Conspiracy Theories

Gangs and 'Outside Agitators': Baltimore Authorities Pick Their Conspiracy Theories

City leaders put a new spin on some very old tales.


When the protests in Baltimore first turned violent on Saturday, the local government rushed to blame "outside agitators" for the trouble. When that narrative fell apart—almost all the people arrested in connection with the unrest that night turned out to be locals—official circles shifted without pause into another story. Now the Bloods, the Crips, and the Black Guerrilla Family, three gangs that had called a truce to march against police brutality, were supposedly secretly plotting to "take out" cops. Such supergang stories usually turn out to be false, and we've seen no good reason to believe this one is an exception. (The gangs themselves insist that they've been trying to maintain order, not disrupt it. Tuesday night they were out in force, trying to keep the crowds calm.)

These weren't merely dubious stories blessed with an official endorsement. They were the latest tales in a long tradition. Riots almost always spark conspiracy theories, and not just out on the fringes of society. Elites have frequently feared that a covert force—perhaps agitating from outside their community's walls, perhaps lurking in some subterranean place at home—is instigating unrest.

When slave revolts broke out in antebellum America (and, much more often, when they were rumored to be on the way but failed to materialize) anxious whites often imagined alliances between outsiders and the rebels. Since blacks were widely presumed to be stupid, whites found it useful to portray them as the puppets of wily northern abolitionists or some other alien force; since blacks were widely presumed to be content with their lot, whites found it useful to accuse those aliens of transforming happy workers into a bestial mob. The archetypal figure was John Brown, an abolitionist who really did attempt to lead a slave rebellion; after Brown raided Harpers Ferry in 1859, the revolt panics that ensued often included a hunt for subversive outsiders. (In Jefferson County, Virginia, the government announced that any "strangers" who could not "give a satisfactory account of themselves" would be arrested.) But abolitionists had been playing the devil role long before Brown came around. By 1859, they had already been blamed for everything from the Haitian Revolution to the fact that plantation slaves sometimes ran away.

Long after slavery was abolished, the outside agitator stirring up rebellions would be a key villain in southern—and often northern—white demonology. In 1919, The New York Times blamed race riots in Chicago and Washington on an organized campaign of "Bolshevist agitation…among the negroes," even though the violence in both cities had been launched by whites against blacks, not the other way around. In 1943, Rep. Martin Dies (D-Texas) reacted to a race riot in Detroit by suggesting that Japanese Americans released from internment camps had made their way to Michigan and fomented the disorder. Meanwhile, across the South, blacks were rumored to be covertly aligned with the Japanese, perhaps via a secret organization called the Black Dragon Society, or with the Germans, perhaps via a secret organization called the Swastika Club. "Hitler has told the Negroes he will give them the South for their help," one informant told the sociologist Howard Odum, who collected rumors in the southern states during World War II. "Hitler will make the white people slaves and the Negroes the leaders," declared another. One person claimed that black churches were "receiving Nazi propaganda. They can arise and attack the whites whenever they want."

By the 1960s, the Axis powers were no longer in a position to be charged with kindling racial violence. But the Communists were still available.

On August 11, 1965, in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Watts, the California Highway Patrol pulled over a young black man named Marquette Frye on suspicion of drunk driving. A brawl broke out between the cops and some of the locals, and the fighting grew worse when a rumor radiated through the crowd that the police had beaten a pregnant woman. Soon Watts was engulfed in a full-scale, five-day riot. Residents burned entire blocks, fired guns, hurled bricks, looted stores. It was the first of many riots that would shake America's cities in the '60s.

While Watts burned, rumors circulated that the violence had been planned by street gangs, Communists, the Nation of Islam, or some other ghetto menace. In December the governor's commission on the riot rejected the idea that there had been "outside leadership or pre-established plans for the rioting." Two years later, nonetheless, a widely distributed tract described Watts as a subversive "Plan to Burn Los Angeles."

