Sexting by Minors Is Much Less Common Than You Think

A new study in the journal Pediatrics finds that teenagers transmit nude or partially nude photos of themselves far less often than previously reported. Based on telephone interviews with a national sample of 1,560 10-to-17-year-olds, the researchers found that only 1 percent had "appeared in or created...images that were sexually explicit (i.e., showed naked breasts, genitals, or bottoms)." By contrast, a widely cited 2009 survey sponsored by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy—based on a somewhat older, nonrepresentative sample—claimed that 20 percent of 13-to-19-year-olds "have sent/posted nude or seminude pictures or video of themselves." A co-author of the new study, Janis Wolak,  a senior researcher at the University of New Hampshire's Crimes Against Children Research Center, told The New York Times:

It only takes one or two cases to make people think this is very prevalent behavior. This has been reported as if it were something that everyone was doing...It's really not the case.

Last month the Pew Research Center reported similar survey results, indicating that 2 percent of 12-to-17-year-olds had sent nude or partially nude photos of themselves to friends or acquaintances. "There's a zeitgeist in America socially that suggests that sexting is something that's really prevalent," Pew research specialist Amanda Lenhart told the Times. "I think this research shows that it actually isn’t that prevalent. It happens, but the likelihood of it happening to any given person is pretty low."

The belief that explicit sexting is 10 or 20 times as common among minors as it really is no doubt has encouraged official overreactions to the phenomenon, such as threatening or bringing child pornography charges against teenagers who transmit or receive naughty pictures. A companion study in the same issue of Pediatrics, based on a survey of 2,712 law enforcement agencies, estimates that police nationwide investigated about 3,500 cases of "youth-produced sexual images" in 2008 and 2009. Two-thirds of those cases involved aggravating circumstances beyond creation and dissemination of the images, such as adult involvement and "malicious, non-consensual, or abusive behavior" by minors. Regarding the disposition of these cases, Wolak and two co-authors report:

An arrest occurred in 62% of cases with an adult involved, in 36% of the aggravated youth-only cases, and in 18% of the 'experimental' cases (youth-only and no aggravating elements) Most of the images (63%) were distributed by cell phone only and did not reach the Internet. Sex offender registration applied in only a few unusual cases.

Wolak et al. conclude that "arrest is not typical in cases with no adults involved," and The Washington Post presents that finding as reassuring. "Contrary to some reports," it says, the study "suggests few kids are being prosecuted or forced to register as sex offenders for sexting." But the survey indicates that hundreds of teenagers are investigated by police each year for entirely consensual exchanges, of whom about 100 are charged. Furthermore, those numbers do not include cases where police never officially got involved but sexters caught by school administrators or other authority figures still had to worry about the possibility of a felony conviction and registration as a sex offender. Even a few such cases create an atmosphere of fear that is simply not justified by the gravity of the offense.

More on sexting hysteria here, including Nancy Rommelmann's 2009 Reason feature story "Anatomy of a Child Pornographer."

Editor's Note: We invite comments and request that they be civil and on-topic. We do not moderate or assume any responsibility for comments, which are owned by the readers who post them. Comments do not represent the views of Reason.com or Reason Foundation. We reserve the right to delete any comment for any reason at any time. Report abuses.

  • ||

    Based on telephone interviews with a national sample of 1,560 10-to-17-year-olds

    "Hi! Do you have time today to talk about your nude photo habits?"

  • RoboCain||

    Seriously. The editors of Pediatrics are anti-gun food-regulatory liberal hacks.

  • ||

    And teenagers are so very inclined to tell the truth about sexual subjects.

    Who is retarded enough to do these studies?

  • Pervert||

    Present!

  • Veemee Sashimi||

    Yeah this is GIGO at it's core.

  • ||

    Much like any media hyped "oh noes" problem du jour... From school shootings to dangerous moooslims, etc. it is almost certainly overhyped. However..PHONE INTERVIEWS? Riiiiiiiiiiiiiight.

  • Little Boy||

    Epi sent me a picture of his shriveled nut sack. Does that count as sexting?

    Why am I asking you?

  • that sandusky creep||

    what?

  • gymnal||

    The question is, which way would teenagers lie?

    60 yrs. ago, teens would have down played. Now, a lot of teens seem proud of being whorey sluts. Everyone wants to be Paris Hilton.

