Property Rights

Musician Wins Return of $91,800 He Supposedly Gave Wyoming Cops

The quick resolution of Phil Parhamovich's case shows once again that standing up to money-grabbing bullies can pay off.


Institute for Justice

Phil Parhamovich went to court in Wyoming on Friday, hoping to convince a judge that he deserved a new hearing on the question of whether the state gets to keep the $91,800 that police took from him during a traffic stop last March. Instead the judge ordered the return of Parhamovich's money after he testified that it belonged to him and he had no desire to surrender it. Attorney General Peter Michael said his office will return the money rather than pursue the case further.

Parhamovich, a Wisconsin musician, was on tour when he was pulled over on March 13 for failing to fasten his seat belt. A purported alert by a drug-sniffing dog led to a search of his minivan, during which the cops found no drugs but did discover cash hidden inside a speaker cabinet, which Parhamovich had brought with him because he worried that it wouldn't be safe at his apartment in Madison. He planned to use most of the money as a down payment on a Madison recording studio. Because the police falsely insinuated that carrying large amounts of cash is illegal, Parhamovich initially said the speaker and the money belonged to a friend. The cops pressured him into signing a waiver "giving" the money to the state Department of Criminal Investigation.

The Institute for Justice, which represented Parhamovich, argues that police use roadside waivers like the one he signed are a thin disguise for highway robbery, bypassing even the modest protections that property owners have under Wyoming's civil forfeiture law. "Phil would have lost his life savings over the fact that he didn't wear a seat belt while driving through Wyoming," I.J. attorney Dan Alban told the Associated Press. "That's outrageous and needs to end."

The unexpectedly quick resolution of the case was yet another victory against civil forfeiture abuse for I.J., which filed motions on Parhamovich's behalf just two weeks before Friday's order. Over the years, the libertarian law firm has repeatedly demonstrated the benefits of standing up to money-grabbing bullies. Here are half a dozen other cases in which I.J. clients got their property back after the organization publicized their predicaments:

Christos and Markela Sourovelis


Philadelphia police seized the couple's house in May 2014 after their son was caught selling $40 worth of marijuana outside it. I.J. filed a lawsuit on their behalf that August, and the Philadelphia District Attorney's Office dropped the forfeiture case in December 2014 after it attracted national publicity.

The I.J. lawsuit, which is an ongoing class action, argues that Philadelphia's forfeiture practices are unconstitutional. Last July, as C.J. Ciaramella noted here, the city tried to settle the case by suggesting a judicial order that would prevent it from using forfeiture proceeds to fund law enforcement activities. "I think it's commendable that the city and D.A. want to stop this blatantly unconstitutional practice," I.J. attorney Darpana Sheth said, "but that does not end either this claim or the lawsuit because it does nor provide our clients or the 20,000 property owners they represent with full relief."

Carol Hinders


The Internal Revenue Service seized $33,000 from the Iowa restaurateur's bank account, alleging that she had deliberately kept her deposits below $10,000 to avoid triggering a federal reporting requirement, an offense known as "structuring." The government did not claim that Hinders had anything to hide through this purported scheme, since her money came from a legal business. But as far as the IRS was concerned, the fact that her cash was implicated in structuring was enough to make it ripe for forfeiture.

In December 2014, just a few weeks after The New York Times ran a front-page story highlighting the case, Assistant U.S. Attorney Matthew Cole filed a motion saying the case should be dismissed to conserve judicial resources. The publicity generated by I.J.'s advocacy also prompted the IRS and the Justice Department to announce that they would no longer pursue forfeiture in structuring cases that do not involve any other criminal behavior.

Lyndon McLellan

The feds seized $107,000 from the North Carolina convenience store owner's bank account based purely on structuring allegations, then refused to return it even after the IRS and DOJ said they would eschew such cases. In March 2015 a federal prosecutor offered to return half the money, warning McLellan's lawyer that calling public attention to the case would only make the government less inclined to reach a settlement.

Two months later, the feds finally agreed to give McLellan his money back but without interest and without compensating him for the $22,000 he had paid his lawyer and a forensic accountant before I.J. took the case pro bono. In February 2016 a federal judge completed McLellan's vindication by dismissing the forfeiture case with prejudice, making him eligible to recover his costs and the interest on his purloined savings under the Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act.

Randy and Karen Sowers


In yet another structuring case, the subject of a 2016 Reason feature story, the IRS cleaned out the Maryland dairy farmers' bank account in 2012. The government, which conceded the money was legally earned, seized $63,000 but eventually agreed to return about $33,000 of it. Sowers told a congressional subcommittee that the federal prosecutor handling the case initially seemed inclined to return more than that, but his attitude changed after Sowers told his story to the Baltimore City Paper.

I.J. filed a petition on the couple's behalf in July 2015, noting that "the government has never even alleged that Randy and Karen did anything unlawful," aside from making deposits of less than $10,000. The petition described the couple's agreement to let the government keep $29,500 of their money as accepting "an offer they could not afford to refuse" and cited congressional criticism of the case. The petition was supported by nine members of the House subcommittee that heard Sowers' testimony.