The pamphlet, which had originally appeared as an article in the John Birch Society journal American Opinion, claimed that the riot had been "a rehearsal for a nationwide revolution." According to the author, Gary Allen, the

board of revolutionary strategy which planned, engineered, and instigated the Watts Rebellion was composed of some forty to fifty Negroes sent by the Communists in the Los Angeles area from all over the United States. Included in the group were Black Muslims, Black Nationalists, representatives from the paramilitary Deacons of Defense, the Communist Revolutionary Action Movement (R.A.M.), and professionals from other such militant and Marxist groups. These men are not hoodlums or criminals in the ordinary sense, but are drawn from among an intellectual elite of the Negro community….This small revolutionary group, which is referred to in Watts and by the Intelligence Division of the Los Angeles Police Department simply as "The Organization," has three common denominators among its members: high intelligence, hatred of "The Man" (Caucasians), and a disciplined commitment to the interests of the International Communist Conspiracy.

This curious coalition of Muslims and Marxists had picked Watts, Allen wrote, because blacks were actually rather well off there: "if Watts could be exploded they could do it anywhere else in America." So they had flooded the area with propaganda, most notably a "publicity campaign rivaling the Advertising Council's promotion of Smokey the Bear" aimed at "the construction of the myth of police brutality." With that meme installed, Allen argued, the conspiracy's agents had been able to spread the rumors that had set off the riot, which the mesmerized locals embraced uncritically: "The denizens of the area had been conditioned by the years of prior propaganda to accept such fairy tales without question."

The Organization had incited teenagers to throw bottles and burn cars, Allen continued, and over the next few days had been seen "directing the chaos [while] wearing red armbands and using electric megaphones." They had made a special effort to loot and burn liquor stores ("keeping the mob intoxicated so it could be more easily led"), supermarkets (so residents would "suffer a lack of food" and blame the authorities), pawnshops ("to acquire large supplies of firearms"), and department stores (so the Organization could get more "guns, ammunition, merchandise, and money"). Gullible outsiders might have assumed the looting was unorganized, but Allen assured us that "as much as 90 percent" of the stolen guns and money found its way to the Organization, with Organization snipers covering Organization looters as they stole the goods, which they would use "NEXT TIME."

When NEXT TIME comes, Allen warned, the Organization will begin with a mass assassination of police officers. Then it'll launch the campaign it calls "Burn Los Angeles, Burn." It'll start fires in the oil fields near the harbor and the foothills that surround the city; then it'll set the Civic Center ablaze and put a torch to the Wilshire neighborhood. After that, "'The Organization' hopes to herd its 'ghetto' mobs into Beverly Hills." As simultaneous riots break out in San Diego, Long Beach, Compton, Pasadena, Bakersfield, Fresno, San Francisco, Oakland, Richmond, and Sacramento, the National Guard will be unable to contain all the revolts at once. The plotters hope that whites will be roused to "invade Negro neighborhoods in retaliation," thus forcing "the ninety percent of the Negroes who want no part of the revolution" to join the fighting in self-defense.

The mode of thinking that Allen's article represented wasn't confined to the outer circles of politics. In 1967, when the Lemberg Center for the Study of Violence surveyed several northern cities, 77 percent of the whites interviewed believed that outside agitators were at least partly responsible for the riots. Some officials believed the same thing. LAPD Chief William Parker spouted some of the same theories as Gary Allen (attributing them, as Allen did, to the force's red squad). And the mayor of Los Angeles, Sam Yorty—a man with more direct authority over Watts than anyone involved with the governor's commission on the riots—shared Parker's take on the era's urban violence.

Testifying before the House Committee on Un-American Activities on November 28, 1967, Yorty warned that "subversive elements" liked to "plan incidents that they would hope would spark a riot." Even when a disturbance was apparently unplanned, he added, the radicals' "broad propaganda campaign" had created "an atmosphere where a riot may break out spontaneously, in appearance, but actually where there has been a great groundwork laid for it." For Yorty, as for Allen, the chief aim of the propaganda was to spread the idea of police brutality, a social problem that by Yorty's account barely existed at all.

Yorty and Parker were not the only influential figures who embraced such stories. The Peace Officers Research Association of California, one of the country's biggest law enforcement lobbies, released a film denouncing a pair of black politicians as "the two leading Communists in the state and the instigators of the Watts riot." The popular evangelist Billy Graham declared that "a small hard core of leftists" were using the fires as "a dress rehearsal for a revolution." When riots hit San Francisco in 1966, Mayor John Shelley told the press that he suspected "outside agitators" might have been responsible. (According to one of Shelley's aides, the agitators were rumored to have come from—where else?—Watts.)

