More than a million people are reported to have taken part in protests in about 100 cities across Brazil, the latest in a wave of demonstrations.
Violence erupted in many places and an 18-year-old man died when a car drove through a barricade in Sao Paulo state.
Protests began more than a week ago over high transport fares but are also highlighting corruption and the cost of next year's football World Cup.
President Dilma Rousseff called off a trip to Japan to deal with the crisis.
She has called an emergency meeting of her cabinet for Friday to discuss the unrest.
The newspaper Folha de Sao Paulo, citing official figures, said that more than one million people had taken part in Thursday's demonstrations.