Many Jews in Europe say anti-Semitism is increasing, particularly on the internet, according to a survey by the EU's Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA).
The survey of 5,847 Jewish people said 66% of those who responded considered anti-Semitism to be a problem.
Three out of four respondents, 76%, believed anti-Semitism had increased over the past five years.
The survey was carried out in 2012 in eight countries which are home to about 90% of the EU's Jewish population.
Respondents in Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Sweden and the United Kingdom were asked to give "their opinions and perceptions on anti-Semitic trends and anti-Semitism as a problem in everyday".
They were also asked about their personal experiences and worries about their own safety and that of family members.