Pre-Crime Policing

A SWAT team brings in a man and seizes his legally purchased guns—for a crime no one committed

To hear them tell it, the officers who apprehended 39-year-old David Pyles on March 8 thwarted a mass murder. The cops “were able to successfully take a potentially volatile male subject into protective custody for a mental evaluation,” the Medford, Oregon, police department announced in a press release. The subject had been placed on administrative leave from his job not long before, was “very disgruntled,” and had recently purchased several firearms. “Local Law Enforcement agencies were extremely concerned that the subject was planning retaliation against his employers,” the press release said. Fortunately, Pyles “voluntarily” turned himself over to police custody, and his legally purchased firearms “were seized for safekeeping.”

This supposedly voluntary exchange involved two SWAT teams, officers from Medford and nearby Roseburg, sheriff’s deputies from Jackson and Douglas counties, and the Oregon State Police. Pyles hadn’t committed any crime; nor was he suspected of having committed one. The police never obtained a warrant for either search or arrest. They never consulted with a judge or a mental health professional before sending military-style tactical teams to take Pyles in.

“They woke me up with a phone call at about 5:50 in the morning,” Pyles says. “I looked out the window and saw the SWAT team pointing their guns at my house. The officer on the phone told me to turn myself in. I told them I would, on three conditions. I would not be handcuffed. I would not be taken off my property. And I would not be forced to get a mental health evaluation. He agreed. The second I stepped outside, they jumped me. Then they handcuffed me, took me off my property, and took me to get a mental health evaluation.”

By noon, Pyles had already been released from the Rogue Valley Medical Center with a clean bill of mental health. Four days later the Medford Police Department returned Pyles’ guns, despite telling him earlier in the week—falsely—that he would need to undergo a second background check before he could get them back. The Medford Police Department then put out a second press release, this time announcing that it had returned the “disgruntled” worker’s guns and “now considers this matter closed.”

There’s nothing wrong with looking for signs that someone is about to snap. If he is waving multiple red flags, we’d certainly want law enforcement to investigate. And obviously if someone has made specific threats, a criminal investigation should follow. But that’s a far cry from what happened to Pyles.

Pyles’ problems followed a series of grievances with his employer, the Oregon Department of Transportation. “It was never personal,” he says. “We were handling the grievances through the process stipulated in the union contract.” (Pyles declined to discuss the nature of the complaints, citing conditions in his contract.) On March 4 he was placed on administrative leave, which required him to work from home. On March 5, 6, and 7, after getting his income tax refund, he made three purchases of five firearms. Pyles describes himself as a gun enthusiast who already owned several weapons.

All three purchases required an Oregon background check, which would have prohibited the transactions had Pyles ever been convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor involving violence or been committed by the state to a mental health institution. Pyles says he has no criminal record, and he says he never threatened anyone in his office. (Later reports confirmed that Pyles never made any threat of violence.) The Oregon State Police, the Medford Police Department, and the Oregon Department of Transportation did not respond to requests for comment.

“In my opinion, the apprehension of David Pyles was a violation of Oregon’s kidnapping laws,” says James Leuenberger, a criminal defense attorney who is advising Pyles. “He definitely deserves to be compensated for what they did to him, but even if he wins a civil rights suit, that will just result in the officers’ employers paying for their mistakes.” That means the final tab will be paid by Oregon taxpayers, not the offending cops. “I want these law enforcement officials held personally responsible,” Leuenberger says. “I want them criminally charged.”

It’s hard to see that happening. Joseph Bloom, a psychiatrist at Oregon Health and Science University and an expert on civil commitment law, says the police who apprehended and detained Pyles likely were acting within the state’s laws. Bloom says the police are permitted to decide on their own to take someone in for an evaluation, and that there’s no requirement that they first consult with a judge or a mental health professional.

Bloom believes this is a wise policy. “It’s important to remember that this is a civil process,” he says. “There’s no arrest. These people aren’t being taken to jail. It’s not a criminal action.”

SWAT teams, guns, and handcuffs …but not a criminal action? And what if Pyles had refused to “voluntarily” surrender to the police? “Well, yes,” Bloom says. “I guess then it would become a criminal matter.”

If what happened to Pyles is legal in Oregon or elsewhere, we need to take a second look at the civil commitment power. Even setting aside the SWAT overkill in Medford, there’s something discomfiting about granting the government the power to yank someone from his home based only on a series of actions that were perfectly lawful.

