Melissa Harris-Perry Couldn't Be More Wrong About the Roots of Detroit's Bankruptcy

Detroit in 2011 had around twice as many municipal employees per capita as cities with comparable populations.

MSNBC host Melissa Harris-Perry -- the same TV commentator who said Americans need to stop raising kids as if they belong to individual families -- had an extraordinary explanation for why the city of Detroit sought to declare bankruptcy last week: not enough government.

"This is what it looks like when government is small enough to drown in your bathtub, and it is not a pretty picture." She says budget-cutting Republicans threaten to transform all of the U.S. into Detroit.

What? Detroit has been a "model city" for big-government! All Detroit's mayors since 1962 were Democrats who were eager to micromanage. And spend. Detroit has the only utility tax in Michigan, and its income tax is the third-highest of any big city in America (only Philadelphia and Louisville take more, and they aren't doing great, either).

Detroit's automakers got billions in federal bailouts.

The Detroit News revealed that Detroit in 2011 had around twice as many municipal employees per capita as cities with comparable populations. The city water and sewer department employed a "horseshoer" even though it keeps no horses.

This is "small enough government"? Harris-Perry must have one heck of a bathtub.

Politicians think they know best, but they can't alter the laws of economics. They can't make mismanaged industries, constant government meddling, welfare and bureaucratic labor union rules (Detroit has 47 unions) into a formula for success.

County Judge Rosemarie Aquilina wants to stop the bankruptcy process on the grounds that state law forbids Detroit to cut government services. But how will Detroit pay for the services? Unsustainable public-sector pensions, a bloated workforce -- it's all supposed to continue somehow.

Politicians on Detroit's city council aren't even willing to sell off vacant lots that the city owns, or even a portion of the billions of dollars in art in its government-subsidized museum (including the original "Howdy Doody" puppet).

On my TV show, I confronted the council's second in command about his refusal to let Detroit sell land. He says he voted against it "because the developer wants to grow trees. We don't need any more new trees in our city." The politicians micromanaged themselves into bankruptcy, and they want to keep digging.

A member of the British Parliament writes that Detroit is like the fictional city of Starnesville in Ayn Rand's 1957 novel "Atlas Shrugged" -- a car-manufacturing city that became a ghost town after experimenting with socialism. In the novel, Starnesville's demise is the first sign that the entire society is approaching collapse.

Detroit is already there. 911 calls sometimes go unanswered. Two-thirds of the population left town.

As usual, the politicians want to try more of the same. They constantly come up with plans, but the plans are always big, simple-minded ones that run roughshod over the thousands of little plans made by ordinary citizens. Politicians want new stadiums, new transportation schemes, housing projects.

Andrew Rodney, a documentary filmmaker from Detroit, says many bad, big-government ideas that have plagued the U.S. were tried out first in Detroit. "It's the first city to experience a lot of the planning that went into a lot of cities."

Home loan subsidies, public housing, stadium subsidies, a $350 million project called "Renaissance Center" (the city ended up selling it for just $50 million), an automated People Mover system that not many people feel moved to use (it moves people in only one direction), endless favors to unions -- if a government idea has failed anywhere in America, there's a good chance it failed in Detroit first.

Editor's Note: We invite comments and request that they be civil and on-topic. We do not moderate or assume any responsibility for comments, which are owned by the readers who post them. Comments do not represent the views of Reason.com or Reason Foundation. We reserve the right to delete any comment for any reason at any time. Report abuses.

  • Hyperion||

    Politicians think they know best, writes John Stossel, but they can't alter the laws of economics. They can't make mismanaged industries, constant government meddling, welfare and bureaucratic labor union rules (Detroit has 47 unions) into a formula for success.

    Look, Stossel, they could make it work, but Republicans...

  • Sherry324||

    my neighbor's aunt makes $73/hr on the computer. She has been without a job for ten months but last month her paycheck was $18821 just working on the computer for a few hours. Read more on this site... WWW.CNN13.COM

  • Gozer the Gozerian||

    Sounds like a member of the 1%...

  • scottstams||

    your neighbor's aunt turns me on.

  • Ballz||

    she gets $36.50 for a blowjob. schedule online.

  • WTF||

    Look, Stossel, they could make it work, but Republicans...

    That's "Repukes" or "Rethuglicans" - you've gotta get it right.