And in 1967, President Lyndon Johnson asked his cabinet if the Communists were behind the country's riots. Attorney General Ramsey Clark replied that there wasn't any evidence of that, but Johnson wasn't convinced. "I have a very deep feeling that there is more to that than we see at the moment," the president commented. He pushed the FBI for evidence that the Reds were behind the turbulence, and when the Bureau came up empty-handed, he just pushed harder. 

Now that we're seeing another wave of urban unrest, we're seeing some of the same stories return. Once again, the black underclass is imagined as a threat guided by a hidden hand. The chief difference in Baltimore is that the mayor, the police commissioner, and other voices spreading the stories are black themselves. The social context has changed, but evidently it hasn't changed enough.

Books Editor Jesse Walker is the author of The United States of Paranoia, from which much of this article was adapted.

NEXT: Chicago Police Superintendent: Criminally Charging Cops for Fatal Shootings is a 'Safety Hazard'

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  1. Since so many of the protesters are children, it’s obviously the fault of the Internet.

    1. Out of work orphans causing mischief….

      There’s a solution for that.

      1. Clearly Planned Parenthood needs more Federal funding.

    2. They were all playing GTA 5 and they thought they’re supposed to act like that. This is why we have to ban video games.

      1. I say we take the games even further. Riot-drones, controlled remotely at coin-operated stations. Kind of like the little boats you can drive around the pond at amusement parks. But with fire and looting.

        1. Ghetto wars 2015!

    3. I don’t see a lot of children here. There are peaceful protests still going on in Baltimore, but no one is reporting on that, because it does not fit the agenda. Nothing is burning? Let’s go back to the Correspondents’ Dinner. Check out Ben Swann’s coverage:

  2. The Crips and Bloods teaming up to take out cops rumor wasn’t really a conspiracy theory. It was an intentional lie perpetuated by the Baltimore Police union to garner sympathy from the public.

    Of course, it was parroted back to the public uncritically by a certain right wing cable news channel.

    1. In that regard, it reminds me a lot of the rumors coming out of New Orleans in the first days of Hurricane Katrina. The cannibalism, the gangs of blake yutes raping people in the Superdome, etc.

      The general tone is “OMG THESE ANIMALS NEED TO BE STOPPED!”

      1. Dude….whoah. Well it worked. This is the kind of shit that got Nixon elected.

      2. And Sheppard Smith was at both locations.
        I think not.

    2. It was an intentional lie perpetuated by the Baltimore Police union to garner sympathy from the public.

      Careful, P M. “Garner” is overloaded these days.

    3. You mean NBC news?…..37121.html

      Or was it the NYT?…..bers-meet/

      Want me to go find more of those “right wingers”?

    4. dont take the gang theory lightly, years ago reports were that gang bangers were to get military training, Paul Harvey once commented that gang bangers are mysteriously disappearing from the streets.

    5. I channel surfed Monday night and it was wall-to-wall looting, burning, and other forms of mayhem to “protest” against police violence. Then the National Guard arrives next day and peace breaks out. Thank goodness for the Crips, Bloods, and Nation of Islam.

      How is looting, stealing cars, destroying the property of innocent civilians a “protest” against police violence? It seems more a protest against civilization.

  3. the gangs don’t want to mush rioting because they now that the police will just crack down harder on them

    1. Huh. That’s not what it looked like to me Monday night. To me, it looked like All the Free Hennessy You Can Drink Night while the cops all stood around and did nothing.

      1. Do you think that the police care if rioters destroy what’s left of the ghettos in Baltimore? Why would they, the only times they go there is to investigate a homicide.

        I saw a report that shop owners there called cops more than 50 times on Monday night and the cops didn’t even show up, which is totally believable and par for the course.

        1. The Monday rioting didn’t look like it was in a ghetto. All that brick looked practically brand new.

          1. As far as I know, all of the rioting was in ghettos.

            1. That being said, there are varying degrees of ghettos in Baltimore. There are the really bad ones with all the boarded up row homes that have been that way for decades, then there are the ghettos in training, the ones that have some good infrastructure left, but all of the crackas have fled the area because of the high crime rates.

              I think some of the rioting was in the latter type ghetto, but it’s still a ghetto or ghetto in training as I’ve heard it called.