  • Gojira||

    Is that woman "sexting" a picture of her blowjob face?

  • Surly Chef||

    I believe that's a first time anal face.

  • Colonel_Angus||

    I don't understand why the anal face. Just operate the muscles like a regular bowel movement and it opens right up.

  • ||

    A quick blow to the kidneys will also open it up.

    And a blow to the back of the head will lock it up tight so you can pull out clean as a whistle.

    At least that's what I've heard.

  • ||

    QUICK BLOW TO HEAD WORK BETTER

  • ||

    I've never done anal. Something about poop throws me off. Plus, I'd be horrified if I peed out a brown plug the next morning.

  • ||

    I'd be horrified if I peed out a brown plug the next morning.

    Wow. Just...wow.

  • Jack the Reaper||

    can't...stop...laughing...

  • ||

    I can't help but believe that it's possible; say, if you go in bareback on Chimichanga Night, donkey punch notwithstanding.

  • Colonel_Angus||

    Chimichanga Night... Maybe fasting should be top of the list.

  • ||

    Maybe fasting should be top of the list.

    Maybe the vagina should be at the top of the list. I don't care how much it's been shaved, bleached and enema'd: an asshole is still an asshole.

  • ||

    Who shaves an asshole?

  • ||

    Who shaves an asshole?

    Presumably those who think an asshole is more appealing if it's denuded.

  • ||

    But shave the actual asshole? Perhaps each buttock and the cleave, but not the sphincter, man. You'll damage her o-ring.

  • ||

    Then it wouldn't form into a plug, as it's consistency would be lacking. You'd just piss out an earth-tone rainbow in the morning, ranging from brown to amber to goldenrod to yellow and likely ending in red.

    Ending in red, that's normal, right?

  • ||

    Then it wouldn't form into a plug . . .

    That would depend on how vigorously it had been packed in there, wouldn't it? Coal is fairly soft; diamonds aren't.

  • ||

    I'm making the assumption that on Chimi night it doesn't matter how hard you pack it, it's still a steady stream.

    IOW: How tightly can you pack water? Now, how tightly can you pack brown water?

  • Colonel_Angus||

    Enema. Shower. Condom. Enema. Shower.

  • ||

    Enema. Shower. Condom. Enema. Shower.

    Not good enough. No amount of scalding hot water and Lava soap would wash the stink off my soul.

  • Gojira||

    It's cool dude; you can pass those chicks that you're rejecting on to me. I'm down with the brown.

  • Christina ||

    I can't believe this entire conversation went on without a single reference to Tucker Max.

    http://www.tuckermax.com/stori.....not-ensue/

  • ||

    Holy Mary, mother of God.

  • SFC B||

    I am exceptionally proud of the number of gawd-awful conversations I can have before ever needing to involve a reference to Tucker Max.

  • ||

    Tucker Max is a lying shit.

  • Surly Chef||

    Colonel_Angus, I supposed "surprise anal" would have been a better descriptor.

  • ||

    ^^This^^ is why libertarians are not taken seriously. If Postrel were still here, she'd cancel her subscription and drive on public roads to an airport and fly to Somalia.

  • Alan||

    Libertarians are not taken seriously because their ideas are not serious. It's a tautology of failure.

  • wareagle||

    well, of course, why in the world would anyone take the concepts of limited govt and letting adults make adult decisions seriously? Maybe it's because the alternative has worked so much better.

  • ||

    Dude, Alan's an asshole. He was on here yesterday spewing his hate of liberty.

    If I were you, I'd challenge him on his stupidity.

  • Alan||

    Yeah, I'm the one who hates liberty, when all you idiots do is talk about making nice with Iran and downsizing the military. Guess what? Freedom isn't free.

  • SFC B||

    It is sentiments like this which really frustrate me as a Soldier. There is absolutly nothing wrong with downsizing the military since we're no longer facing enemies with large standing armies and an ability to project that force into our proxy backyard.

    I fear that my fellow service men and women will put the baby boomers to shame in our whining when the ax finally hits us.

  • wareagle||

    no Alan, it's not free but even those of us who like the military think we're spending a bit much on it. Time for some others to foot the bill toward their own defense. They can pay us to provide it or pay for their own armies. I realize that for some countries, that would diminish the scope of their welfare states but, frankly, I don't much care. We're broke.

