 / hour, you heartless NAZI!!!

    3. I’m making over $7k a month working part time. I kept hearing other people tell me how much money they can make online so I decided to look into it. Well, it was all true and has totally changed my life. This is what I do… http://goo.gl/D5iC10

      1. How about a 7k a month minimum wage?

  2. If they weren’t paying a living wage, were those the jobs we wanted those people to have in the first place?

    1. Allowing people to make choices that we ourselves would not make is just cruel.

    2. This. They could be artists and poets if not for those jobs.

    3. I don’t mean to be cavalier about poverty, but it’s hard to take someone seriously when they trot out someone who’s supposedly been working for minimum wage for two decades and then tell us that it’s not fair that he doesn’t make a living wage.

      It’s truly a tragedy if someone’s dedication and strong work ethic hasn’t been rewarded when even death couldn’t keep them from showing up for work.

    4. They’re the same jobs a million and a half people per year sneak into this country for a shot at. These people srsly need to stop stuffing their privilege in the overhead compartments. Thats not where it goes.

  3. NB: The links on the Prohibition article are fucked up, leading to an August 19 story on the ethanol mandate.

    1. Ethanol is alcohol…

    2. It should be this based on other links but it doesn’t appear to work.

  4. This is obviously due to evil, rich capitalists purposefully firing people instead of paying them the wages they deserve so they can have bigger piles of money to swim in.

    FIGHT FOR $10.10 $12.00 $15!

    (we’ll see where we are there in a couple of years. It’ll probably be like $50)

    1. More like $54.40.

        1. Joins Swiss in applause.

      1. Ten points for Gryffindor!

    2. It will be a really sweet gig for the servers left at your favorite restaurant. At least until they get burned out or the service gets so bad people quit going to the restaurant and it shuts down.

      1. I witnessed a single waiter and a bar back covering 60 seats by themselves in France.

        1. Yeah, but don’t people there expect the waiters to be rude and generally not caring about the customers? Wouldn’t having only one server make it a more French like experience?

          1. That’s just Paris. The guy was really nice, but you can only gets so much of someone’s divided attention. And the bar back was running out drinks for the entire place, not just that section.

            The guy was getting it done, but drink your drink slowly… you aren’t going to see him very often.

            1. I only ran into one rude French businessperson, a woman that ran this little shop. She just sort of gave us “fuck off, Americans” stare the entire time we were in her store, but my wife had to have something in there for her sister. The woman spoke no English at all, but my wife has enough to get by. We paid cash and I had to get out my little change purse that a carry on trips. She read it, took a double take and burst out laughing and was really sweet from then on. My change purse has “WEED MONEY” printed on it.

              1. So, she didn’t speak Engliish, but understood what “weed money” meant?

                1. She wouldn’t speak English is more likely. The majority of the people there speak English well enough. I was told by someone who lived there that the easiest way to get along there if you don’t speak French very well is to try to communicate in French in which case their annoyance at being asked to speak the mongrel language will succumb to their annoyance of having to hear you murder the language of gods.

          2. The waiters have the food? shouldn’t the customers be nice to them so that the waiters will serve it to them?

            /Soviet waiter

        2. That’s France though. Not “I have to stuff my face as fast as possible where’s my goddamn lasagna I ordered it like 5 minutes ago” America.

        3. “Geet eet youzelf, merican pig-dog!”

      1. Go apesh!t for 18!

    3. Why not just make the minimum wage a million dollars? Then everyone can be rich.

      And 300 million millionaires will spend millions of dollars each on products and services. The circle of life!

    4. FIGHT FOR $10.10 $12.00 $15!

      (we’ll see where we are there in a couple of years. It’ll probably be like $50)

      Excellent. The fights for $0.25-$7.25 have been completely memory holed, even by libertarians!

      /prog

  5. But the average pay went up! (among the employed)

    1. What goeeess up
      Must cooommee down

  6. The Robot Employment Act is having the exact effect that everyone predicted it would.

    1. Well, if you were a company making robots, wouldn’t you have an army of lobbyists in DC lobbying for even more than $15 an hour? I bet your average prog never had this thought before.

      1. I bet we could all pool our resources and really make a killing. H&R Systems Corp.

        1. I …

          … I wanna invest in this. Like, ground floor shit. NOW.

          Where’s your damn newsletter?

        2. We could definitely make a killing if we cut corners on those pesky 3 laws…

          1. I’ve read this one before, the n-laws are just a trifle to be overcome. The killing of all humans is inevitable. Resistance is futile.

