The UN's human rights chief has said an inquiry has produced evidence that war crimes were authorised in Syria at the "highest level", including by President Bashar al-Assad.
It is the first time the UN's human rights office has so directly implicated Mr Assad.
Commissioner Navi Pillay said her office held a list of others implicated by the inquiry.
The UN estimates more than 100,000 people have died in the conflict.
The UN's commission of inquiry into Syria has produced "massive evidence… [of] very serious crimes, war crimes, crimes against humanity," Ms Pillay said.