At the same hearing, IRS Commissioner John Koskinen had testified that "anyone who…was not engaged in processing and laundering illegally gained funds who ended up stuck in the system…deserve[s] an apology." If so, I.J. argued, how can the government let such injustices stand? "If it would be wrong to take the money today," I.J. attorney Robert Everett Johnson said in a February 16 letter to Attorney General Loretta Lynch, "it is equally wrong to keep it." Apparently Lynch agreed, or at least worried that most people would draw that conclusion. In June 2016 the government finally agreed to return the rest of the Sowers' money.

Charles Clarke


In 2015 the Florida college student lost $11,000 at the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport to cops who said his luggage smelled like marijuana. Clarke admitted to smoking pot but denied that he had ever sold drugs, saying the money came from legal wages, financial aid, and family gifts.

The forfeiture complaint was, as usual in such cases, maddeningly vague, claiming the money "was furnished or intended to be furnished in exchange for controlled substances, was proceeds traceable to such an exchange, or was intended to be used to facilitate the illegal sale of narcotics." Although the cops found no drugs in Clarke's bags or on his person and did not charge him with a crime, the pot smell and the large amount of cash were enough to make the money disappear.

In November 2016, after I.J. took on Clarke's case, the government agreed to return his money. With interest.

Gerardo Serrano


Customs and Border Protection officers seized the Kentucky businessman's pickup truck at the Mexican border in 2015, arguing that a few rounds of handgun ammunition Serrano had forgotten to remove from the center console implicated the vehicle in international arms smuggling. As in the other cases, no charges were filed against Serrano.

The case dragged on for two years without a hearing while Serrano continued to pay for insurance and registration of a truck he could no longer use, on top of the bill for renting replacement transportation and the $3,805 bond required to challenge the forfeiture. Last October, about a month after I.J. filed a lawsuit on Serrano's behalf, arguing that the delay in processing the case was unconstitutional, he was suddenly told he could come pick up his truck.

NEXT: The Logan Act Is Awful, and No, It's Not Going to Take Down Trump's Administration

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  1. Attorney General Peter Michael said his office will return the money rather than pursue the case further.

    Minus a restocking fee.

    1. I have noticed a lot of introspection on the part of law enforcement over the last 5 years of growing hatred towards them. What has struck me most is that they have decided to change some of their tactics and be more accountable for their actions and less frightening and stupid.

      I’ve noticed much of the same from top level politicians, the media, and leftist elitists also.

      1. What on Earth are you blathering on about now?

          1. I’m making over $7k a month working part time. I kept hearing other people tell me how much money they can make online so I decided to look into it. Well, it was all true and has totally changed my life.

            This is what I do…

        1. That’s what makes it blather

      2. What has struck me most is that they have decided to change some of their tactics

        Because it’s getting reported and making them look bad.

        and be more accountable for their actions and less frightening and stupid.


        1. “What has struck me most is that they have decided to change some of their tactics”

          “Phil would have lost his life savings over the fact that he didn’t wear a seat belt while driving through Wyoming,”

          In the not so distant past, Phil would have gotten a broken tail light to initiate his troubles instead of reminding Phil that he does not have full domain over his body. Things are looking up and buckle up for that matter…even at night cause those JBT do not hesitate to break out the night vision goggles for public safety. It’s all about their commitment……to liberating you of your cash.
          “Phil would have lost his life savings over the fact that he didn’t wear a seat belt while driving through Wyoming,”

          Dumbass Phil only had to put on his seat belt and as a result has only himself to blame. I mean, who the fuck drives around with that much cash in their car and does not put on their seat belt. The law is the law.

      3. “…a lot of introspection…years of growing hatred towards them…be more accountable for their actions…”

        Please provide link to increased LEO suicide stats as a meaningful measure of veracity.

  2. And then they took their money and donated it to Reason, right?

  3. The thing is, these guys don’t want these cases to reach the supreme court because they’re afraid it might end up removing their free money stream. So, when presented with people who are prepared to take it that far they just ‘give up’ so as not to endanger the practice itself.

    Pretty transparent move.

    1. Well, at least one person here gets it.

    2. I believe the IJ has a case that they file suit as a class action so that they could avoid the powers at be from pulling this stunt.

  4. Until these dirtbags-with-badges see the inside of a PMITA Federal Prison, this shit will continue.

    1. If by “PMITA Federal Prison” you mean “coffin” then I agree.

  5. So, how does a legitimate business that takes in $9k a day deposit that money without triggering structuring?

    What’s more, banks are required to file a Suspicious Activity Report, regardless of the amount. The structuring charge says that someone’s observation that an activity is legal is itself evidence of a crime.

  6. I came here for story without a happy ending. What is this shit?

  7. American copping, at all levels, is completely out of control. You will trust these people at your peril, ESPECIALLY if you’ve done nothing wrong.

    If you’re an American cop, get the Hell out of my country.

    1. Stupidest thing I’ve read so far today. Congrats!

    2. American taxing, at all levels, is completely out of control. You will trust these people at your peril, ESPECIALLY if you’ve done nothing wrong.

      If you’re an American pol, get the Hell out of my country!

      (Just take your money away from them; the cops will get magically better when they have less of it to spend)

  8. Start earning $90/hourly for working online from your home for few hours each day… Get regular payment on a weekly basis… All you need is a computer, internet connection and a litte free time…
    Read more here,…..

  9. Wow. This really makes the case for offshore accounts.

    1. Yeah. And now your money is subject to American FOREIGN policy.

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