            1. On the plus side, the same ruthless logic leads to killing other robots, and they would see each other as the greater threat.

              1. More Battlebots!

        3. I think we should be really blatant with the name. “Fifteen an Hour Automation”.

          1. Robots for $15!

      2. In a way, that’s exactly what’s happening now: labor unions are fighting for higher minimum wages.

        With the way the labor unions pump out unmotivated, stagnant workers that will tell ambitious workers, “slow down–you’re making the rest of us look bad,” they are a robot maker of sorts.

  7. In other words, making it more expensive to employ someone?as high minimum wages do?will cause fewer people to be employed. It’s really that simple.

    It’s pretty obvious that everyone knows this and they don’t care. So a few borderline-employable folks are out of a job (and on to the dole). The politician thinks, “They probably don’t even vote, anyway.” The voter thinks, “As long as I get mine.”

    1. Not everyone knows this since economics isn’t required for High School, Undergraduate, or Masters courses. I’ve had arguments with incredibly educated people on this very subject. You would be very surprised how much common sense people will ignore due to conflict with their pet worldviews.

      In those people’s defence it’s usually not a direct connection between job losses and small hikes to the minimum wage. I think they’re accelerating the increases because they have started to drink their own Kool-Aid since this type of increase will definitely have a direct link to job losses.

      The question is if they don’t just ‘massage’ the unemployment figures like they have been for years now to hide the massive increase.

      1. If I hear that myth about Henry Ford ONE. MORE. TIME…

  8. Alcohol prohibition links to an EPA article a week ago. Just sayin’

    1. I wondered what was up with those comments. They seemed off topic even for Hit’n’Run.

    2. I’m surprised you read the comments there, since you obviously didn’t read the comments here. 🙂

      1. There are comments?!

      2. What’re you talking about?! It’s the articles I don’t read.

  9. My prog roommate /bernie fan is so detached from reality… you really need to work on being so economically clueless.

    See all the economic crap we millennials have to cope with is because of all the corporations and getting away from the new deal. The rich need to pay their fair share and college should be free — in fact the gov’t should pay for him to go to grad school because it would be a “benefit to society”.

    Also it’s all the rich / republican / whatever’s fault that he has to work a job he doesn’t like because it pays more. Really the government should provide fulfilling jobs where you make a difference and get paid a lot.

    Jesus Fucking Christ

    1. Let me guess, he thinks fascism is what we get when businesses are lightly regulated.

      1. No, no, no… that’s corporatism! Because it has the word corporate in it!

        1. I find it very amusing when people use “corporatism” to mean what the Corporatists fought against.

          1. Your average proggie is woefully ignorant when it comes to definitions.

            1. Your average proggie is woefully ignorant when it comes to definitions.

              FTFY.

    2. in fact the gov’t should pay for him to go to grad school because it would be a “benefit to society”

      insofar as keeping him away from everyone else, he may be correct.

      1. Someday, after he achieves his communist paradise, said grad student may find that his overlords are saying “it will be a benefit to society if you are executed and your body dumped in this ditch (because there is not enough food to go around).”

        I hope he doesn’t suddenly decide to be a hypocrite and try to run from the firing squad.

    3. Typical Prog: “Studies show that raising the minimum wage has no negative effects.”

      Me; “What studies?”

      TP: “The studies. Studies show that raising…”

      Me: “What studies? Can you name one?”

      TP: “Look, studies show…”

      Me: “Have you actually read a single one? What was the methodology? Is it valid? Did they study number of employees, vs full/part time? Did they take into account employability of marginal populations? Inflation? Cutting of benefits? Increasing automation? Outsourcing? Business closings?”

      TP (Getting annoyed): ‘Doesn’t matter, studies show…”

      Me: “Are there any studies that contradict each other? Any questioning by other researchers?”

      TP: (Angrier) “Look, I’m telling you studies show…”

      Me: “You’re just repeating a thought terminating cliche you got frrom Huffpo, aren’t you? You haven’t studied any of this, have you?”

      TP: “I know what studies show! You just hate science!”

      Me: “Name one.”

      1. David Card. Teachers of research methods should be aware that Card’s work can provide an example for every methodological error one can make.

    4. My favorite part of the “free college” idiocy is that we’re supposed to believe it should all be free with no mention of what type of degree we’re talking about. They’re drawing an equivalency between a women’s studies major and a STEM major.

