NBER's August digest lists a March working paper examining the effect of teacher certification, mandatory for public school teachers in most states. They found that, while it has no measurable effect on teacher quality, it does tend to push up salaries. Call this one an illustration of the law of intended consequences.
The new framework aims to keep everyone learning at the same level for as long as possible.
Punishing players for kneeling, or not kneeling, is a First Amendment violation at public universities.
“Our only job today, is to give the law’s terms their ordinary meanings and, in that small way, ensure that the federal government does not exceed its statutory license.”