Foreign Policy

The Enemy of My Enemy

How U.S. foreign policy stifles democracy in the Middle East

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Watching recent events in Egypt I have had a sense of both surreal distance and of personal connection. Distance because it is hard to imagine that American "friend" Hosni Mubarak, recipient of more than $45 billion of U.S. military and economic aid, has finally been called out for his acts of brutal repression. Connection because one of the people Mubarak imprisoned was my brother-in-law.

Saad Eddin Ibrahim is an Egyptian academic sociologist and democracy activist. He is also married to my step-sister Barbara. In 2000 Saad was arrested by the national police, and charged by the Mubarak regime with embezzlement and defaming Egypt's image.

What Saad had actually done was to obtain a large academic grant from the European Union and spend it on research. He also publicly asked when Egypt was going to have free and fair elections. In response, Saad was sentenced to seven years of hard labor. Given the state of Egyptian prisons, and Saad's physical condition and age, it could have been a death sentence. He was finally released three years later.

I remember talking to Saad after he got out. His view of the American role was heartbreaking. Democracy activists in Egypt, and throughout the Middle East, had to distance themselves from America, he said. U.S. support for Mubarak was tarnishing America's image, just as Mubarak himself was tarnishing Egypt's image. How did we get to that point?

The answer is that American foreign policy seems to rest on a simple premise: "The enemy of my enemy is my friend."  

Except it's not simple. It's a blatant double standard. Our attitude seems to be, "Sure, that dictator is a murderous thug, but he's our murderous thug"

Letting our enemies choose our friends is also dangerous. The U.S. supplied the rockets that the mujahedeen used to attack Russian helicopters in Afghanistan. Now we call the mujahedeen the Taliban, and they kill Americans. We also propped up Saddam Hussein and a host of other brutes who started out as docile U.S. puppets.

But the real problem is that we compound our errors in judgment with an error in doctrine. This disastrous policy was clearly stated in a 1979 Commentary article titled "Dictatorships and Double Standards" written by future Reagan administration U.N. Ambassador Jean Kirkpatrick. In Kirkpatrick's view, dictatorships could be classified either as authoritarian or totalitarian, and the difference mattered.  

Authoritarians can be useful allies, Kirkpatrick argued, because their rule is based on money and power. More importantly, authoritarians may give way to friendly, democratic regimes. The U.S. should just look the other way until they do.

Not so with totalitarians, according to Kirkpatrick. Totalitarians construct a regime that is persistent and expansionist. They don't care much about money or power. And they are animated by ideology.

Kirkpatrick's concern was communism, because that ideology appeared to be perpetual and communicable. No country, once it had "gone communist," could be expected to return to the fold of legitimate governments. And communist regimes actively tried to spread their ideas, like mutant strains of a deadly virus, to other nations.

That meant the U.S. was at war with an idea, and brutal tactics were required to stop the idea's spread. The U.S. therefore supported some pretty awful allies, and more than a few of the dissidents who were killed or tortured by those allies suffered at the hands of foreign military officers trained at U.S. bases.

The Kirkpatrick doctrine seems silly in retrospect. A lot of formerly communist countries have now found democracy, or something close to it. The holdouts, Cuba and North Korea, can barely feed themselves. But Cold War U.S. policy in Latin America has robbed us of our moral legitimacy, because we did little to foster the move towards democracy in that part of the world. If the U.S. could enable the near enslavement of much of Central America for decades by supporting the worst sort of thuggish authoritarians, how could we claim credit for anything except hypocrisy?

At least we won't make that mistake again, right? Wrong. We have a new Kirkpatrick doctrine that explains much of contemporary U.S. foreign policy. Instead of communism, the new mutant ideology is Islam.

The story goes like this: Islam is perpetual and expansionist. Any country that goes theocratic will never again be democratic. So even a bad authoritarian dictator is better than an Islamic totalitarian. Repression, torture, secret police, and thousands of political prisoners are all acceptable, provided the favored dictator is the enemy of our enemy. And once again our enemy is an idea. In Egypt, millions of people are struggling for self-determination. But democracy activists have to be careful not to be labeled "pro-American," because that would destroy their credibility. In other words, by supporting anti-Islamist thugs like Mubarak, we have contributed to the very problem we hoped to solve.

The defining struggle in Muslim-majority countries will not be between U.S.-supported dictators and radical Islamists. The future will belong to the victor in an ideological struggle between moderate Islam and the jihadist version.  

Yet our policy has empowered the jihadists by revealing the stark contradictions between what Americans say about democracy and what we actually do. By supporting dictators who promise to be the enemy of our enemy, we have become our enemy's best friend.

The real solution is to allow new democracies to be born. Some of them may begin life as Iranian-style Islamic republics. But remember that the pro-democracy movement is alive in Iran, despite being brutally put down last year.