  • ||

    Nope, they would say Tea bagging/ tea bagger Rethuglicans...

  • Lady Bertrum||

    Teathuglicans

  • LarryA||

    "They're laws, aren't they? We can amend laws."

  • Certified Public Asskicker||

    He says he voted against it "because the developer wants to grow trees. We don't need any more new trees in our city."

    I haven't watched Stossel in a long time. Someone really said this on TV?

    This is what it looks like when government is small enough to drown in your bathtub, and it is not a pretty picture.

    Wait, nevermind.

  • Floridian||

    Since when do democrats hate trees? I really don't get the objection. Is there more information about this evil scheme to plant trees?

  • Certified Public Asskicker||

    I am tempted to stream this episode now to see if he elaborates on why he hates trees.

    I am hoping instead that someone comes along and explains it before I have to watch.

  • Hyperion||

    Wait. I thought that all Libertarians hate trees, and that we are all involved in a Kochtopus funded scheme to cut down every tree on the planet.

  • some guy||

    Libertarians love trees because you can use them for so many things after cutting them down.

  • Finchster||

    I haven't seen the interview, but the reigning orthodoxy among Detroit's political class for the last 40 years has been that we need to bank all available vacant land for the next huge factory, which will be built any day now. Soon, all those jobs that were lost to Mexico or China or Japan will come back. It will go back to being 1952, when it was possible to make a decent middle-class living screwing a nut onto a bolt 8 hours a day.

    Detroit city government therefore has the luxury of deciding what kind of businesses it will and will not permit within the city, and who it will it will not sell land to. If you've got outside the box ideas on what else might be done with the land-maybe planting an apple orchard or a Christmas tree farm, for example-you're clearly a racist.

  • OneOut||

    He ony hates NEW trees. Old trees, well they're kinda OK. It's just those new trees that get a little uppity.

    Didn't you read this article ?

  • OneOut||

    But wait. i just remembered that trees emit CO2.

    It a climate change issue.

  • BigT||

    Only at night, during the day they consume CO2 and emit oxygen.

  • Alan||

    Tree-farming is a sort of agriculture, and agriculture is beneath the people of Detroit because they're a goddamned city, not a bunch of hicks living in the boondocks.

    Why, the people of Detroit would rather starve than allow agriculture in their city - and they WILL starve, damn it!

  • Bobarian||

    All I can say is "when government is small enough to drown in your bath-tub, start running some water!"

  • Jon Lester||

    Maybe because this private nonprofit is doing a better job?

  • Geoff Nathan||

    Entertaining, and mostly right, but a few facts are wrong or misleading:

    Aquilina is trying to stop the bankruptcy because the State constitution forbids tampering with government pensions--it has nothing to do with reducing services. And at least one commentator on Volokh thinks she may have a point. Which would be a disaster.

    The Renaissance Center is the world headquarters for GM. Not that that's anything to be proud of. But it's quite full, including a nice hotel and some good restaurants. It also dominates Detroit's skyline.

    The People Mover is cute, and Bob Poole, or one of his colleagues actually praised it here a few months ago. And of course it only runs in one direction--it's a loop, and there's only one track.

    Pretty much everything else he says is right on, including the comments about race.

  • Almanian!||

    You are correct on all counts, Geoff. But you knew this...

  • Almanian!||

    Oh, PS one addn'l slight correction re: RenCen : (the city ended up selling it for just $50 million

    FORD sold it to GM for $50M - not the city.

    You'll recall that it was Hank the Deuce (Henry Ford II for non-Detroiters/auto people) who was behind the orig build - Ford built/owned it, had marketing and sales offices there. Sold it to GM when looked like Ford was in worse shape than GM. The gloating from GM was palpable. Hah! Good times...

  • OldMexican||

    Re: Geoff Nathan,

    Aquilina is trying to stop the bankruptcy because the State constitution forbids tampering with government pensions


    Constitutionally-mandated repeal of the Law of Scarcity - that's the ticket.

  • Geoff Nathan||

    Hey! I didn't write the constitution. And these laws are surprisingly common--also true in Illinois, for example.

  • OldMexican||

    Re: Geoff Nathan,

    I get that. The comment is only to emphasize the absurdity of mandating impossible things via law.