    By the way, I never mentioned Iran but here's what POTUS ought to say: we're not going to waste our time figuring out ways of stopping Iran from developing nuclear weapons, but let me be clear - the day after Iran uses such a weapon against a US interest is the day it ceases being a functioning country.

    Even Obama ought to be able to say without a prompter. I don't want to make nice with them, but we are not going to use force, diplomacy won't work, and worst of all, they would not believe Obama were he to utter the previous suggestion, and THAT is the problem.

  • Alan||

    We have a duty to our only democratic ally in the area, Israel, to absolutely prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon. The stated goal of the mullahs is a world-wide Caliphate. It is the responsibility of the United States to prevent that, even if it means beggering ourselves in the process.

    This is an existential cultural struggle that we simply cannot afford to lose by going cheap now.

  • wareagle||

    This is an existential cultural struggle that we simply cannot afford to lose by going cheap now.
    -----------------------
    so the culture war can only be won by spending more? Are you sure you're not a Team Blue guy?

  • ||

    His version of a "cultural struggle" is bombing any nation that is not part and parcel run by fundie Christians (and Israel by extension) back to the stone age.

    He doesn't care about dialogue. He just wants to eliminate them because he's terrified that they might try to eliminate us (or Israel by extension). Nevermind the fact that we sat idly by as the Soviet Union, China, India, England, France and probably several other countries I missed, developed the bomb.

    But Oh Noes!!! It's a muslim country now so we gotta stop them before they get it. Fucking racist piece of shit.

  • Alan||

    "so the culture war can only be won by spending more? Are you sure you're not a Team Blue guy?"

    So conceeding military superiority to our enemies is now a conservative trait? News to most of us.

  • ||

    Our military could be cut in half and still go toe to toe with any military in the world. Your outdated way of thinking is why we must have a massive military complex. Next thing, you'll be telling us that cutting the military budget is unfair to the companies that rely on military contracts for their livelihood, and that we must keep the monster growing if for no other reason than to keep the economy growing.*

    *Actually, that would be a Team Blue move, but I wouldn't be surprised if you supported it anyway just to feed the monkey.

  • wareagle||

    So conceeding military superiority to our enemies is now a conservative trait?
    --------------------------
    it is stupefying that you were able to type something this loony with a straight face. NO ONE spends what we do on the military; we spent more than the rest of the globe combined.

  • ||

    We have a duty to our only democratic ally in the area, Israel...

    Um, why? Have you heard of this thing we have called the First Amendment? It means we should not use public money to support somebody else's Biblical mandates (i.e., seizing and occupying territory by force because Gawd said we should).

    It is the responsibility of the United States to prevent that, even if it means beggering ourselves in the process.

    Um, why, exactly?

    (Barfgag)Freedom isn't free.(/Barfgag)

    Yes, actually. It is. It was paid for long ago. Moreover, our freedom isn't buried under the rocks and sand of various Third World Islamotard shitholes.

    Freedom is so free, you cannot even buy it for others who don't necessarily want it.

  • ||

    Not to mention that it's Team Blue now doing the saber rattling. Alan's a Team Red shill, but he's most pissed off that Barry O has gone to the right of his guys and stolen all of their thunder.

    And for all his "military might-good, military downsizing-bad" rhetoric, he has not put one decent policy proposal out there for us to consider.

    He's just a bomb-throwing asshole, which is pretty much what both Team Red and Team Blue cheerleaders become when it comes time to propose real solutions.

  • Alan||

    "Not to mention that it's Team Blue now doing the saber rattling."

    Good, then the limp-wristed dems are finally doing something right.

  • Alan||

    Good, then the limp-wristed dems are finally doing something right for a change. Iran must be stopped.

  • Alan||

    ^^sorry, squirrels

  • ||

    Oh for fuck's sake. Why do the need to be stopped, Alan? Is it because of the scary worldwide Caliphate meme you keep peddling? Because if that were the case, they would have held our ass hostage a long time ago with help from the Saudis, who are much more militantly Islamist than the Iranians are.

    The Iranians have more in common with the US than almost any other nation in that region. They tolerate synagogues, they let women drive and they even allow alcohol.

    You're nothing but a FoxNews watching boob that is incapable of even the slightest amount of research.

  • ||

    the day after Iran uses such a weapon against a US interest is the day it ceases being a part of earth's geography.

    ftfy.

