Mushrooms

The Mushroom Moment Manifesto

Contemporary psychonauts are looking for insight, relief, fun, escape, and a million other things to make their lives more interesting and bearable.

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The Saturday after voters in Washington, D.C., and Oregon voted to loosen legal restrictions on magic mushrooms, my girlfriend and I celebrated in the most appropriate way possible. We each ate almost 5 grams of the stuff, ground up and stuffed into capsules. This was a Venti-sized, mind-blowing "heroic dose" in the parlance of the late Terence McKenna, the Johnny Appleseed of hallucinogenic fungi, and we tripped for a good chunk of the afternoon and early evening.

Journeying to the center of our minds via vision-inducing drugs (variously called hallucinogens, psychedelics, and entheogens) is perfectly suited to a world that is hyper-polarized, literally and figuratively locked down, and increasingly a little too close to an Edvard Munch painting for comfort. Mushrooms and similar substances are known to produce quasi-religious feelings of universal love, connection, empathy, and hope. They work on an intensely individual level but help you get along better with your family, neighbors, and coworkers. Far from an escape from reality, they can provide an entry point to deeper engagement with your limitations, your fears, and your aspirations.

What's not to celebrate?

The mushroom votes—not to mention the passage of pro-marijuana initiatives in states as traditionally straight-laced as Arizona, Mississippi, and South Dakota—are undeniable confirmation that we're in the middle of a pharmacological revolution whose implicitly libertarian goal is nothing less than giving us all more and better control over our very moods and minds. As a popular meme puts it, the drug war is over and the drugs won.

There are signs everywhere that, more than 50 years after drug pioneer Timothy Leary exhorted us all to "turn on, tune in, and drop out" (at an event preposterously, wonderfully titled "A Gathering of the Tribes for a Human Be-In"), we're finally ready to receive the message that powerful drugs not currently stocked by your local pharmacist can help you better understand the world and thrive in it. Wherever you look, the culture is saturated like a Merry Prankster's sugar cube with books, movies, and events featuring psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, ketamine, and ayahuasca, as well as friendly cousins such as GHB and MDMA.

Knowing asides about "ayahuasca bros" and Burning Man, an annual festival that is practically synonymous with drug use, have reached a level of ubiquity at which they require no explanation. "Micro-dosing"—taking small amounts of LSD or psilocybin to boost mood and motivation—has been an accepted practice among Silicon Valley programmers, Wall Street traders, and even long-haul truckers for a decade or more. The 2020 documentary Have a Good Trip features celebrities such as Sting, Nick Offerman, Sarah Silverman, and Ben Stiller talking openly about their use of hallucinogens. (The film adds nuance and gravity to the subject by including interviews with the late Anthony Bourdain and Carrie Fisher, both of whom struggled with substance abuse.)

Oscar-winning filmmaker Errol Morris has just released My Psychedelic Love Story, which tells the story of Joanna Harcourt-Smith, Timothy Leary's muse and partner in crime while he was a fugitive on the run from the U.S. government following a daring prison escape in 1970. In 2017, Morris released Wormwood, a Netflix series investigating the 1953 death of Frank Olson, a government scientist involved with MKULTRA, the secretive Cold War mind-control program that dosed hundreds of unwitting subjects with LSD and other substances. Sidney Gottlieb, the head of MKULTRA, is himself the subject of a recent biography by Stephen Kinzer, Poisoner in Chief (Henry Holt and Co.), which revels in the irony that it was the CIA that effectively introduced LSD to the United States in a misguided search for a truth serum to use on spies. The psychedelic renaissance even has its own glossy magazine, DoubleBlind, a publication that's as sumptuously illustrated as any of the trips its articles describe (think National Geographic meets Wired). "We're not speaking to the veteran tripper nor evangelizing to the anti-drug square," write the editors, "We are speaking to everyone who is curious about psychedelics."

In 2018, journalist Michael Pollan topped the New York Times bestseller list with How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence (Penguin Press). The same year saw the release of Trip: Psychedelics, Alienation, and Change (Vintage), a memoir-cum-manifesto by the literary novelist Tao Lin that took a deep dive into the life and thought of McKenna, co-author of the seminal reference work on how to cultivate and use magic mushrooms. The new memoir Listening to Ecstasy: The Transformative Power of MDMA (Park Street Press), by psychotherapist Charles Wininger, is the latest attempt by a mental-health practitioner to come out of "the chemical closet" and forthrightly discuss both his personal use of psychedelics and how they might help patients. The world is, at long last, ready for "serious fun," he writes.