The U.S. role ultimately comes down to trust. Not trust of Islamic government, but a trust in the fundamental yearning of humans everywhere to have a say in their own government, and to control their own lives. This yearning, more than any other factor, tore down that wall in East Germany. Instead of helping to repress that desire, why don't we help unshackle it? Why won't the U.S. recognize that the most powerful mutant ideology is freedom?

Michael Munger is the Director of the Philosophy, Politics, and Economics program at Duke University.

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  1. No, stupidity stifels freedom in the Middle East. All those dumb bastards were Ok with their leaders….for decades….now it’s intolerable.
    It’s just a case of monkey see monkey do!

    1. ok w their leaders? u mean leaders who arrested any opposition? brutally supressed protests? disappeared activists? those leaders?

      1. yes! Did you read my post??? Do you understand English??? I repeat they tolerated it all these decades….now it’s intolerable. If you don’t understand, get an adult to help you!

        1. spoken like an overfed suburbanite. go back to fertilizing ur lawn crop.

        2. Just like we tolerated being British for decades, before suddenly deciding to have a revolution. So our founders were a bunch dumb bastards too, huh?

          1. So you are equating colonial America with the middle east. You libs are dumb as fuck!!!

  2. Wow, this makes a lot of sense when you think about it. Wow.

    http://www.anon-tools.es.tc

  3. That meant the U.S. was at war with an idea, and brutal tactics were required to stop the idea’s spread.

    You know it baby! Drop your cocks and grab your socks we got some potheads to beat and dogs to shoot.

    (I’m not sure how broad that line was meant to be, but I feel confident I can apply it to a myriad of domestic and international US policies.)

    1. It seems to me the US war on ideas is more pervasive than and systemic. I think the Cold War ingrained the mentality in US politics and it isn’t going anywhere anytime soon. If it’s not one boogeyman it will be another. Keep the fear alive.

  4. “””In Egypt, millions of people are struggling for self-determination. But democracy activists have to be careful not to be labeled “pro-American,” because that would destroy their credibility”‘

    Since the whole reason for democracy is to have a government that represents the people of the country why would an Egyptian being democratic mean that they are pro-American. They should be pro-Egyptian. Sounds like the author is saying that foreigners being “pro-American” should be what US foreign policy is about when really American foreign policy should be about pro-American interest no matter what the Egyptians think about it.

    Democracy is about the Americans getting a pro-American government and the Egyptians getting a pro-Egyptian government. The less the US worries about Egyptians, the less it will interfere with Egyptians and probably will end up with the Egyptians not worrying about the US.

  5. “American foreign policy seems to rest on a simple premise: ‘The enemy of my enemy is my friend’.”

    You don’t say…
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRjLs21DxEk#t=4m7s

  6. What’s with the grip and grin pic? Does Obama think that by mugging to the camera, instead of looking at the man he’s shaking hands with, that he’ll have some sort of plausible deniability for whatever happens after the photo?

    1. You mean THAT was Mubarak????

  7. “The Kirkpatrick doctrine seems silly in retrospect. A lot of formerly communist countries have now found democracy, or something close to it.”

    Really? Ignoring cause and effect is no way to go through life young man. To deny that Kirkpatrick’s doctrine was not just simply an explanation of the US containment policy won’t make it so. Kirkpatrick was only trying to denounce Carter’s drift away from that policy. Reagan brought it back to where it was under every president after FDR. And some might say, it worked! Thus:

    “A lot of formerly communist countries have now found democracy, or something close to it.”

  8. Good column.

    In addition, there’s this: “[Our states] must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rivalships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and imbitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty.” – George Washington

    Here.

    1. Is he running in 2012? Because I’d vote for him.

      1. He might run into trouble the whole 22nd Amendment limit on Presidential terms. Also, I think being dead might be a disqualifier, though I’m not sure if that applies if he runs in Chicago.

        1. He invented term limits! Who are you to deny the Pater Patriae?

        2. Can he run? Not sure. But, I know he can vote in Chi-town.

  9. It isn’t that the U.S. government lacks trust in the yearning for self-government in other countries.

    The problem is that the government fears that yearning among people right here. If people overseas enjoy too much freedom, then people at home might want some too.

  10. At least we won’t make that mistake again, right? Wrong. We have a new Kirkpatrick doctrine that explains much of contemporary U.S. foreign policy. Instead of communism, the new mutant ideology is Islam.

    Islam is not an ideology, no more than Buddhism or Catholicism are ideologies.

    The story goes like this: Islam is perpetual and expansionist. Any country that goes theocratic will never again be democratic. So even a bad authoritarian dictator is better than an Islamic totalitarian.