              1. I’m just thinking of the pictures I saw of the CVS and a Subway that looked like they were in a nice, new town center. You know, the one where the little redhead was stealing a bag from a dude with a liquor bottle as a metal chair floated peacefully overhead? Maybe it just looked nicer than it actually was…

                1. You don’t even want to drive around in that area unless you are a lot less white than I am, and I’m not talking about during a riot, I’m talking about any time. The city and some organizations in the city have spent billions of dollars trying to nicen up some of those areas. It’s not working. I mean, now what they have, is a ghetto with a super high crime rate and a new CVS. Well, they used to have a CVS.

                  1. CVS is an evil kkkorporation anyway – most likely owned by the Koch Brothers – and the community is better off without them. At last, they’ll be able to prosper without being forced to buy products from CVS!


        2. Burn it down, the Inner Harbor needs expanding so the Gentrification can continue.

  4. Try this conspiracy: Hillary is behind these riots to cut short former Baltimore Mayor and Governor Martin O’Malley’s challenge to her nomination. The narrative will be that O’Malley’s tenure as Mayor laid the groundwork for these riots; overzealous policing and under-funding welfare and work projects for the minority poor and working classes.

    1. It would all be plausible but for the part where O’Malley needs to be considered an ‘actual threat’ for it to make sense.

      1. The first rule to keeping power is to over-react to any perceived or potential threat.

  5. I’m not so sure the “outside agitators” charge can be so easily dismissed:

    The data mining firm that found between 20 and 50 social media accounts in Baltimore linked to the violence in Ferguson, Mo. is now reporting a spike in message traffic in Washington D.C., Philadelphia and New York City, with “protesters” trying to get rides to Baltimore for Tuesday night.

    1. Not much happened last night from what I hear.

    2. From my Monday post on the “outside agitators” meme: “There were, of course, protesters in Baltimore on Saturday who do not live in the city. Police violence of the kind that killed Freddie Gray is not limited to one town, and a national movement against it has emerged; it’s no surprise that activists from elsewhere have come to Maryland for the marches. There may well be some overlap between the outsiders and the people pushing for a more confrontational approach. But there is no reason to believe the activists adopting militant tactics are being led from afar.”

      I should add that Baltimore activists I’ve spoken with tell me that the tone of the protests, militant as well as peaceful, has been set by locals.

      1. It’s good that a national movement against police violence has emerged, but the main stream media and politicians have already hijacked the movement, made it all about race, and made the solution more taxes and spending.

        1. It’s also a bit about poverty (which is really race, when talking about inner cities) and “communication”. Police need to use softer tactics, see? After severing some guy’s spine, but before the rioting starts, of course.

          1. It is in part about poverty. Of course, keeping families on welfare dependency for generations is not helping.

      2. Haven’t several hundred rioters been arrested by now. What’s the percentage of locals to non-locals? That should be a pretty good statistical sampling unless you think the outside agitators are good at GTFOing before the cuffs come out.

        1. I heard that around 200 arrests were made on Monday night.

      3. “Police violence of the kind that killed Freddie Gray”
        Now that you have concluded your investigation, pleas fill us in on what, actually happened.
        Inquiring minds want to know.

        Or are you just showing your, obvious anti-cop bias?

        Try calling a criminal next time you need help!

        1. Was it police kindness that killed Freddie Gray? They failed to provide professional standard of care.

        2. Criminals call each other for help all the time. But in between the police and gangs is a wide spectrum of public safety options; such as a posse, private security, the Black Panthers, standing watch by draw, etc. Some options are better than others, but there is a choice beyond which gang (the police or the Bloods) robs, beats, or kills you.

  6. The saddest thing about the coverage of these riots is that the proximate cause of the riots is lost on the main stream media. Each segment takes half a sentence to mention that this was all spawned by the death of a man in police custody. Then they spend the next five minutes denouncing rioters and positing solutions to the rioting. Some want to increase funding of the police. Some want to increase funding of anti-poverty programs. Some want to increase communication between the police and the protesters before the rioting starts. No one ever mentions that one way to prevent the rioting would be for the cops to, I don’t know, stop shooting unarmed men in the back, or, I don’t know, refrain from severing a helpless man’s spine.