      If a degree will lead to a great job and high earnings, they can probably just take out loans and pay them off with ease, right? And if a degree will not lead to a great job and high earnings, that’s not really a benefit to society and should therefore not be subsidized by taxpayers.

  10. [plays descending scale in a minor key on a muted trombone]

  11. It was unexpected in Seattle and I am sure it is unexpected in DC. It will be unexpected every single time it happens.

  12. One of the things that the $15 movement seems to ignore is that Australia’s minimum wage (the one that so many of its advocates refer to) has an age-graduated scale so that only workers over the age of 24 make the maximum rate.

    1. Figures. America takes other country’s stupid ideas and implements them even more stupidly.

      See: “free” college. Practiced in other countries – but only for the elite.

      1. We do that a lot. It drives me nuts that people look at “successful” programs and wonder why we can’t do that here. You know why? Because the people working at the DMV, TSA, etc will be charged with implementing it and they are nothing if not screw ups.

    2. Also, Australia’s minimum wage is well below $15 when you adjust for exchange rates and purchasing power.

      1. This. This is why virtually every meme you’ll see on the Book of Faces is incredibly bullshit.

        They’re not comparing purchasing power, they’re comparing idiot cardboard prop numbers that mean nothing. Once you adjust for just taxes, virtually every one of those meme’s falls completely apart.

      2. Also, when you adjust for taxation, since in Oz marginal tax rates kick in at much lower income levels.

  13. It’s not that leftist politicians don’t know this. They do know it, but it will have no effect on them. The true buleevers who it will effect in a negative way, just keep on buleevin, because that’s what they do. If they didn’t, the leftist politicians who put this shit in place would be out of a job.

    1. I’m not sure Barbara Boxer knows it. Hell, I’m not sure she knows what is the correct way to put on her granny panties.

      1. But no worries, she’s retiring to make room for someone even worse. *shudder*

    2. Hyperion, how many lawyers do you know that took economics?

      1. My first job out of college for a firm doing economics for lawyers (mostly damage valuation, but some statistical analysis). Your average lawyer has less of an understanding of economics than your average hotdog cart vendor.

  14. Unexpected

  15. Speaking of which, KUOW in Seattle does a wonderful, cultural “what is teriyaki” and why are the Teriyaki joints disappearing? While I didn’t hear 100% of the story, I didn’t hear the minimum wage question asked once. Lots of chuckles, laughs, different places and types, the cultural origins, but never once really take a controversial deep dive into why they’re going away.

    The Teriyaki joint is the quintessentially family-run place, often owned by a Korean couple with a couple of cooks in the back, it’s going to be the ground zero of minimum wage hike damage. The food is universally on the affordable side, often catering to lower income people, usually run on very thin margins.

    The city of Seattle has been telling these businesses to fuck off, with even one city council member saying that if a business owner couldn’t pay $15 an hour, they shouldn’t be in business.

    1. You know who else forced people out of business…

      1. The out-of-business enforcers suicide squad!

    2. Seattle’s problems are masked by Amazon hiring approx. 9 million people. One day when they decide to move to sunnier pastures, this city is fucked.

    3. Those were dirty Asian businesses anyway. That’s totally not racism.

      1. I’m so fucking pissed about this I’m vibrating in my chair.

        The owners of these places aren’t in the council chambers along with all the other douchebag activists with creative jobs, THEY’RE AT FUCKING WORK TRYING TO MAKE A MOTHERFUCKING PAYROLL!

      2. I seem to remember a kerfuffle about that from your neck of the woods, Hyp. Is that what you were referencing?

  16. ‘Art majors most affected’.

  17. U of W studied the minimum wage law in seattle and found:

    The money shot:

    The major conclusion one should draw from this analysis is that the Seattle Minimum Wage Ordinance worked as intended by raising the hourly wage rate of low-wage workers, yet the unintended, negative side effects on hours and employment muted the impact on labor earnings.

    The Seattle economy (as well as comparison regions in the state of Washington) is booming, and this strong macroeconomy has led to improved outcomes for low-wage workers. Yet, our best estimates find that the
    Seattle Minimum Wage Ordinance appears to have lowered employment rates of low-wage workers.

    1. yet the unintended, negative side effects on hours and employment muted the impact on labor earnings.

      We knew it would have this side effect, but don’t blame us for pushing this through anyway!

    2. Unintended! Unforseeable! Unexpected!

      1. If it’s unintended but inevitable, what does that make the people pushing it? I vote for despicable.

  18. one city council member saying that if a business owner couldn’t pay $15 an hour, they shouldn’t be in business.

