## Quantity Value Fraction Mathematics Vocabulary

In this chapter we discuss Quantity Value Fraction Mathematics Vocabulary.

a number by which another number is to be divided.

**Dividend **

a number to be divided by another number.

**Difference**

a quantity by which amounts differ; the remainder left after subtraction of one value from another.

**Quotient**

a result obtained by dividing one quantity by another.

**Factors**

a number that (when multiplied with another) produces a given number or expression.

**Prime Number**

a number evenly divisible only by itself and one (e.g., 2, 3, 5, 7, 11).

**Composite Number**

A whole number that can be divided exactly by numbers other than 1 or itself.

**Greatest Common Factor (GCF**)

The greatest common factor, or GCF, is the greatest factor that divides two numbers. To find the GCF of two numbers: List the prime factors of each number. Multiply those factors both numbers have in common. If there are no common prime factors, the GCF is 1.

**Prime Factorization**

Prime factorization of a number is breaking a number down into the set of prime numbers which multiply together to make the original number.

**Fraction**

A numerical quantity that is not a whole number (e.g., 1/2, 0.5).

**Equivalent Fractions**

Fractions that have the same total value

**Numerator**

The number written above the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are described in the fraction.

**Denominator**

The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are in the whole.

**Simplest Form**

the form of a fraction when the numerator and denominator have no common factor other than 1

**Multiple**

The product of a whole number and any other whole number.

**Least Common Multiple (LCM)**

The least number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers.

**Least Common Denominator (LCD)**

the least common multiple of the denominators.

**Proper Fraction**

a fraction with a numerator smaller than the denominator

**Improper Fraction**

a fraction whose numerator is larger than the denominator

**Mixed Number**

a number made up of a whole number and a fraction

**Sum**

the answer to an addition problem

Product

the answer to a multiplication problem

**Reciprocal**

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1. The multiplicative inverse of a fraction a/b is b/a.

**Negative Number**

a number less than zero

**Positive Number**

a number greater than zero

**Opposites**

two numbers that have the same absolute value but have different signs

**Absolute Value**

The distance a number is from zero on a number line

**Integer**

All whole numbers (both positive and negative) and zero.

**Zero Pair**

a pair of numbers whose sum is zero

**Inverse Operations**

operations that undo one another

**Power Exponent**

**Base**

**The factor in an exponential equation**

**Exponent**

A mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself.

**Squared**

A number multiplied by itself

**Cubed**

a number raised to the third power

**Order of Operations**

the order in which operations in an expression to be evaluated are carried out. 1. parentheses 2. exponets 3. multiplication and divison 4. addition and subtraction (PEMDAS)

**Rational Number**

any number that can be written as a fraction

**Variable**

A symbol used to represent a quantity that can change

**Algebraic Expression**

A combination of variables, numbers, and at least one operation.

**Equation**

A mathematical sentence that contains an equals sign.Evaluateform an idea of the amount, number, or value of; assess.

**Term**

Each number in a sequence

**Constant**

A value that does not change

**Coefficient**

A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression.

**Inequality**

A statement that compares two quantities using <, >, ≤,≥, or ≠

**Solution to an Inequality**

any value that makes the inequality true

**Ratio**

A comparison of two quantities by division

**Rate**

a measure, quantity, or frequency, typically one measured against some other quantity or measure.

**Unit Rate**

A rate with a denominator of 1.

**Conversion**

A change from one unit to another, like inches to centimeters.

**Complex Fraction**

A fraction that contains one or more fractions in its numerator or denominator.

**Proportion**

An equation stating that two ratios are equal

**Similar Figures**

Figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size

**Corresponding Parts**

A pair of sides or angles that have the same relative position in two congruent or similar figures

**Congruent**

Having the same size and shape

**Scale Factor**

the ratio of the lengths of two corresponding sides of two similar polygons

**Percent**

A ratio that compares a number to 100

**Percent of Change**

the percent a quantity increases or decreases from its original amount

**Percent of Increase**

the percent of change when the new amount is greater than the original

**Percent of Decrease**

percent of change where the new number is less than the original number

**Sales Tax**

a tax on the dollar value of a good or service being sold

**Mark-up**

Artificial increase in price that creates more profit.