On the medical and legal fronts, MDMA, which was banned in 1985, is in stage 3 clinical trials for use in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). If all goes well, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will approve its use by prescription in therapeutic settings within a few years. Researchers and therapists are similarly experimenting with ways to legalize the medical use of LSD and psilocybin, which the FDA has recognized as a "breakthrough therapy" for depression. Other researchers are using psychedelics to treat addiction and substance abuse—one of the most promising clinical uses of LSD before it was banned in the late '60s. (The founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, "Bill W.," praised the drug's effects until his 12-step colleagues told him to cool it.)

"The psychedelic drug industry is 'the new cannabis' for investors," reads a recent, and increasingly typical, headline at Yahoo! Finance. The story discusses the rising valuation of MindMed, a publicly traded Canadian company that is seeking FDA approval of various psychedelics, and the emergence of Compass Pathways, "the first psychedelic drug company to reach a billion dollar market cap when it went public on the Nasdaq." Business meetings with titles such as "The Psychedelic Opportunity" and "The Economics of Psychedelic Investing" are popping up like so many magic mushrooms in the mud.

"Better living through chemistry" started out as an earnest advertising slogan for the DuPont conglomerate before the phrase became a countercultural in-joke in the 1960s. These days, as the number and kind of what the government defines as either "licit" or "illicit" substances have proliferated, it aptly describes the American way of life. The question isn't between drugs and abstinence; it's between smart, intentional use and unexamined, mindless ingestion. Two-thirds of us use legal prescription drugs, according to researchers at Georgetown University. Almost as many—60.1 percent, according to the latest National Survey on Drug Use and Health—used alcohol, tobacco, kratom, marijuana, or another drug in the past month. Just under 2 million used a hallucinogen, the category that includes the mushrooms approved by Oregon and D.C. voters.

Which brings me back to my trip.

I was in my living room when the drugs kicked in, wearing a sleep mask and listening to spacey, ethereal, electronic music. Suddenly, I was like Billy Pilgrim, the time-and-space-traveling G.I. hero of Kurt Vonnegut's 1969 novel Slaughterhouse-Five. Every trip is different, and for the next several hours I roamed the known and unknown universe and commingled with the living and the dead, with an emphasis on the latter.

I spent time with an old friend who committed suicide by gun years ago. (His apartment had been surrounded by the police due to overdue rent and antisocial behavior brought on by unchecked alcoholism.) I revisited dark, booze-sloppy periods during which I was distant and inattentive to my sons when they profoundly needed me. I shared a brief-but-welcome hug with my own long-dead father, who, like Vonnegut, served in Europe during World War II and participated in suffering and carnage that I thankfully will never personally know.

Never for a second did I lose touch with basic reality, but past sounds, sights, smells, and especially emotions were all around me. For the first time in more than a quarter-century, I experienced my father's scent, an idiosyncratic blend of Brut deodorant, Barbasol shaving cream (the "beard buster"), Pall Mall Red cigarettes, and denture powder. I knew it wasn't real, but it unlocked memories and moments I hadn't thought about in forever. Later, my girlfriend and I lay down together and shared what we were seeing and what we were feeling, which produced a sense of closeness that was intense and even a little scary in its power. Even at their best, trips are always a workout, in the sense that a long hike up a mountain is a workout. You feel good and tired afterward.

I could go on, but let's be honest: Descriptions of drug trips, even more than conventional travel stories, are boring as hell to read because they are so ultra-personalized, so filled with barely coherent symbolism, and so indeterminate in their meaning. (As with life itself, you may not know whether something really important happened for days, months, or even years.) The significance of any particular trip is far less than the sum of all of them. Fortunately, we will be taking more and more as support for the war on drugs declines and cities and states (and, eventually, the federal government) move toward legalization. If you're interested in giving shrooms a try, read Mike Riggs' "How to Take Shrooms," first.