Even if the apprehension of Pyles was legal, the seizure of his guns was not. Civil commitment laws do not authorize the police to search a private residence. According to Pyles, he closed the door behind him as he left his home. Because the police didn’t have a search warrant, they had no right to enter Pyles’ home, much less take weapons that he bought and possessed legally.

“For me,” says Pyles, “this is about civil rights. This seems like something the NRA and the ACLU can agree on. South Oregon is big gun country. If something like this can happen here, where just about everyone owns a gun, it can happen anywhere.” 

Radley Balko (rbalko@reason.com) is a senior editor at reason.

Editor's Note: We invite comments and request that they be civil and on-topic. We do not moderate or assume any responsibility for comments, which are owned by the readers who post them. Comments do not represent the views of Reason.com or Reason Foundation. We reserve the right to delete any comment for any reason at any time. Report abuses.

  • affenkopf||

    Pre-Crime Policing is like stopping comments about Mohammed before they are actually posted.

  • ||

    In the tradition of the goliards who once spoofed the church of their day with vulgar and bawdy songs...

    A little lyric, which I invite all performing bar bands to play tomorrow as a sort of theme song of the day (to the tune of "For He's A Jolly Good Fellow"):

    We dug up the Prophet Mohammed
    We dug up the Prophet Mohammed
    We dug up the Prophet Mohammed
    And fucked his rotting corpse

    And fucked his rotting corpse
    And fucked his rotting corpse
    We dug up the Prophet Mohammed
    And fucked his rotting corpse!

    Bonus points if you get the crowd to sing along.

  • ||

    I want to know what the fuck you guys did to shut down two comment threads.

  • ||

    Two?

  • ||

    Oh.

    I see now.

    I don't think Balko will let anyone fuck with his thread though. That man has seen so much shit, I doubt some dick jokes will have him rattled.

  • ||

    In the immortal words of Billy Jack - when the police break the law, there is no law.

  • ||

    Thought crime is on the books now?

  • Paul||

    Not yet. It's more a 'pre-law' thing.

  • ||

    I love Rodney Balko, I send his articles to friends all the time, but I swear I read this EXACT same story in March. If it's been 2 months, why isn't there any new information on the litigation, fallout, or police review?

  • ||

    Radley!
    I might not have a good memory for names (or the ability to scroll up to make sure I have it correct) but I was right about that article. It was from Mar 16:

    http://reason.com/archives/2010/03/16/pre-crime-policing/

  • ||

    Just to be clear, I don't care that it's not a "new" story, it's a great article (bad story for the guy involved, however) but I really want to know if anything's happened since.

  • Joshua||

    I agree. I remembered the story, and was hoping for something new.

  • ||

    Man I though I was going insane or had a psychotic vision or something. I am glad I am not the only one that read this article before.

  • goober1223||

    Yeah, that Rodney's a smooth cat, alright.

    Wait... Who's Rodney?

  • ||

    I certainly hope this man files suit for false arrest and kidnapping.

    -jcr

  • qwerty||

    and I hope he wins a bunch of money. This is a complete travesty.

  • ||

    I too hope he is compensated, but we all know it is the taxpayers who will pay for it and the asshats who did this will just go on their merry way doing the same shit.

  • d||

    The only just outcome (i.e., one that doesn't fleece innocent tax payers) will be one where the commanding officer is held *criminally* liable for illegal search and seizure, breaking and entering, all that.

    Not that it has a snowball's chance in Hell of happening, mind you. Just saying...

  • robc||

    kidnapping probably isnt going to happen, but there is an open and shut case of breaking&entering;.

    No warrant, no probable cause. Bam! Criminal charges against any of the cops who entered his house.

  • π||

    It was just sneek and peek, no judge is going to hear the case just because a little static electricity caused a few firearms to stick to the officers' hands while they were sneeking around peeking.

  • LIberal Ignoramus||

    All those guns! Sounds like a dangerous individual to me. The cops did a good job getting him off the streets. He might even be one of those anti-health care Obama hating racist tea partiers, like the guy Mayor Bloomberg said tried to blow up NYC.

  • ||

    The Medford Police Department then put out a second press release, this time announcing that it had returned the “disgruntled” worker’s guns and “now considers this matter closed.”


    I certainly hope that David Pyles, accompanied by a tort attornet doesn't consider the matter closed.