    That person is a self made millionaire, I presume, literally wallowing in relevant experience.

    1. I recently watched something on the history of the Ford Mustang (Netflix, “A Faster Horse”), and the 2015 redesign, and they were talking to the program manager, Prakash Patel. He was fielding a request from the line to use a 1/2-inch longer fastener, which was going to cost an extra $1.34 per vehicle. Here’s what he said:

      When I first started in this industry, I would go to changes like, “Why are you guys bickering about 6 cents? Here, here’s 6 cents.” Right? But you multiply that by years, by number of cars, it makes a big deal. Take $1.34 times a hundred-thousand cars, times five years; one dollar, you just spend half a million dollars. That is the decision you just signed off. As a representative of Ford Motor Company, you just said, ‘It is okay to spend half a million dollars.’ Big difference, dollar vs. half a million dollars.

      1. If they pass on the costs to the customer, I don’t think $1.34 will dissuade someone who wants to buy a new car (the new Mustangs are nice). As a customer, I would trust the engineer rather than a bean counter.

      2. I would ask why a 1/2 inch longer fastener costs an extra $1.34. The entire fastener probably doesn’t cost $1.34.

  19. Jamelle Bouie told me on twitter that this wasn’t true and was basically “Econ 101” thinking. So this article and the facts in it must be wrong.

  20. Joke’s on the restaurant workers!

    Not one activist who pushed for the $15 minimum wage lost their job because of it.

    1. The activist pushing it didn’t have a job to begin with.

      1. Nah, the activists worked for the unions and still employed for the coming struggle for 16 17 18 19 20 an hour.

    2. Lumpenproletariat suffering from false consciousness, dontchaknow.

      1. Thinking of changing my handle to “Lumpentarian”. Thoughts?

        1. Well, your nickname would be “Lump”.

          1. And you’d sit alone in a boggy marsh most of the time.

  21. There are a lot of people out there who really, really, want to believe in free lunches.
    So many of these people that they are capable of constructing their own echo chamber that tells them exactly what they want to hear.

  22. To recap:
    1. Minimum wage increase goes into effect July 15.
    2. Employment continues to increase until January 16, reaching the highest it’s ever been
    3. Employment declines somewhat after January, but still well above where it was in July 15.
    4. AEI cherry picks the subset of the data that fits their “OMG, Minimum Wage” panic piece

    1. 5. AEI plots the data series on two scales that don’t have zero at the same place, creating the illusions of correlations that don’t actually exist.

      1. That’s perfectly acceptable. The Y-axis scales should have been proportional, but it’s close enough for government work.

      2. The only illusion that is (potentially) being created is that of a change in the correlation. There is absolutely a correlation there. Vertical translation and skew don’t affect the existence or strength of a correlation.

        Nevertheless, the time scale is a bit short. However, one might as well blame the DC government as AEI, since the wage mandate was only in effect for a year before being increased again.

        1. Dammit, refresh!

      3. creating the illusions of correlations that don’t actually exist.

        Not “*may* not exist”, but *don’t* exist. No possible correlation between employment in D.C. and employment in the surrounding area under any circumstances because Stormy Dragon says so, dammit!

    2. So the effects of the minimum wage are sudden and instant, and employers instantly start firing people on the day of the hike. Gotcha.

      1. Well yeah, no interaction can possibly be any more complicated than that between a lightbulb and a switch. I mean geeze we’re inventing light anew every evening… WE’RE INVENTING LIGHT

  23. But hey at least upper middle class and beyond progressives got to feel good about themselves…that is all that matters.

  24. But no, you see—the lost jobs were because of evil capitalism.

    More proof of even more government needed to fix the problem.

    1. That’s their attitude, and I seriously believe that in the next ten years, we’ll see “progressives” reaching for control over the hiring process. It may be one giant federal oversight board, or it could be done through a thousand tiny, seemingly insignificant laws.

      But employers having the freedom to hire and fire who they choose is what throws a wrench into these utopian “progressive” ideas. “Progressives” react to everything with force, so when the forces of the economy don’t go their way, their instinct is to attempt to redirect them by force.