You will not be taking Tim Leary's trip or anyone else's. Today's psychedelic revolution will integrate the breakthroughs and, if we're lucky, learn from the follies of past flirtations with iconoclasm and behavior as outlandish as it was necessary to rejuvenate a country governed by what Leary called a "menopausal mentality" and run by 50-year-old men who looked twice their age. The Human Be-In took place in 1967 in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park and featured a chanting Allen Ginsberg, hippies dressed like Robin Hood and Maid Marian, and rock bands, one of them (Blue Cheer) named for a variety of LSD. The revolution today is taking place at corporate retreats in Napa (of all places), research labs at Johns Hopkins and New York University, 7-Eleven parking lots, and everywhere in between. Contemporary psychonauts are looking for insight, relief, fun, escape, and a million other things to make their lives more interesting and bearable.

What's different this time is that we've all grown up with (mostly legal) drugs. We have a more mature understanding of their potential for use and abuse, whether legal or not. The drug war has been revealed not simply as expensive and destructive of civil liberties but as ineffective at keeping pharmacological substances from the people who want them. Our overwhelmingly positive experiences with first medical and then recreational pot have taught us that there is such a thing as responsible drug use. Obversely, we see that skyrocketing rates of opioid addiction don't indict the substances; they indict the legal frameworks that surround drugs, especially rules that make it harder for people with problems to seek and receive help.

"People should have the fundamental human right to change their consciousness," Rick Doblin, head of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, told me in February 2020, just as the coronavirus was starting to trigger lockdowns that would make psychic travel easier than its meatspace alternative. Doblin's group is sponsoring the MDMA trials that will soon lead to its use in psychotherapy to treat PTSD. "Psychedelics are tools," he emphasized. What we will build with them isn't yet clear, and maybe it never will be. But this fall's mushroom moment at the polls is just the beginning of a trip that will be taking us as far as we dare to dream.

NEXT: It's Official: Linguistic Intent No Longer Matters at The New York Times

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  1. “Contemporary psychonauts are looking for insight, relief, fun, escape, and a million other things…”

    One of these is not like the others, and is of dubious quality.

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      1. I don’t know what about the others, but I lost the idea of the article because my thoughts were occupied by this stunning zentangle drawing at the very beginning! A good addition for my guide on how to paint rocks. I’m running right now to add these patterns to my painted rocks.

        1. I don’t know what about the others, but I lost the idea of the article, because my thoughts were occupied by this stunning zentangle drawing at the very beginning! A good addition for my guide on how to paint rocks. I’m running right now to add these patterns to my painted rocks.

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    2. Yeah, that was my thought too.

      Aside from the lack of any real insight I never had much fun either. Trips felt uncomfortable and fraudulent. Even with weed I usually just wound up feeling a little paranoid.

      1. It’s more likely the drugs just made you aware of what a giant asshole you are.

          1. Heh, you two little idiots sure are angry that everyone here mocks you.
            We’re not actually assholes, you know. We just have a low tolerance for liars. Even if you were just being plain ol’ stupid we’d probably leave you alone, however you’re willfully dishonest idiots, and that should never be tolerated.

            1. You either don’t understand when people are not being serious and attribute it to dishonesty, or you can and dishonestly attribute it to dishonesty.

              Either way it makes you an incredibly boring person.

              1. Lol, you always try that old excuse every time you’re caught being exceptionally dumb:
                “Oh the jokes on you, I’m being retarded on purpose. I didn’t actually believe that stupid claim I just made.”

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            2. “We’re not actually assholes, you know.”
              Who, exactly, is “we”? You schitzo cocksucker. It’s sad that you presume to speak for everyone commenting here when they are all you. fuck off tulpa.

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  3. Nick, you are the best.

    And thank you for the timing of your article, which underscores that you can admit to multiple federal crimes and still be employed as a journalist, but you cannot answer an innocent question about the n-word without the entire industry rising up and demanding your head on a platter.

    1. Nick
      do u know about this post it post against the community guideline and…READ MORE

    2. Reason is not NYT, they just talk about them a lot. Nick is fantastic though and the only other reason to still read this shit aside from Stossel.

    3. So there’s a difference between law (what society deems to be wrong) and legislation (rules backed with government force)?

      No way!