    Actually, authoritarian dictators were granted the privilege of U.S. foreign aid and comfort before Islam was deemed a “perpetual and expansionist” ideology by the State Department (or even if it was deemed or the realization was made that it was, it was also ignored.)

    The problem is that Islam is indeed perpetual and expansionist, as all those STILL muslim countries can attest.

    Communist/Socialist ideology is quasi-religious in its expectation of a Paradise On Earth but provides NO hope of an actual afterlife, whereas true mystical religions provide it, Islam included.

    The Kirkpatrick doctrine seems silly in retrospect. A lot of formerly communist countries have now found democracy, or something close to it. The holdouts, Cuba and North Korea, can barely feed themselves.

    There’s a big difference between an economic policy and a religion. Communist and Islam are not comparable.

    I am not saying that America’s foreing policy of interventionism and of propping up dictators and lackeys is wise. Islamic nations should have been left alone to rot.

    1. They wouldn’t have been. Considering the oil wealth at stake, the USSR would have filled the void had we not. I also want to dispute the author’s assertion that the Taliban was a direct descendant of the mujahideen. The Taliban began after the Soviets were thrown out, and actively fought many of the warlords who were the mujahideen, men like Hekmatyar and Massoud…both good and bad.

  11. At this point, I think it’s pretty clear that our influence amongst these Middle Eastern dictators was highly overstated.

    1. Even though the Middle Eastern dictators among whom we had influence– Mubarak, Tunisia’s Ben Ali– have resigned in the face of peaceful protests– whereas Gaddafi has decided to brutally fight?

      1. And in Bahrain, they have Saudi troops coming to suppress protests. Just because Ben Ali and Mubarak weren’t as bad as Ghaddafi, doesn’t mean we were controlling them.

        And we didn’t have influence with Ghaddafi to get him to give up his weapon’s programs?

  12. The author commits the common mistake of stating the mujahideen and the Taliban were one and the same. In actuality, they didn’t show up until long after the Soviets had withdrawn from Afghanistan. They only managed to take control because of the lack of unity among the various warlords…a problem that still exists today.

    1. This, exactly. People say this all the time and are wrong. Were some of the weapons that Taliban use now at one point procured with the help of American funds? Sure it’s possible, but we never funded the Taliban.

      1. We directly funded both Haqqani and Hekmatyar. Look them up

      2. The same American arms manufacturers supply the opposing factions with arms. Just as the same bankers funded all the opposing countries in WW1. The Mexican drug cartels use American made weapons who then sell weapon to the Mexican government to combat the weapons sold to the criminals.

  13. It’s much simpler than that. People in power look for any excuse to remain in power. Whatever bogeyman can be used to scare the populace, will be used. Communism, Islam, doesn’t matter. Once the war on terror subsides in 20-30 years, there will be a new bogeyman.

    1. I, for one, welcome our new Centauri overlords.

    2. I love that handle of yours!

  14. The americans have lossed their credibility as a super power nowthey will be written in the history as a destructive power. Naturally american can destroy the world several times but the vision as a super power is zero. Even the absurd question they ask why the world public hates them simple anwer is they are duffers and don,t see wind direction.

  15. A Yiddish proverb, “Choose your enemies well for you will become like them”.

  16. Mike, you have hit the nail on the head, and from inside the struggle for a new Egypt, we salute you! Saad and Barbara Ibrahim

  17. “The Kirkpatrick doctrine seems silly in retrospect. A lot of formerly communist countries have now found democracy, or something close to it.”

    that’s because of what the US did fighting communism for all those decades. we prevented it spreading and knocked it out when we could. The strategy worked.

  18. “Some of them may begin life as Iranian-style Islamic republics.”

    and some of those may begin life as
    iranian-style democracies….until
    some western power decides otherwise.

  19. So, you want to “help them unshackle” their yearning for freedom. Doesn’t that fly in the face of the standard libertarian position, which is more or less a “hands-off every other country” position? So what kind of “help” are you actually proposing that would be acceptable to the readers of this magazine?

    If the circumstances of any of these countries are such that they do not “allow new democracies to be born,” clearly you’re not proposing active US military intervention, and clearly you’re repulsed by Kissingerian realpolitik, so it seems to me we’re left with old-fashioned, impotent isolationism. Of course, since true isolationism would be very hard to actually pull off in such an important region of the world, you’d sooner or later have to take sides with somebody, somewhere, over something, and that’s when all the old moral conundrums rear their heads again.

    Whether you’re a libertarian, a “progressive,” a neocon or Pat Buchanan, try as you might messy reality will always pop your ideological bubble–it will intrude into any situation where someone has actual responsibility to make decisions.

  20. Actually it is more like “The friend of my friend..” Anyone who shows friendly attitude towards Israel is sure to get our help. The only reason we have made Islamists the new bogeyman is because we worry that they may not be as friendly to Israel.

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