  • wareagle||

    sorry, "functioning country" was my attempt at diplomacy. I like your version better.

  • Apatheist||

    Congratulations, sloopy just baited ya'll into debating gojira's spoof troll. They just eiffel towered you good.

  • ||

    Oh, I knew it was a sock. I brought Alan up upthread hoping Jim would bring him out to play.

  • Apatheist||

    I know you knew sloopy. That's why I said you baited them. If eiffel towered isn't clear, I was saying you two double teamed them.

  • Gojira||

    Damnit Apatheist! Alan still has a lot of mileage, and I don't want the game given away just yet.

  •  ||

    Libertarians are not taken seriously because...

    There are many reasons, one of which is an over-reliance on sarcasm as a rhetorical tool. Sarcasm isn't a weapon--it's a white flag, a sign of surrender, an acknowledgement of ineffectuality. The prevailing sense of life in this little corner of Libertopia is that of pessimism, resignation, defeat. Such a philosophy hardly engenders inspiration.

  • RoboCain||

    LOLWUT?

  • ||

    "drink!" x5

  • ||

    Just wanted to see if alcohol poisoning was real or an urban legend.

  • Gojira||

    Sloopy, please do not let them in on the joke. It's priceless.

  • ||

    Just wanted to see if alcohol poisoning was real or an urban legend.

    for a magazine called Reason....

  • Almanian||

    Ima need another bottle...

  • ||

    ^^This^^ is why libertarians are not taken seriously.

    Dunno about that, but I do know its why I come to this website.

  • o3||

    wait, isnt that one of the women for cain ?

  • ||

    Maybe she finally got 2 Girls 1 Cup to load on her smartphone.

    Or goatse.*

    *do not Image Search "goatse."

  • Mensan||

    That's like telling Stimpy not to push the history eraser button.

  • ola||

    When I saw that picture, I thought of the picture of Michelle Bachmann addressing the corn dog at the county fair!

  • ||

    suggests few kids are being prosecuted or forced to register as sex offenders for sexting

    few. well, as long as it's only a few....another win for Justice?

  • American Electorate||

    Mooslim countries and stupid and backwards! Look at how they prosecute women for adultery when they were raped! What a bunch of idiot monkeys!

    Wait, what's that over there? A 17-yr old boy sending a photo of his junk to his 16-yr old girlfriend? Throw him in jail and prosecute her for possession of child porn! That's the only civilized thing to do!

  • Paul||

    Based on telephone interviews with a national sample of 1,560 10-to-17-year-olds

    Wait, what? Some stranger is going to call my daughter and ask her about sending nude photos of herself?

  • Gojira||

    I don't really feel like we're "strangers" anymore, because of all the commenting on this website.

    Now if you could please put your daughter on the phone...

  • RoboCain||

    What's her phone number?

  • Paul||

    The Pew Charitable Trusts probably has it on their searchable web tool.

    But she's too young, even for you. She's ten in January. Well, ok, maybe not too young for you. Or many of the hit and runners who keep ogling that 12-yr-old from that Hawaii five oh show...

  • RoboCain||

    So that's why Grace Park is so skinny?

  • Gojira||

    I would do things to that girl that are illegal in even the most sexually liberated nations on earth.

  • ||

    Is it true what they say about Asian women's...you know...lady parts?

  • Gojira||

    Speaking from experience (my wife is from Hong Kong originally) I can emphatically state that...yes - whatever you have heard is absolutely true.

  • ||

    That's a relief. I go out with a Sino-Japanese girl when I am in the bay area and I didn't want to ask if her stuff was supposed to be like that. I was just gonna keep going with it until a doctor told me it was bad policy.

  • Gojira||

    You get to live in the closest thing America has to a Hawt Azn Chix Mecca (Cali). I had slim pickens in Texas : (. At least I was able to snag an attractive one.

  • ||

    Yeah, you got that right. The half-decent looking ones (which=hot)who are not into marrying who mommy and daddy say are pretty adventurous. It's been a good 4 year run out here, that's for sure.

    And I get the best part because I also live around all the Portuguese and Dutch dairy owners and their sexy daughters...not to mention a strong contingent of hot-ass Mexican wimminz.

    It's like a "It's A Small World After All" orgy out here.