      1. Yeah, that’s not the definition of “law”, sarc, that’s the definition of immorality.
        The definition of law is roughly what you gave for legislation (which you also got wrong). To quote:
        “Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,[2][3][4][5]… It has been variously described as a science[6][7] and the art of justice.”

        Just a reminder that the children’s internet is over there.===>

        1. Good fucking god. This retard is insufferable.

        2. I thought about clarifying but you don’t argue in good faith as you accuse others of the same. Any conversation with you is a waste of time.

          So keep on calling me names while directing me to the kid’s table, and keep accusing me of being dishonest.

          Please!

          The irony is soooo delicious!

          1. So you were just joking when you were wrong about what law means? Sure.

          2. “I’m not really a retard, I was merely pretending. You’re just too dumb cause you thought that I was serious” – t. sarcasmic

            Yeah, and the aforementioned wasn’t bad faith or irony either. Can’t you use Google before you try to copy us?
            Your mom should ask your community college for her money back.

  4. I might be more tempted to try mushrooms if I didn’t have to eat that nasty granola and wear them ugly Birkenstocks and splash all that stinky patchouli oil around. I’ll just stick to acid, thanks, even if the hippies sneer at it for being chemicals instead of them groovy all-natural substances.

    1. PS – There’s nothing magical and mystical about psychedelics pulling back the veil of consciousness or some such bullshit – you’re just fucking with the chemistry of your brain and you can get much the same effect by sticking your tongue in a light socket. It’s just a fun thing to do, don’t make it a bigger thing than what it is. Unless your brain chemistry is fucked up and the drugs make it more normal, it’s not a big deal.

      1. Before you judge, try having an evening of sexual activity on LSD/mushrooms. I’ll bet you a dollar it is more fun than sticking your tongue in a light socket. Perhaps you just need a class about where to put your tongue and when? Somebody gave you bad information.

      2. Entheogens have been around since the dawn of man. It’s part of every culture and a huge part of religion. It’s quite a bit more useful than your light socket analogy, and as the article mentioned, it’s useful for illness and disease. Psychedelics evolved right alongside humans – it should come as no surprise then, that they work so well in improving the human condition.

    2. Yes. And don’t try arguing with them that everything in the Natural Universe is, well, Natural and at the same time made of chemical elements. You’ll just get a donut-glazed, drooling blank stare.

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  8. Take that soma, serfs.

    1. Totally my take on this.

      Drug yourself into complacency while the world burns. It’s fun.

    2. Victory Gin and Pornosec.

  9. If you’ve ever wondered why some of sqrlsy’s posts are even more insane than the others, it’s because sometimes the shit he eats has shrooms growing in it.

  10. I ate (drank, really, as I mixed them into a milkshake) some mushrooms before a Social Distortion show a couple of years ago. Nice, easy, enjoyable time. Colors and noises were enhanced, and I didn’t feel nervous or anxious in a large crowd.

    Annoying, stumbly, sloppy drunk pop-culture punks were still annoying.

    1. What about mescaline? Not like it’s chopped liver. Mmmmm… liver…:

      1. That was supposed to be a stand alone comment. Stupid phone.

        1. Was it your phone’s fault you forgot to switch from your sqrlsy sock?

        2. Fucking gimp.

    2. I think that the biggest problem is that people are apt to take mushrooms or LSD while they are on a drinking bender. It really isn’t a “party” drug. They don’t know enough to separate the two. They end up with a highly functioning brain while piloting a drunken, clumsy body.
      Imagine if they had a place that people could go and trip in a more private setting that promotes the experience in a safe way? It is what Leary would have wanted.

  11. Oregon has decriminalized all drugs. It is like a speeding ticket. You can get a $100 fine or treatment. If you do that the fine is dropped.

    A lot of courts are doing that anyway for stuff like pot where it is still illegal and will expunge to record.

    1. Pay the court or pay a crony. Better than jail.

  12. Buttery Garlic Mushrooms with a flavor twist! The herb garlic butter sauce is so good, you’ll be serving with this. Team

  13. GHB a cousin of psychedelics?! GHB is like booze, minus some of the latter’s annoying effects.

  14. Speaking of national hallucinations, Fauci just flipped again.

    Double masking has no benefit.

    And when Fauci made this announcement, he pretended like the idea came from a bunch of unsciency rubes.