  • Federal Dog||

    "Bloom says the police are permitted to decide on their own to take someone in for an evaluation, and that there’s no requirement that they first consult with a judge or a mental health professional. Bloom believes this is a wise policy."

    Yes, because surely we can all agree that society needs cops diagnosing psychiatric conditions and imposing hospitalization on anyone they deem "disgruntled."

  • IceTrey||

    Thank God we don't live in Iran.

  • π||

    Be patient.

  • ||

    This is a good thing

  • Max||

    What if somebody reported only the ideotic things liberararians write, giving the impression that all libertarians are idiots--would tha be fair?

  • Federal Dog||

    "What if somebody reported only the ideotic things liberararians write"

    That would be something.

  • Jules||

    English, motherfucker! Do you speak it!?

  • Drugs are Bad mm-Kay||

    Wa what?!

  • Flock of Seagulls||

    What?

  • jacob||

    "What if somebody reported only the ideotic things liberararians"

    Quit sucking dick and you might be able to spell better

  • Astropud||

    Don't pick on librarians.

  • Joshua||

    Have you ever read a newspaper? That's exactly what they do.

  • CrackertyAssCracker||

    You are right Max, the way you talk here, you are being unfair to progressive fucksticks everywhere.

  • JB||

    Hey Max, what's your address?

    I once heard the possibility that someone might have seen drugs there.

  • Max||

    12345 Isuckbiggovernmentdick Lane
    Socialisthaven, CA 11111

  • IceTrey||

    "liberararians". I think you're the idiot.

  • Colonel_Angus||

    "All three purchases required an Oregon background check, which would have prohibited the transactions had Pyles ever been convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor involving violence or been committed by the state to a mental health institution."

    Deserves a constitutional challenge as well.

  • cynical||

    Good luck finding the gun rights group that will go to bat for getting guns in the hands of criminals and nuts.

  • ||

    So the state pulls your arse off the street and commits you to a mental health facility. You are later released with a clean bill of health. You okay with not being able to purchase a weapon because of a commitment to a mental health facility that shouldn't have happened?

  • Invisible Finger||

    Yes, because surely we can all agree that society needs cops diagnosing psychiatric conditions and imposing hospitalization on anyone they deem "disgruntled."

    I'd also like to know more about the mental health evaluations. Just because Pyles was given a clean bill of mental health this time, I have no idea as to how subject these evaluations are to the legislative process. Long after witch burnings, the US has a history of Mormoms being driven out of communities. I don't see why even being a whackjob is grounds for arrest if no one was threatened or endangered. It's possible to be mentally ill and harmless.

  • The Gobbler||

    "Long after witch burnings, the US has a history of Mormoms being driven out of communities"

    That's a feature, not a bug.

  • ||

    That's a feature, not a bug.

    The witch burnings, or the oppressing and killing people because they have the audacity to exercise their First Amendment rights?

    Or are both good ideas, in your opinion?

  • Joe Biden||

    "It's possible to be mentally ill and harmless."

    I accept your apology.

  • libertarian democrat||

    As someone who works in mental health (in the psych part of an ER), we see alot of different people brought in against their will (although that's still the vast minority of what we see). The laws vary by states, but while people often are full of fail when they involuntarily bring someone in (and sometimes get sued for it) the legitimate legal reasons are basically threefold (and most mental illness does not qualify).

    Danger to others (generally through reported homicidal ideation). While most people that report HI are just trying to get their way into a bed, some are just trying to get help or are showing their impaired judgement - if they want to kill someone - by telling someone who has a duty to protect people.

    Suicidal ideation. Obviously more of a mixed bag libertarian-wise, but if someone is suicidal and deemed at high risk, they can be brought in and kept in for treatment. Most aren't for more than a few days, if that, but it does happen.

    Failure to care for self. This is the loosest one. The post is supposed to be pretty high, generally only when one is a true danger to self, and this is almost always extremely psychotic and disorganized individuals. It's the least used (from my experience) and the most nebulous, but an example might be someone who was accidentally ODing on aspirin because they believe it will do something to help them.

    Most psychosis, depression, anxiety, etc don't get you more than an eval, if that. In that sort of situation, if he wasn't reporting homicidal ideation or suicidal ideation, even if he was suffering from some other mental illness, they'd have to let him go. Perhaps the only exception would be if he was extremely extremely paranoid with a violent history but no current violent thoughts. That history might combine to be enough.