  • Gojira||

    If I wasn't married, you'd almost have me convinced to give up the relatively sane environs of Texas for the Peoples Democratic Republic of Kalifornia.

  • O3||

    damned cali orgies & hot womenz.

  • Beloved Rev. Blue Moon||

    I go out with a Sino-Japanese girl

    How deep does THAT brand of self-hate go?

  • ||

    I once dated a hispanic Jewish girl. This is minor-league.

  • Mensan||

    Chinese-Jewish girl FTW!

  • EDG reppin' LBC||

    Yes sloopy, it is all true. Here is an informative video that may help you understand more.

  • ||

    I wouldn't click that link with your cursor.

  • ||

    Kids do represent the future. Technology improves freedom, and kids pick up the trend before adults. Smartphones such as iPhone however, actually makes it harder to text when driving. I know someone who is in delivery business, and sometimes he must text when driving. So, he kept his Nokia featured phone, which is much easier to use for this kind of purposes. He said he can text blindfolded. I also almost give it all up with iPhone, since with its small keyboard, I can't even find any contacts standing still, let alone driving. Until recently, an iPhone app called PhoneBook+ Plus, which uses bigger keypad, got me back to drive texting again. Anyhow, sometimes thought it might get me killed one day. Technology sure has its own way of moving forward, sometimes has nothing to do with being legal or not.

  • GILMORE||

    A new study in the journal Pediatrics finds that teenagers transmit nude or partially nude photos of themselves far less often than previously reported

    Awww?

    Not fair.

  • Colonel_Angus||

    What the hell does this have to do with pediatrics? The professional creep of the medical profession is fucking annoying.

  • Zeb||

    I was thinking along the same lines. What does this have to do with pediatric medicine? This is as dumb as doctors asking if there are guns in the house or if you wear your seatbelt.

  • ||

    Maybe there was a typo and it was from the magazine Pedoatrics. It's the only reason I can think they'd be doing a study.

  • EDG reppin' LBC||

    From the American Academy of Pediatrics website:

    In a new policy published in the April 2011 issue of Pediatrics (published online March 21), the AAP advises parents to keep their toddlers in rear-facing car seats until age 2, or until they reach the maximum height and weight for their seat. It also advises that most children will need to ride in a belt-positioning booster seat until they have reached 4 feet 9 inches tall and are between 8 and 12 years of age.

    My father, a pediatrician, had no trepidation about us kids (3 and 7 years old) bouncing around without seat belts or booster seats, all the way from Chapel Hill to Cleveland in the middle of a blizzard, in our 1972 Plymouth Valiant. My brother actually fell out of my parents 1966 Mustang convertible when he was three (not seriously injured). I don't know when the professional creep of the AAP really got bad, but it was non-existent in the early 1970's!

  • wareagle||

    sedans of the day had a rear dashboard where a kid could lay down and watch the stars during the trip. The back seat didn't even have a seat belt. And somehow, we survived.

  • ||

    Far far far less people survived. Do you really want to compare fatal collision rates per mile driven now vs. the 70's? One of the greatest successes of science, law enforcement, trauma medicine, traffic safety laws, etc.is that the fatality rates for driving have improved by a staggering amount.

    Traffic fatality rates are less than 25percent what they were in late 60s early 70s. A success brought about by both private industry and govt regulation... One of the very few examples of successful govt regulation being implemented

  • wareagle||

    none of the above has a thing to do with time sucks like seat belt checks. Yes, cars themselves have more safety tools; on the other hand, they collapse on impact whereas the old models were made of steel. You could knock down brick walls with them.

    Once again, it's not the presence of new tools..it's the state FORCING you to use them. Give people the tool, tell them its benefits, let them decide whether or not to use it.

  • ||

    and your basis for these statements is what?

    and of COURSE it's new tools, it's also better vehicle safety (ralph nader wasn't right about a lot, but he was right when it came to vehicle safety) such as airbags, lap AND shoulder belts, etc.

    sorry, but if you are going to refute a staggering improvementy in traffic safety with such a lame, "yea but",you are going to have to do a lot better than that

    again, the rate improved SEVENTY FIVE PERCENT

    here's a hint. that's not due to the state "forcing" people to wear seatbelts (that's just a small part)

    substantially more people died back then even WEARING seatbelts than do now.

    but it's nice to know that (some) libertarians are just as dismissive of data as creationists or liberals when it comes to pet issues

    if you honestly think the only (or even the primary) reason our traffic fatality rate is less than .25 X what it was a few decades ago is that govt. is "FORCING" people to wear their seatbelts, you are deluded

  • Mensan||

    My dad had a 1981 Volkwagen Rabbit pick-up. Whenever my parents and all the kids went somewhere at least three of use had to ride in the bed. It always needed a push start, so my older brother and I would push it then jump in the back as Dad popped the clutch. We each missed the jump on more than one occasion.