  25. I saw several homeless people wearing Fight for 15 t-shirts last night, do they use the homeless as props?

  26. For $15/hr I can get someone who can probably do the work of 2 people making $10.

    1. Ans you sure are going to be a LOT more careful and picky about who you hire.

  27. The prog mindset…whether stupid or evil i am not sure

    1. Prog sees a problem
    2. Prog doesn’t bother to diagnose problem (root cause)
    3. Prog address sympton with laws/mandates/regulations (they have good intentions…phew!!)
    4. Market reacts and a bunch of bad consequences happen
    5. Prog doesn’t bother blaming their regulations and laws for the failure…insists due to wreckers and kulaks cause they had good intentions
    6. Prog becomes delusional (again doesn’t diagnose root cause) and doubles down (prog harder)
    7. Repeat 4 thru 6

    1. Yes, but if one hammered a square block into a round hole with enough force it would eventually go through.

      1. Not really, you just destroy the hole…

        1. If the round hole couldn’t accept the square block, it shouldn’t have existed in the first place!

    2. 8. they assume that there will only be “minor” problems,if any,and that those can be addressed with further laws and regulations.

  28. Almost always they [Marxians] will point to a single study looking at Pennsylvania and New Jersey that found no negative economic consequences for workers after the latter state increased the minimum wage by a few cents in 1992.

    That study has been debunked,

    More than merely debunked: it was laughed out of the room. It was an incredibly shoddy piece of cow intestinal residue but you know Marxians: they love an underdog.

  29. On a page from the Economic Policy Institute, 600+ economists signed an open letter stating: “In recent years there have been important developments in the academic literature on the effect of increases in the minimum wage on employment, with the weight of evidence now showing that increases in the minimum wage have had little or no negative effect on the employment of minimum-wage workers, even during times of weakness in the labor market.” They do not cite any sources. Any rebuttal to their claims?

    http://www.epi.org/minimum-wage-statement/

    1. * Nobel laureate
      + Has served as American Economic Association president

      Appeal to authority fallacy.

      The mantra I live by is this … if Albert Einstein himself can’t tell you a plausible story about why something he believes is true, then assume it’s not true until he can. Even the smartest guy in the room gets lazy some times, the rest are lazy all the time.

  30. Thinks about investing in the kiosk biz

  31. I had some proggy claim the solution was to key the M/W to inflation; that’ll fix things!

  32. Maybe I’m wrong but it seems to me as long as we keep up the quantitative easing $15 will be worth $7.50 in no time. Back to full employment. Problem solved!

  33. That many don’t understand that wage rates are tightly coupled to employment opportunities is mind boggling. It won’t be long before those calling for a minimum annual wage (usually around $40k) gain support. We have been living on Fed money (money from nothing) for several years. Why not just hand it out to everyone? The demise of the dollar and the collapse of the economy can’t come soon enough for me. When it finally is upon us, perhaps we will come to our senses and begin to enact rational economic and fiscal policies.

  34. All you have to do is go to the FRED site and look at the data. DC did NOT lose restaurant jobs. They gained 800 new jobs over the course of the year. Check the figure in June of 2015 and compare it to july of this year. MORE jobs, not fewer. Also, these data are naturally noisy. The AEI “economist” cherry-picked a time series to try to prove a point that really is not there and the Austrians just lap it up.

  35. It takes a “special” person to vote on a bill that they KNOW may harm the economy, just because they HOPE it will not.

  36. Funny he chose the restaurant industry. Where tipped wages are still capped at $2.77 per hour.
    Also funny he chose to leave out the increase from $8.25 to $9.50 that happened in 2014. Almost like he was intentionally leaving out information that didn’t support his cause. Oh sorry, I meant “Exactly like”.

    Comparison of the growth of restaurant jobs in the 68.3 square miles of D.C. with growth across the 1400 sq mi (or 5.5K sq mi?) of developing urban and suburban areas is also likely not appropriate. The D.C. market will go through more stages of saturation than the surrounding area. Expansion will require gentrification of new neighborhoods which an will likely be associated with higher failure rates accompanying the moves into neighborhoods likely not yet able to support the new restaurants.

  37. I’m making over $9k a month working part time. I kept hearing other people tell me how much money they can make online so I decided to look into it. Well, it was all true and has totally changed my life. This is what I do…. Go to tech tab for work detail..

    CLICK THIS LINK?????? http://www.earnmax6.com/

  38. “In other words, making it more expensive to employ someone?as high minimum wages do?will cause fewer people to be employed. It’s really that simple.”

    Mission Accomplished!

    Democratic policy has aimed at creating a permanently unemployable voting underclass for Big Government for decades. They are taking a huge leap forward in CA with this $15 minimum wage. Expand it across the country. Then amnesty and import millions more.

    Hillary wins, and Republicans never win another presidential election.

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