  • libertarian democrat||

    In MA cops, nurses, physicians and psychologists (maybe clinical social workers too) can all send someone in for an eval. I've never heard anything as ridiculously weak as this sounds though. In fact, the only time I've ever heard of the police sending someone in at all has been if someone was like, standing in the subway or a public place yelling threats or talking about suicide. We might argue as to whether they should be allowed to do something, but it's only been when something seemed like there was a high and OBVIOUS chance of something bad going down. Treaters do it for less obvious (although most of the time at least compelling) reasons though.

  • libertarian democrat||

    In MA cops, nurses, physicians and psychologists (maybe clinical social workers too) can all send someone in for an eval. I've never heard anything as ridiculously weak as this sounds though. In fact, the only time I've ever heard of the police sending someone in at all has been if someone was like, standing in the subway or a public place yelling threats or talking about suicide. We might argue as to whether they should be allowed to do something, but it's only been when something seemed like there was a high and OBVIOUS chance of something bad going down. Treaters do it for less obvious (although most of the time at least compelling) reasons though.

  • ||

    So where was the justification for taking this gentleman against his will? He purchased legal weapons, which is his right, after passing the required background check. What was his crime? Having a disagreement with his employer? He was physically assaulted, kidnapped, deprived of due process, had breaking & entering & theft perpetrated upon him. Why weren't the police involved evaluated for sociopathic & narcissistic behavior? Everyone involved should be jailed. What a way to uphold their oaths.

  • ||

    What if somebody reported only the ideotic things liberararians write, giving the impression that all libertarians are idiots--would tha be fair?

    Max manages to gronk out an unprecedented triple Joe'z Law.

  • Federal Dog||

    It's not something you see every day.

  • Radu||

    you are right

  • Jersey Patriot||

    Time to tweak his meds, I'd say.

  • ||

    If it was intended as deliberate self-parody mixed with irony, I'd give it a 9.5 out of 10.

    I suspect it was more along the lines of hurried typing, just a touch of illiteracy, and a lack of respect for the preview function, though, which would lower it to a 7 out of 10 for amusement purposes.

  • π||

    It must be tough going through life as a Maxi-pad, absorbing everyone's foul mess only to be thanklessly rolled in T.P. and tossed in a waste basket once no longer needed.

    On the other hand, Max is a toe-rag by choice, so why waste any pity.

  • ||

    If you subscribe to the "takes one to know one" doctrine, who is better qualified than a cop to say, "That guy is a heavily armed menace to society"?

  • Some Guy||

    Something similar happened to a friend of mine. He had left our home state to attend college in Massachusetts. Granted, not exactly a Second Amendment haven. He had a handgun unloaded and locked away in his foot locker. I don't think it was registered in Massachusetts, but it was registered in our home state. He and his roommate had a falling out of sorts. In an act of revenge, the roommate told a school admin that my friend was acting violent and was planning a school shooting. The roommate also claimed that he read things my friend wrote about shooting up the school on his computer and in his stuff....which there was never any proof of that sort of thing at all.

    Based solely on the roommate's accusation, campus police entered the dorm room, arrested my friend, searched all his stuff, and found the handgun (but surprisingly didn't think anything of *not* finding any of the violent notes his roommate said he had read.) They initially wanted to throw my friend in jail (for what I don't know), but someone in the school's administration decided to "give him the benefit of a doubt" and a choice. Go to jail, or get expelled and lose all his academic credits. Heh, some choice. All this was done without any evidence, without any corroborating testimony or observations, without anything except false accusations.

    Just the mention of "school shooting" or "workplace shooting" sends cops and authorities into hysteria. Individual rights and presumed innocence just go right out the window. Ironically, my friend was studying law at that university. I'm glad to say that he came home and completed his law degree this spring.

  • Old Mexican||

    Joseph Bloom, a psychiatrist at Oregon Health and Science University and an expert on civil commitment law, says the police who apprehended and detained Pyles likely were acting within the state’s laws. Bloom says the police are permitted to decide on their own to take someone in for an evaluation, and that there’s no requirement that they first consult with a judge or a mental health professional.

    I get a warm and cozy feeling knowing that the police in Oregon have that power to "protect the people". Surely they would never, ever, EVER abuse such power.