    So the entire fucking Biden administration, which includes CBS, NBC and the Washington Post is going to have to delete all their videos claiming two masks == an N95 mask.

    A lot of virtue signaling Bidenistas are going to be deleting a fuck ton of Instagram selfies.

    1. 1984.

      The party says one thing, and it becomes a fact. The party says another thing, and it becomes a fact …. even if it contradicts all the other facts.

      These people are incapable of thinking and, consequently, even attempting to reason with them is a waste of time.

      1. Rob Henderson:

        “The common understanding of propaganda is that it is intended to brainwash the masses. Supposedly, people get exposed to the same message repeatedly and over time come to believe in whatever nonsense authoritarians want them to believe.

        And yet authoritarians often broadcast silly, unpersuasive propaganda.
        Political scientist Haifeng Huang writes that the purpose of propaganda is not to brainwash people, but to instill fear in them:

        “propaganda is often not used for indoctrination, but rather to signal the government’s strength in being able to afford significant resources and impose on its citizens…not meant to ‘brainwash’, but rather to forewarn the society about how strong it is.”

        When people are bombarded with propaganda everywhere they look, they are reminded of the strength of the regime.
        The vast amount of resources authoritarians spend to display their message in every corner of the public square is a costly demonstration of their power.

        In fact, the overt silliness of authoritarian propaganda is part of the point. Propaganda is designed to be silly so that people can instantly recognize it when they see it:

        “Authoritarians do not use propaganda for brainwashing, “but to demonstrate their strength in social control…propaganda may need to be dull and unpersuasive, to make sure citizens know it is propaganda when they see it and hence get the implicit message”

        Propaganda is intended to instill fear in people, not brainwash them.
        The message is: You might not believe in pro-regime values or attitudes. But we will make sure you are too frightened to do anything about it.

        Prof. Huang found that Chinese citizens who were more knowledgeable about propaganda messages were not more satisfied w/the government. They weren’t brainwashed, but they were less willing to express dissent and more likely to say the government was strong:

        “Students with more exposure to ideological and political propaganda are not more satisfied with the state, but they are more likely to believe that the state is strong, and are less willing to engage in political dissent”

        The message from authoritarians is “Yes, we know this message is tiresome and obviously false. But we show this to you to tell you that helpless to do anything about it.”
        People are more likely to rebel against a regime when they sense that it is vulnerable. By broadcasting a consistent message repeatedly, the state broadcasts its power.

        A weak organization can’t produce such messages. They can’t expend the resources.
        A strong organization can play the same program every night on all networks. They can broadcast the same message on every website and advertisement and television series.”

        https://threader.app/thread/1341385974161534979

    2. I am certain that Fauci is “holding”. That man has been tripping since the 50s.

  15. This was a Venti-sized, mind-blowing “heroic dose”

    But why? Always start slow. Too much can cause a bad trip which is a miserable experience (albeit not dangerous – important to remember).

    I had a hard time getting into pot because I preferred the veil over reality. But eventually I adjusted and now I partake every once in a while. I don’t enjoy it (in the sense that it’s not pleasurable) but I find it helpful in elucidating cognitive processes. For example, I realized that we practice fooling ourselves to prevent others from fooling us, but this trick can get out of hand. It’s a form of cognitive inoculation. (And everyone does it so you’re not immune.) Denial is a related issue – we know a lot more than we admit even to ourselves. And oh yeah we bully ourselves to police the denial – much like people insult and bully each other here. That practice again is why some people here are so good at it.

  16. I prefer acid. It’s completely subjective and I’m sure there are people who would say the opposite of what I say. In my experience mushrooms put me in a fog. When I’m on acid I feel soberer. Now situations can arise where I’ll have trouble thinking, but I just feel more in control on acid than I do on mushrooms.

    Now I’m sure some folks would say why do they even need to be compared. You’re creating a false dichotomy. Id just say I have no desire to take psylociben.

    Also it seems whenever I post about drugs on this website there’s always someone who insults me not for doing drugs, but for not enjoying them the right way or disagreeing with their opinion of a drug. Psychedelics are subjective as hell. I don’t see a problem with everyone enjoying them in their own way.