  • sarcasmic||

    “The first lesson of economics is scarcity: There is never enough of anything to satisfy all those who want it. The first lesson of politics is to disregard the first lesson of economics.”

    ― Thomas Sowell

  • josh||

    I posted this to my Facebook because, well, I do that sometimes, and my cousin came back with an "interesting" response to Mr. Sowell:

    "That may be the most distorted definition of scarcity I've ever seen."

    I love my family. wouldn't vote for most of them, but I do love them.

  • LarryA||

    Hate the sin, love the sinner?

  • josh||

    Amen.

  • Calvin Coolidge||

    On my first day of graduate Micro 701, the professor introduced the class as the study of "Satisfying infinite wants with finite resources".

    We had a late-30s professional student on the far, far left who was on her fourth graduate program (soon to move on to her fifth) who replied "Well, what about Indian Economics? We try to maximize resources and minimize consumption."

    I couldn't resist yelling out: "I solved her Euler equation! Set consumption to 0. Keep it there for long enough, and demand will plummet too! Now, can we study something a little more difficult?"

  • plusafdotcom||

    Josh, I added that quote to the left-hand section of my home page at http://www.plusaf.com/

  • ||

    The People Mover is cute, and Bob Poole, or one of his colleagues actually praised it here a few months ago. And of course it only runs in one direction--it's a loop, and there's only one track.

    It looks like they borrowed inspiration from this people mover.

  • LarryA||

  • Donder33||

    Aquilina's action is premature until they begin to tamper with pensions. The judges involved will be informed by President Obama of what is currently legal when the time comes to decide. (see GM/Chrysler Bankruptcy, IRS Tea Party Evals, NSA Spying, DOJ pressure to prosecute Zimmerman... for precedent)

  • PongGrinder||

    Let's be honest here: are we expecting a whole lot of intelligence from a black woman with a hyphenated last name? On MSNBC?

    She's going to want to push emotional buttons with her viewership, not be reasonable. Or have basic definitions straight.

  • Almanian!||

    You must be George Zimmerman's brother, cause RACIST MUCH???

    /progfuck

  • Alan||

    Hey now!

    Former Mayor Coleman Young himself said "To attack Detroit is to attack black" - which is as explicitly as one can say that the fortunes of Detroit can be linked to black people.

    So thank Coleman Young for giving white Americans everywhere permission to be racist.

  • Anonymous Coward||

    Melissa Harris-Perry is wearing tampon earrings.

    Your argument is invalid, you patriarchial, thought-rapist, othering scumbag.

  • Rasilio||

    You forgot cis-gendered

  • John C. Randolph||

    Wow, she's so classy.

    -jcr

  • Zeb||

    "On MSNBC" is all you needed there. The rest is unnecessary assholery.

  • Irish||

    Let's be honest here: are we expecting a whole lot of intelligence from a black woman with a hyphenated last name?

    Wow, that first sentence is pretty fucking scummy.

  • ||

    Gotta agree about the hyphen.

    To be fair to her, she didn't do the finger wag with cadenced verbalization.

  • PongGrinder||

    No, no. It's okay. I expect most of you to have a problem with this, since libertarian leaning folks need to keep up the egalitarian appearances.

    But again, if we're being honest, we're expecting black women with hyphenated last names to start quoting Mises, are we?

  • Calvin Coolidge||

    It's profiling. It cuts both ways, since obviously MSNBC hired to a casting profile, but it is still wrong.

    Statistically, your point has some validity, but if you get in the habit of making judgements before you can assess the content of a person's character, embarassment at ofteng jumping to the wrong conclusion will be the least of your problems.

  • Jon Lester||

    I've known plenty of white women with hyphenated last names who compare very closely.

  • Almanian!||

    Fucking Stossel - READ KRUGMAN! Cause the REAL reason Detroit has seen hard times is CAPITALIZM.

    Get it right, moran.

  • some guy||

    Yeah, Detroit's destruction is anything but creative.

  • KPres||

    Created destruction?

  • Gozer the Gozerian||

    Joking aside, I was surprised by the position that Krugman took on this, particularly in light of what he thinks about the "Treaty of Detroit."

  • El Lobo Blanco||

    Paul Krugman has destroyed the middle class of this country and advocated policies of inflation which have and currently are resulting in the largest transfer of wealth in human history; wealth transferred from the middle class to the upper class.