    Ugh... No wonder even Californians consider Oregon too liberal [read: Fascistic] for their taste.

  • jacob||

    "Rogue Valley"

    How appropriate

  • ||

    It seems like the Swat Team should be examined by the mental health experts, not the hapless gun owner. Their condition is called "paranoia" where you think everyone else is out to get you.

  • Madbiker||

    I just showed this article to my husband. He said the forefathers are rolling around and screaming "Why did we leave England, so you could fuck up the best thing the world had going for it?"

    I don't know if I could say it better.

    Anyone who reads this article and still thinks America doesn't have problems is a moron.

  • Timmy Roid||

    Your husband sounds like a fucking idiot and you sound like a cunt. I pray to God that no one ever takes away either of your weapons in the hope that one day you two retards might kill each other.

  • ||

    Hemmi Roid - You are a complete and utter Fu56stick!

  • ||

    I concur. Go somewhere and kill yourself you shit eating fuck wad.

  • Rich||

    what if Pyles had refused to “voluntarily” surrender to the police? ... “I guess then it would become a criminal matter.”

    Then it'd be *crazy* not to "voluntarily" surrender. Mind boggling stuff, Radley.

  • ||

    What truly blows is that cops like the one in charge here will never get punished unless a whole crowd of people stumbles upon them raping a 2-year-old. Even then they'll probably only be put on a paid vacation.

    "Lone nuts" aren't the problem. Nuts with badges are.

  • db||

    Pre-crime policing is just the price we pay for life extension technologies. As the mean life span gets longer, the probability that anyone is going to commit a crime in the future increases. In fact, since the limit of the probability of committing a crime, including murder, reaches 1 as life span approaches infinity, we should all be locked up pre-emptively for murder.

    See what our libertarian thirst for endless life leads to? Eternal damnation in prison!

  • Ray Pew||

    Pre-crime policing is just the price we pay for life extension technologies. As the mean life span gets longer, the probability that anyone is going to commit a crime in the future increases. In fact, since the limit of the probability of committing a crime, including murder, reaches 1 as life span approaches infinity, we should all be locked up pre-emptively for murder.

    Statism has already surpassed this situation, by enacting volumes and volumes of laws thereby making it virtually impossible to pass the day without breaking one or more. We are all criminals.

  • Pvt. Pyles||

    Throughout the whole article I just kept imagining the suicide scene from Full Metal Jacket

  • π||

    That's what I call a case of serious brain matter.

  • JB||

    This story motivates me to write a story about someone who buys some unregistered guns and uses them to shoot many government employees.

    How big of a piece of shit do you have to be to work for the government?

  • skr||

    pfft he was lucky. if the douche had been smart, he would have told the cops your friend had a shitload of weed and then thrown away the bag from that last eighth. Expelled?? with a gun in his room, he'd be lucky to live through the experience.

  • skr||

    dammit that was supposed to be a reply

  • ||

    Where's URKOBOLD or the various Dans and Tony's? Jeeeez. Here goes:

    If the SWAT team had to arrest somebody for a crime nobody committed, that's still a crime even though nobody committed it. These SWAT teams are just trying to make us safe.

    [how am I doing here?]

  • ||

    That Pingback guy needs a good punch in the cock, metaphorically.

  • ||

    I am (literally) now more afraid of cops than I am criminals. I can (and have) repulsed two criminals, one who was going to assault my mother, and one who was trying to snatch my wife's purse as we walked together in Chicago's Loop. Neither time was I afraid.

    When I had the cops come pick up a stray cat my daughter had found, and we couldn't keep, the officer who responded was close to menacing, which is understandable as lots of 10 year old girls are giving booby-trapped kittens to the police.

    I think cops need to give up the leather jackets and gloves, and other menacing crap, and get back to getting to know the people they PROTECT AND SERVE, and give up the "look how tough I am" persona so many of them have.

  • ||

    1978 Jeep J10 Parts Car Truck, Tailgate Bed Jeep J10 Pickup links to this page. Here’s an excerpt: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 371978 Jeep J10 Parts Car Truck, Tailgate Bed Jeep J10 Pickup 1978 Jeep J10 Parts Car Truck, Tailgate Bed Jeep J10 Pickup j10 sunbird review buick skyhawk j20 price cj jeep j10 j10 therapy j10 safety…

    Really? You can't get rid of that garbage? Pingback used to show legitimate links, but now it looks like somebody's trying to game the Googles.