    1. Why do you hate our Heroes in blue? They need to go home safely at the end of their shift. It’s all that matters.

      1. I’m all about them going home safely, as long as home is a jail cell until they can post bond, and then home is prison if they are convicted.

        1. And their loving spouse waiting for them at home is Bubba in cell block E.

    2. The MSMs job is to deflect attention away from the cops, while the politicians do the same. Sadly, it’s working, again.

      They’ll just keep this up until they make our cities completely unsafe and then whoever the president is will just declare martial law and we’ll officially be a fascist police state.

      1. Oh, I know what’s going on. I’m just mad enough that I had to say something about it.

        Martial law in the cities? I might not even notice…

        1. Martial law in the entire country. Just declaring it in cities would be racist.

        2. Pretty sure that this would be unpossible in the suburban South/Southwest…maybe even Mid West. The number of multiple gun owners on my street is pretty high. Possibly half of the households.

          I think we would probably just shoot the bastards or at least sit on our front/back porches with anti-riot persuasion devices in our laps.

    3. And you know what the solution to crime is? For criminals to stop committing crime. If criminals would only stop committing crime, all our crime problems would be gone! Why is it that I’m the only one smart enough to think of that?

      1. We need to teach these kids not to loot and set cars on fire!

        1. We need to teach these kids not to loot and set cars on fire!

          You know, we laugh about this, but has the “teach them not to rape” crowd considered how such instruction would go? Is there a textbook? Are there classes? To make it abundantly clear, wouldn’t you have to simulate the act first to illustrate what not to do? Would this class be an offshoot of sex ed?

          Jezebel and company should really present an idea of how you would teach this stuff. They’re so smart and all.

  7. My good friend George Soros spent 33 million to stir up trouble in Ferguson.…..pur/print/

    I’m not sure what’s going on in Baltimore, but I wouldn’t be surprised if we’re doing the same thing.

    1. International Jews are stirring up trouble in American cities. This is a new one. Do you have a newsletter to which I can subscribe?

  8. Speaking of “conspiracy theories”…

    …i don’t know if you picked up on this Jesse, but there was apparently a bit of a scandal over the last couple of days with at least 2 journalists from City Paper trying to attribute some of the breakout of violence to the ‘provocations of drunk & violent white bystanders’

    this explains part of it

    it goes a bit farther, since the same person who made these implausible assertions to explain some photos….

    …wrote a more-detailed piece fleshing out this narrative

    … well, it turns out there’s plenty of video of every single angle of each incident, and the reality appears to be the exact opposite of what the ‘journalists’ described.

    1. Damn. We really fucked that one up.

      1. Stick to finance and hollywood mind-control

        1. The media is as important as either of those things in cementing our power.

        2. …and the diamond market.

    2. The redhead is trying to grab that guy’s bag

      The question here is, whose bag was it before it was that guys? I’m guessing, the redhead.

      1. I was jesting. It’s based on some twitter pics someone posted earlier. A commenter was facetiously stating that the girl was stealing from the guy. Some people thought he was being serious and hilarity ensued.

        1. I know, that’s pretty good.

    3. …such as here

      …City Paper published a “sorry for the confusion” piece yesterday, admitting no actual error, but suggesting that tweets and facebook posts weren’t “really stories” anyway, so who cares.

    4. When I was a youth in the winter, we used to grab stacks of Baltimore’s City Paper and burn them in a metal trash can to stay warm. Probably still the best us for it.

  9. What choice do the authorities have? They aren’t going to fight the Police Union, fire a bunch of out-of-control cops, and send the brute responsible for the original death to prison. That would require balls, and they haven’t got any.

    I have a question, though, for people more legally clued in than I am; I read in multiple places that Police Unions negotiate special treatment for police under investigation. Could this actually stand up in court? Could one, for example, go to the press and say “The Police Union has in its contract that we aren’t allowed to interrogate cops believed to have committed a crime save under special circumstances that would never be granted to an ordinary citizen. This is bullshit; we are telling the Police they they have to treat the suspects like ordinary citizens, and if they don’t like it they can invoke their contract and we will look elsewhere for law enforcement employees.”. OK, if you don’t follow the contract, you have trouble FIRING somebody. But the contract should not trump criminal law, should it?