  • Zeb||

    Why does everyone talk about this as if it is obviously a bad thing? I'm not saying it is a good thing necessarily, but it seems far from clear that this is actually a problem for anyone (as long as they don't get in trouble for it) or a bad ebough problem that it needs a solution.

  • Colonel_Angus||

    I am all for moral standards becoming less reaction and more logical.

  • RoboCain||

  • np||

    But the survey indicates that hundreds of teenagers are investigated by police each year for entirely consensual exchanges, of whom about 100 are charged.

    That's still 100 too much.

  • Colonel_Angus||

    I agree. Taxpayer resources should not be wasted on shit like this.

  • ||

    And what constitutes "sexting" anyway? I would feel much more able to decide on this issue if some pics were posted for the sake of comparison to what sexting pics of a 17 year old girl look like vs. just plain racy pics of a 17 year old girl.

    Reason is only giving us half of the story to work with. We need context.

  • Chris Hansen||

    Have a seat Sloopy.

  • ||

    "malicious, non-consensual, or abusive behavior" by minors.

    Which I can only interpret as forwarding those "intimate personal" photos to everyone you know.

  • Almanian||

    We are in ur iPhone lookin at ur pitchrs

  • Every Politician & Bankster||

    It only takes one or two cases to make people think this is very prevalent behavior. This has been reported as if it were something that everyone was doing...It's really not the case.

    ^^THIS^^

  • ||

    ISOLATED INCIDENTZ

  • ilkonotan||

    Seems like another example of the "media hears about a fad amongst a small group at one HS and tells America that it is a 'growing trend' nationwide" syndrome. See also: The "Spur Posse", parents are giving their teenage daughters boob jobs and other cosmetic surgery as presents, pedobar is being used by sexual predators to socially network, etc.

  • ||

    See also: Jenkem.

  • ||

    only 1 percent had "appeared in or created...images that were sexually explicit (i.e., showed naked breasts, genitals, or bottoms)."
    20 percent of 13-to-19-year-olds "have sent/posted nude or seminude pictures or video of themselves."

    Sexually Explicit vs Semi-Nude. Apples and oranges. They may both be right, and the pictures of your teen in her underwear just doesn't reach the level of "sexually explicit" but is still disturbing.

  • SFC B||

    Is it really useful to lump in 13 year olds with 19 year olds? I mean, I get they're both "teenagers", but one of them is completely allowed to send sexy pics, and the other gets you arrested and registered.

    Their propensity to take and share sexy pictures exists in totally different environments.

  • Captain America||

    My new song for America's lust for making breathing a crime is "Making crime out of nothing at all"

  • Robert||

    Heck, I have evidence that a substantial number of parents try to keep even brothers & sisters 10 YO & under from seeing each other nude.

  • ||

    Kids do represent the future. Technology improves freedom, and kids pick up the trend before adults. Smartphones such as iPhone however, actually makes it harder to text when driving. I know someone who is in delivery business, and sometimes he must text when driving. So, he kept his Nokia featured phone, which is much easier to use for this kind of purposes. He said he can text blindfolded. I also almost give it all up with iPhone, since with its small keyboard, I can't even find any contacts standing still, let alone driving. Until recently, an iPhone app called PhoneBook+ Plus, which uses bigger keypad, got me back to drive texting again. Anyhow, sometimes thought it might get me killed one day. Technology sure has its own way of moving forward, sometimes has nothing to do with being legal or not.

GET REASON MAGAZINE

Get Reason's print or digital edition before it’s posted online

  • Progressive Puritans: From e-cigs to sex classifieds, the once transgressive left wants to criminalize fun.
  • Port Authoritarians: Chris Christie’s Bridgegate scandal
  • The Menace of Secret Government: Obama’s proposed intelligence reforms don’t safeguard civil liberties

SUBSCRIBE

advertisement