    Someone will reply with something like “you’re stupid and just wasting good acid. You’re supposed to walk in a counter clockwise direction while tripping and listen to pre 1981 grateful dead live albums. I guess squares like you will never get it…”

    I tried posting on here when I was trippin once, but everyone(myself especially) was too negative. I just went and vandalized an LDS church instead.

    1. Shut the fuck up you pile of dogshit on fire.

      1. Good one!

        You a Chiefs fan or something?

  17. “People should have the fundamental human right to change their consciousness,”

    “because ‘My Mind, My Choice’.”

  18. They’re trying to escape Capitalism and the spiritual deadness & mass misery and alienation that comes with this particular economic system where the needs of the wealthy and elite are paramount.

    Of course Libertarians are for the promotion of mind-numbing drugs; it’s what they prescribe in order to quell the masses so they don’t care as much about how they’re being fucked by Capital.

  19. “Micro-dosing”—taking small amounts of LSD or psilocybin to boost mood and motivation—has been an accepted practice among Silicon Valley programmers, Wall Street traders, and even long-haul truckers for a decade or more.

    Seriously, a decade or more? I used to call 1/4 of a blotter square “eye makeup” 35 years ago. Dosing was 1-4 squares. And what’s this weighing stuffing ‘shrooms into capsules? Just grab a closed fistful of dried for your “heroic dose”. Shit was free in the Gulf coastal plain

  20. Nick Gillespie writes: “Micro-dosing”—taking small amounts of LSD or psilocybin to boost mood and motivation—has been an accepted practice among Silicon Valley programmers, Wall Street traders, and even long-haul truckers for a decade or more.

    So that explains the mess that is Big Tech’s policies on privacy and “cancel culture!” They want everyone’s brains to be a sieve like theirs, yet they don’t want to encounter anything that might “harsh their buzz!”

    This might also explain why taxpayers had to bail out Savings and Loans in the Eighties and the Big Banks and Goldman Sachs in the Double-Aughts, all to the tune of Trillions of Dollars!

    Even libertatian author Robert J. Ringer spoke of investor deals of dubious profitability as “L.S.D. Deals,” presumably because that is what the investors were using when they made their losing investment.

    As for over-the-road truckers, this might explain their affinity with Art Bell-type AM radio programs and all that weird C.B. lingo, such as calling truck-stop hookers “Lot Lizards.” The Sidewalk Princesses probably morph into lizards after a few Purple Micro-Dots!

    Some have also conjectured that the horrific visions in The Holy Bible, such as those of Daniel and Ezekiel and Saint John’s Book of Revelation were all inspired by psylosybin…yet the Apocalypse contained in The Book of Revelation is taken seriously as a basis for foreign policy by many in the Christian Right! Small wonder Thomas Jefferson called The Book of Revelation “the ravings of a lunatic.”

    Look, while the individual does “have the fundamental human right to change their consciousness,” it is also true that “the right to do” and “can do” and “should do” are all separate things. And the thing that unites them all is that the individual still has responsibility for personal actions and their consequences.

    The prospect of using Hallucinogens doesn’t fit in with anything I do or want to do and it certainly wouldn’t make me a better supporter of individual rights, limited government, and free market economics. So as the younger folks say: ” No thanks. I’m good.”

  21. “in states as traditionally straight-laced as Arizona”

    Should be “strait-laced.” strait = narrow (implies narrow-minded). “straight” has no such connotation. Plus “strait” was, afaik, the original or traditional spelling, usually.

  22. Gillespie writes: In 2017, Morris released Wormwood, a Netflix series investigating the 1953 death of Frank Olson, a government scientist involved with MKULTRA, the secretive Cold War mind-control program that dosed hundreds of unwitting subjects with LSD and other substances. Sidney Gottlieb, the head of MKULTRA, is himself the subject of a recent biography by Stephen Kinzer, Poisoner in Chief (Henry Holt and Co.), which revels in the irony that it was the CIA that effectively introduced LSD to the United States in a misguided search for a truth serum to use on spies.

    Sooo…#LibertariansForCoerciveAndFraudulentBadTripsViaGovernment?

    Ia this actually a selling point for use of hallucinogenics in a libertarian publication?

    If anything, libertarians should be rallying for the government to pay restitution to the victims of these government “experiments” and for criminal prosecution of the perpetrators, assuming victims or perpetrators are still alive.

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