  • Paul||

    More Pingback!

  • ||

    I've got a hardon, and the only thing that will cure that hardon is more pingback....

  • π||

    What's with the ping-back flood?

  • ||

    I'm somewhat disgruntled and I own a gun. Should I go ahead and turn myself in now?

  • ||

    I can barely read the comment section because of all the spam. Can't some site administrator remove those comments?

  • wffwe||

    Diamante De Sangre Megaupload, Discount Diamante Mitsubishi Starion Car - 440.unlockiphone30.net replica omega Diamante De Sangre Megaupload, Discount Diamante Mitsubishi Starion Car diamante poem diamante beach spa diamante…

  • ||

    TO ALL THE COMMUNIST IN THE IG,FBI,CIA,AND U.S. Senators and the left wing media outlets ,President Barack Hussein Obama threatens friends and bows to enemies, INPEACH OBAMA THE COMMUNIST ,GOD OPEN YOUR EYES.///For us there are only two possiblities: either we remain american or we come under the thumb of the communist OBAMA. This latter must not occur; TO THE WEAK-KNEED REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRAT .THE COMMANDER

  • Christian Louboutin||

  • christian louboutin||

    Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.

  • ugg outlets vegas||

    And some people enjoy PCP a great deal. Ketamine is a whole different class of drug. She may well have enjoyed it much more, but I'd guess she wasn't incredibly bright considering her tree climbing demise.

  • surpa shoes||

    Very good post. Made me realize I was totally wrong about this issue. I figure that one learns something new everyday. Mrs Right learned her lesson! Nice, informative website by the way.

  • my web||

    welcome to my website

  • blancpain replica watches||

    which limited the actions of Congress and by extension had to be incorporated, the Second Amendment stated that RKBA was not to be infringed, and lacked detail as to by whom, and therefore applied to all government. By its very language it was already applicable to the states!

  • ||

    Just another day in the Obamanation....

  • nfl jerseys||

    tryr

  • Sheepskin Boots Sale||

    Cheap women Uggs Classic Auction to the capabilities of rich ladies sided affidavit raises the absolute comfort. attention skills is central axiom of Women Uggs to heel and raw seams.

  • uggssheepskin boots||

    proper use of appearances by Uggs Australia Outlet boots, people are calling in all probability to the acquisition of thermal friends.

    The cheapest Ugg Boots On Sale boots are hot topics these days.

  • uggssheepskin boots||

    These Ugg Sheepskin Boots are the boots discontinued audible, alarming accessing the design, quality aggregate, the exact function. I anticipate that is surely an achievement that can be grasped in Chestnut Ugg Boots Online Store aces to draw power from the winter.

  • uggssheepskin boots||

    These Ugg Sheepskin Boots are the boots discontinued audible, alarming accessing the design, quality aggregate, the exact function. I anticipate that is surely an achievement that can be grasped in Chestnut Ugg Boots Online Store aces to draw power from the winter.

  • ปลวก||

    I figure that one learns something new everyday. Mrs Right learned her lesson!

  • RAN||

    I though I was going insane or had a psychotic vision or something. | RAN ran ran แรน แรน แรน |

  • pariuri sportive||

    This is a really excellent read for me. Must admit that you are one of the best blogger I ever saw. Thanks for posting this informative article.

  • biletul zilei||

    Superbe article, vraiment simple et utile. Bravo pour sa mise en ligne. C’est ce genre d’information que le public (et moi en particulier) recherche.

  • หนังใหม่ dvd||

    I was just having a conversation over this I am glad I came across this it cleared some of the questions I had.

  • SEO||

    Is information excellent.

  • Scarpe Nike||

    is good

  • ทัวร์ลาว||

    What's with the ping-back flood?

  • 4umonclers||

    he post is very helpfu

  • mbt shoes clearance||

    helpfu

  • sbobet||

    You comment?

  • หลวงพระบาง||

    dammit that was supposed to be a reply

GET REASON MAGAZINE

Get Reason's print or digital edition before it’s posted online

  • Progressive Puritans: From e-cigs to sex classifieds, the once transgressive left wants to criminalize fun.
  • Port Authoritarians: Chris Christie’s Bridgegate scandal
  • The Menace of Secret Government: Obama’s proposed intelligence reforms don’t safeguard civil liberties

SUBSCRIBE

advertisement