    You leftists trust some "expert" to do the thinking for you and then blindly follow whatever they say without critically addressing yourselves and keeping your mind closed to dissenting points of view.

    You have destroyed my country and taken my money. We may as well have remained subjects of the tyrant George.

    You all make me sick.

  • El Lobo Blanco||

    Splendid use of improper grammar and spelling.

    Another national socialist savant among us.

    Paul Krugman, a noted Keynesian, and those who ascribe to this "theory" of economics have caused all the problems no manifest in the USA. It is impossible to maintain a free market and encourage entrepreneurship with a national socialist domestic policy.

    Read a book you illiterate Nazi. Start with the Road to Serfdom.

  • plusafdotcom||

    Talk about a cultist... Krugman is a dyed-in-the-wool socialist/communist/New Order Of Slavery supporter who has never found anything positive to say about anything or anyone who doesn't agree with him.

    Be Gone, socialist troll(s)!

    And it's MORON, you moron!

  • Loki||

    Melissa Harris-Perry Couldn't Be More Wrong

    You could always just stop there. Regardless of topic.

  • ||

    Well, she could have said that we must for the village of Detroit to raise our children...

  • Bobarian||

    the village of Detroit to raise our children...

    So, a race of savage feral super mutants, and cyborg policement?

  • Gozer the Gozerian||

    Don't forget Ernie Hudson!

  • Calvin Coolidge||

    "Melissa Harris-Perry Couldn't Be More Wrong"

    Don't underestimate her!

  • OldMexican||

    Politicians think they know best, but they can't alter the laws of economics


    Of course they can! All they have to do is believe in the "right" economic theories, print money, spend it like there's no tomorrow and voila! The Law of Scarcity is repealed! Only because of those greedy industrialists and Property Rights zealots that we don't live in a veritable Paradise of no want!

    Tony told me so...

  • Gozer the Gozerian||

    I need to start playing devil's advocate (perhaps Keynesian), because this really is the quality of intellectual "pushback" that we are confronted with here...

  • ||

    If the GOVERNMENT ever changes, Detroit could be the new Wild West of America. There could be fortunes made there. The economic barriers to entry are gone. The only thing holding it back is the same thing that ruined it.

  • Hyperion||

    Here's what they need to do.

    Establish a tax free enterprise zone within the city. Give away all the empty lots in the city, or housing, to anyone who will move there and build on or renovate the properties. See what happens.

  • Bobarian||

    Here's what they need to do.

    Cleansing fire.

  • Gozer the Gozerian||

    The meme not taken?

  • Invisible Finger||

    Wiping out the buildings but leaving most of the people intact is no solution.

  • Harvard||

    No, No, you misunderstand......

  • Faceless Commenter||

    Make half of Detroit the tax-free enterprise zone and turn the other half over to the libstatistdemtards. At the end of a year, let both sides vote which way to go.

  • ||

    If the GOVERNMENT ever changes, Detroit could be the new Wild West of America.

    Looking at their violent crime rate, I thought it already was the new Wild West of America.

    Of course, that's the wild west as portrayed in fictional novels and films. In reality, most of our violent cities are worse than the most violent places in the wild west.

    But, we can't have more economic freedom, because that's like the 1800's. Go figure.

  • OldMexican||

    On my TV show, I confronted the council's second in command about his refusal to let Detroit sell land. He says he voted against it "because the developer wants to grow trees. We don't need any more new trees in our city."


    You certainly have shown that you don't need more people in your city.

    Maybe Texas should start advertising in Detroit to convince a few trees to move down here. Houston is a tree-infested paradise as it is, a few more will not be noticeable and the Detroit trees can find refuge from the scores of wild dogs that urinate on them right now.

  • Invisible Finger||

    I don't see why Detroit couldn't just tax the trees.

    The Detroit politicians aren't even creative thieves.

  • SQRLSY One||

    Hey U Invisible Finger You,
    Tax the trees, what u talkin’ about, Bro!?!?!? “Don’t tax you, don’t tax me, tax the fella behind the tree”, is the right line! That is ***THE*** central idea behind ALL modern progressa-hippa-grooovalisticness!!!

  • soflarider||

    You've heard the saying "tax the guy behind the tree". In a desperate attempt to boost tax revenues they're obviously trying to eliminate places for taxpayers to hide.