    1. Paragraph one: completely agree.

      Paragraph two: dunno. Maybe Bo can tell us…

  10. What’s wrong with being an outside agitator?

    1. Hi Amsoc

      West Baltimore is calling you. They spebd more money per stident on public education than your school district.

  11. Does no one at Reason know what an agitator actually is?

    the local government rushed to blame “outside agitators” for the trouble. When that narrative fell apart?almost all the people arrested in connection with the unrest that night turned out to be locals

    As per Merriam-Webster:

    : a person who tries to get people angry or upset so that they will support an effort to change a government, company, etc.

    Now, simply because the people actually arrested for violence were local Baltimorons does not mean that they weren’t spurned to such actions by agitators who come in from outside to prey upon their baser instincts and demogauge an issue that requires serious and substantial reform as an excuse to riot and loot and burn down the few people daring enough to actually provide goods and services to shitty communities. Reason seems to be oblivious to the reality that there is an entire class of professional greivance mongers who would prefer to see a major city along the eastern seaboard turn into Mogadishu because it entrenches their own interests.

    Now I don’t have any proof that that is indeed the case and it is of course incumbent upon the people making such claims to demonstrate that such a person or persons is there inciting the mob to violence. But it’s a gross violation of the English language to pretend that an agitator is synonamous with a rioter.

    1. Pedants gonna pedant.

      And, occasionally, have a point.

    2. Now, simply because the people actually arrested for violence were local Baltimorons does not mean that they weren’t spurned to such actions by agitators who come in from outside to prey upon their baser instincts and demogauge an issue that requires serious and substantial reform as an excuse to riot and loot and burn down the few people daring enough to actually provide goods and services to shitty communities. Reason seems to be oblivious to the reality that there is an entire class of professional greivance mongers who would prefer to see a major city along the eastern seaboard turn into Mogadishu because it entrenches their own interests.

      Guess I’ll post this paragraph again: “There were, of course, protesters in Baltimore on Saturday who do not live in the city. Police violence of the kind that killed Freddie Gray is not limited to one town, and a national movement against it has emerged; it’s no surprise that activists from elsewhere have come to Maryland for the marches. There may well be some overlap between the outsiders and the people pushing for a more confrontational approach. But there is no reason to believe the activists adopting militant tactics are being led from afar.”

      I’ll add that I’ve been in touch with local radicals and they’re quite adamant that the militance is being generated locally, even if groups like the RCP like to charge in and pretend to be leading.

      1. And you fell for it????
        What a maroon!

  12. Eugene Robinson was on Morning Joe blaming empty derelict buildings for riots. Valerie Jarrett, a real estate maven before Obama, was on the phone with the mayor. I suspect some eminent domain and federal emergency loans are going to make some Democrat a wealthy owner of chunks of Baltimore soon.

  13. The conspiracy about the conspiracy. However you slice it, they’re coming for your pot.

  14. The rioting, looting and senseless violence are all caused by the policies of the Democratic Party.

    1. Prohibition is still supported by Republicans.

  15. I blame Tommy D’Alesandro (Nancy Pelosi’s brother) who was Mayor from ’67 to ’71, who set this all in motion.

  16. Alex Jones in black face caused all these problems.

  17. Outside agitators were blamed for bringing the National Guard to Berkeley in the 60s.

  18. my roomate’s half-sister makes $71 /hr on the computer . She has been laid off for 5 months but last month her pay was $17321 just working on the computer for a few hours
    …… ??????

  19. The actual Communists in Russia used film footage of these riots as propaganda to persuade their commoners that conditions were more peaceful there than in America. This footage included people turning over cars and burning them.

    This backfired for some Russians, as they zeroed in on the fact that these poor Americans POSSESSED so many cars spread all through the poorer neighborhoods. Decades later, some Russian expats were employed in a major oil company and revealed these propaganda films inspired them to defect. True story from Houston TX.

    1. When I said “these riots”, was referring to the 1960’s ones.

  20. my neighbor’s aunt makes $86 every hour on the internet . She has been without work for 7 months but last month her paycheck was $15501 just working on the internet for a few hours
    …… ??????

  21. Today I think the cops are the provocateurs. And their subjects vary in age, color, economic status and locality.…..-brutality

  22. After looting, rioting, and arson why would anyone open a business in Baltimore.

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