Americans have been distracted and bemused by two people, Caitlyn Jenner and Rachel Dolezal, who want to transcend the biological and social categories into which they were placed at birth. Caitlyn Jenner was born male and Rachel Dolezal born white. Jenner identifies as female and Dolezal as black. Both plainly believe that such transfigurations make them more fully who they are. There are clear differences between the two cases—most notably, Jenner has been open about her background while Dolezal apparently attempted to conceal hers—but there are parallels as well, and they're worth exploring. Reason Science Correspondent Ronald Bailey parses what biology and social science have to say about gender identity and race and advises amiable tolerance.