**Discount**

A straight reduction in price on purchases during a stated period of time or of larger quantities

**Commission**

A percentage paid to a store or employee for selling something.Probability like lihood that a particular event will occur

**Outcome**

a result or consequence

**Event**

anything that happens or is regarded as happening

**Theoretical Probability**

Probability based on comparing the number of possible favorable outcomes to the number of total possible outcomes

**Pie Chart**

a circular chart divided into triangular areas proportional to the percentages of the whole

**Tree Diagram**

A diagram used to show the total number of possible outcomes

**Compound Probability**

A mathematical term relating to the likeliness of two independent events occurring.

**Independent Events**

Two or more events in which the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the other event(s).

**Dependent Events**

Two or more events in which the outcome of one event affects the outcome of the other event(s).

**Simulation**

an imitation of a possible situationPopulationA group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same areaSamplea subset of the population

**Representative Sample**

a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole

**Random ****Sample**

a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected

**Biased Sample**

A sample drawn in such a way that one or more parts of the population are favored over others.

**Inference**

A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning

**Mean **

Mean is average

**Median**

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

**Mode**

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

**Range**

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

**x-axis**

the horizontal number line in a coordinate plane

**y-axis**

the vertical number line in a coordinate plane

**Origin**

A fixed point from which coordinates are measured. (0,0)

**Quadrants**

Four regions into which a coordinate plane is divided by the x-axis and the y-axis

**Scatter Plot**

A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.

**Ordered Pairs**

**Pairs of numbers (x,y) that can represent a point in a coordinate plane.**

**Direct Variation**

A relationship between two variable quantities with a constant ratio

**Function**

1. A relationship from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) that assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range.

2. The action or actions that an item is designed to perform.

**Input-Output Table**

a table of values that follows a rule; used to show the pattern in x-values and their corresponding y-values

**Slope**

the steepness of a line on a graph, equal to its vertical change divided by its horizontal change

**Angle**

A figure formed by two rays with a common endpoint

**Ray**

A part of a line, with one endpoint, that continues without end in one direction

**Vertex**

A point where two or more straight lines meet.

**Adjacent Angles**

Angles that have a common side and a common vertex (corner point).

**Protractor**

A tool used to measure and draw angles.

**Degrees**

a unit for measuring angles

**Acute Angle**

an angle that measures less than 90 degrees

**Right Angle**

an angle that measures 90 degrees

**Obtuse Angle**

An angle that measures more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees

**Straight Angle**

an angle that measures 180 degrees

**Complementary Angles**

Two angles whose sum is 90 degrees

**Supplementary Angles**

Two angles whose sum is 180 degrees

**Vertical Angles**

A pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines

**Linear Pair**

a pair of adjacent angles whose non-common sides are opposite rays

**Area**

Length x Width

**Perimeter**

the sum of the lengths of the sides of a polygon

**Square**

A parallelogram with four congruent sides and four right angles.

**Rectangle**

a quadrilateral with four right angles

**Parallelogram**

A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides

**Trapezoid**

a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides

**Circle**

A round plane figure whose boundary consists of points equidistant from the center

**Center**

the exact middle of a surface or object.

**Radius**

The distance from the center of a circle to any point on the circle

**Chord**

A segment whose endpoints lie on a circle

**Diameter**

A straight line passing from side to side through the center of a circle or sphere.

**Central Angle**

an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle

**Circumference**

The distance around a circle

**Pi**

The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (3.14159…)

**Composite Figure**

A figure that is made of two or more three-dimensional figures.

**Solid**

Definite shape and volume

**Face**

A flat surface of a polyhedron

**Polygon**

A closed plane figure made up of line segments

**Bases**

the bottom of a figure. If the top is parallel to the bottom (as in a trapezoid or prism), both the top and bottom are called bases.

**Lateral Face**

In a polyhedron, a face that is not a base.

**Edge**

The line along which two surfaces of a solid meet.

**Vertex/Vertices**

The point at which two lines segments, lines, or rays, meet to form an angle.

**Net**

Geometry – A pattern that you can cut and fold to make a model of a solid shape.

**Prism**

A solid object with two identical ends and flat sides. The shape of the ends give the prism a name, such as “triangular prism” • The cross section is the same all along its length. • The sides are parallelograms (4-sided shape with opposites sides parallel)

**Pyramid**

A solid shape with a polygon as a base and triangular faces that come to a point (vertex or apex)

**Surface Area**

The measurement of the outer surface of an object.

**Volume**

The amount of space an object takes up

**Slant Height**

the height of the lateral side of a pyramid or cone

**Mathematics **

Mathematics (Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) includes the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof.

**Ruler**

Measurement tool