The Volokh Conspiracy
Mostly law professors | Sometimes contrarian | Often libertarian | Always independent
Declaratory judgments and injunctions are party-specific
Justice Rehnquist in 1975:
Moreover, neither declaratory nor injunctive relief can directly interfere with enforcement of contested statutes or ordinances except with respect to the particular federal plaintiffs, and the State is free to prosecute others who may violate the statute.
Doran v. Salem Inn, Inc., 422 U.S. 922, 931 (1975).