  • Matrix||

    You see, if TOP MEN hadn't been working all along in Detroit, the city would have gone into bankruptcy a long, long time ago. They were just slowing it down and softening the blow! Capitalism is the cause of all of this, 'cause markets shift, and we can't have that. We need to make sure everyone spends the same today as they did yesterday, and producers need to produce the same today as they did yesterday. We need to mandate this to save jobs and save the economy.

  • Gozer the Gozerian||

    Everything not Pareto-optimal... is forbidden!

  • Rhino||

    yeah. Directive 10-289.

  • OldMexican||

    And if you criticized them for it, politicians like former Mayor Coleman Young called you a racist. "To attack Detroit is to attack black," Young said.


    That pretty much sums up the validity of the Dems' argument in favor of their own policies. If you find fault in them, it's because yo racist cracker, yo.

  • itsnotmeitsyou||

    Hey! Cracker is OUR word! Got that, ya bean?

  • Gozer the Gozerian||

    Detroit needs mo' money .

  • PH2050||

    Funniest comment.

  • Ayn Random Variation||

    Obama: If I had a city, it would look like Detroit.

  • Bobarian||

    +1 and some (hope and) change.

  • Hollywood||

    Detroit could have been me 15 years ago.

  • Invisible Finger||

    Detroit looks pretty much like Southeast Cook County anyway.

  • Anonymous Coward||

    County Judge Rosemarie Aquilina wants to stop the bankruptcy process on the grounds that state law forbids Detroit to cut government services. But how will Detroit pay for the services? Unsustainable public-sector pensions, a bloated workforce -- it's all supposed to continue somehow.

    Hey Stossel! Didn't anyone ever tell you that the (Michigan) Constitution is not a suicide pact? Except when the government unions are involved?

  • CAB||

    I'll just leave this here...

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDoUpXNmcZA Part 1
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qSJv2Pa7f0s Part 2

    (Fascinating documentary on Detroit's Fire department and what they do all night..... HINT: It has a lot to do with Arson)

  • Brubaker||

    "This is what it looks like when government is small enough to drown in your bathtub, and it is not a pretty picture."

    Just when I thought I'd heard the most outrageously stupid leftist comment imaginable, along comes Melissa Harris-Perry with a comment that deserves a prize; perhaps the Flying Fickle Finger of Fate Award.

  • itsnotmeitsyou||

    This is why we keep saying that Peak Derp is a myth. It's like a competition with these guys. In that vein, Peak Mendacity is also a myth.

  • PH2050||

    If only we could harness the Derp, we could have infinite energy.

  • Juice||

    "To attack Detroit is to attack black,"

    Really? So everything wrong with Detroit is because it's majority black? Is that the argument you want to go with?

  • Invisible Finger||

    I don't think anyone is attacking Detroit. Most people are either laughing at it or are ashamed of it.

    We pretty much feel the same way about Hamtrammck but nobody EVEN CARES since the name is so stupid.

  • scottstams||

    Well, just for arguments sake. If one wanted to look at what is the most common denominator or predictor of a statistical outcome like municipal debt, illiteracy, murder, teen pregnancy, and on and on, one need look at the demographic breakdown and look at the cities with highest percentage of black population.

    If you think that this is racist then you are part of the problem. Didn't Holder and Obama want an honest conversation after all? Does anyone believe that if Detroit that if we replaced its population with say Japanese Americans things would be the same?

  • anewrepublic||

    Scott, let me follow you on this point for a minute. As a believer in the equality of all men, I find it hard to accept that a race of people can unflinchingly be the standout in all those vile outcomes. Using the control of studying a group of poor non-blacks in a similar town, and their behaviors, i would likely also be disappointed. My optimism for reconciling this within myself vacillates, to be honest. Reason tells my heart that it is time to grow up. And then, the twisted lens through which our masters would have us peer is useless. Not just useless, but a weapon of ignorance and falsehoods. Everything is upside down, Alice. You are ignorant for trying to increase your understanding.

  • scottstams||

    I think that it is only rational to examine all of the parameters of a series an outcome. It surely can be no coincidence. However, I am not saying that there is something genetically different about blacks that causes these outcomes, but it is something that needs to be examined.

    An honest conversation would ask what it is about black culture that leads to these outcomes. The likely answer is the culture of dependency on the government that is fostered by the same community. A self-reliance that is more evident in the Asian community for example.

    My problem is that it is to even ask the question of the role of race in the failure of cities is not politically correct and brands the one who asks the question a racist. For me at least, the definition of willful ignorance is avoiding of the subject of race.

  • Faceless Commenter||

    Not necessarily. Thomas Sowell has discovered that Black families had nothing to do with this violent failure shit in the 1940s and 1950s. I don't have the statistics handy, but they were much better off economically. It was when the left hijacked the civil rights movement that they started the downslide.

  • Calvin Coolidge||

    If you replaced race in your equation with propensity to vote Democrat, you could easily tease out the causal factors here without resorting to racial pre-judgements.

    One would expect a culture that votes 98% Democrat in a society that is closer to 50/50 to suffer from dysfunctionality. That type of monolithic obeience is symptomatic of some very fundamental cultural brainwashing.

  • ||

    911 calls sometimes go unanswered.

    But, really, who needs to own a gun? After all, the government has professionals who will protect you.

  • scottstams||

    Problem with Detroit is too many .......... Democrats.

  • ThatSkepticGuy||

    Clearly, this woman needs to be committed before she kills again.

  • BrendaMitchell||

    what Jonathan implied I'm surprised that you able to get paid $8990 in a few weeks on the internet. have you read this site... http://www.Can99.com

  • Jon Lester||

    KhimkiForest dot com. You will care.

  • JeromeD||

    She's obviously against drowning the government in the bathtub.
    I'd counter that I'm instead killing it in the womb. She can't argue. My right to choose and all that...

  • Anders||

    That's pitch-perfect.

  • Rhino||

    "This is what it looks like when government is small enough to fit in your womb, and it is not a pretty picture."

  • Anders||

    Caught this piece of lunacy.

    You'll be shocked to know she is a tenured professor at Tulane.

    I jest. What's shocking is that they let Niall Fergusson speak at US universities and he is not immediately gassed.

  • Calvin Coolidge||

    I don't even need to ask in which "academic discipline" she performs her "research". I will guess that her dissertation could be easily titled: "Me! A Case Study."

  • Free Society||

    Oh I'm sure her dissertation was about how unfair it is that blacks don't get more equality than everyone else.

  • Concerned Citizen||

    I lived on a mixed race neighborhood for 13 years. I'll never do it again. The adults are nice, decent people. The thug wannabe kids are not.

  • Edwin||

    refuse to sell the unused lots? That's a big part of the problem

    One thing people need to accept, that part of the political structure of a resilient city that can move forward, is that it needs the ability to CONTRACT

    yup, that's what I said, contract, get smaller.
    Sometimes, getting smaller is moving forward.

    if 2/3 of the people moved out, that should be opportunity for more land that can be used for more industry and more infrastructure, and then maybe later people will move back in again. And maybe not. Why isn't fewer people with a more secure lifestyle not progress? It's a hell of a lot better than a city that's god damned near Somalia.

    One good way to help this, I think, is a recognition of georgism, via more effective and realistic adverse posession. Nobody made the land, so no one can really OWN it. Certainly not forever. Investors need to have the right to claim properties that have nothing but derelict houses full of crack addicts, and then demolish the structures, improve the land, and use it for something else or re-sell it. The your normal, hard-working shmoes, that is landscapers and other contractors, could actually make some damned money and also actually help re-shape the city.
    If there are entire blocks of houses unused, those are blocks that could be turned into one large apartment building, one large commercial building, and a public park. Or just one large factory or warehouse, or machine shop or auto shop or whatever.

  • Edwin||

    I understand the need for secure property rights to create a return on investment, but infinite security isn't required, and in this case the property right security is actually hindering the rest of the people in town from leading a decent life. Surely, even with a house, you don't need forever to make your money back. The improvement of a structure to land doesn't make the land infinitely more valuable. And surely, if a place isn't even habitable and just houses crackheads, your return on investment, you use of the land, can be considered outright gone, forgotten.

GET REASON MAGAZINE

Get Reason's print or digital edition before it’s posted online

  • Video Game Nation: How gaming is making America freer – and more fun.
  • Matt Welch: How the left turned against free speech.
  • Nothing Left to Cut? Congress can’t live within their means.
  • And much more.

SUBSCRIBE

advertisement