American Values

Baby Boomers and the Politics of Midcentury Nostalgia

"Our body politic is itself an aging boomer looking back upon his glory days," argues Yuval Levin in his new book.

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Dean Hochman/Flickr

Yuval Levin, who was an aide to Newt Gingrich and to George W. Bush, is one of the most prominent intellectuals on the center-right, and his new book, The Fractured Republic: Renewing America's Social Contract in the Age of Individualism, is characteristically brilliant. 

The book is both a diagnosis and a prescription.

In the diagnosis department, the book insightfully faults both conservatives and liberals for excessive nostalgia for the supposed golden age of the late 1950s or early 1960s. He traces this to the dominance of the Baby Boom generation: "our political, cultural, and economic conversations today overflow with the language of decay and corrosion, as if our body politic is itself an aging boomer looking back upon his glory days."

He reads the 20th century as divided into a first half featuring "excessive centralization" and a second half featuring "excessive individualism." He concludes that we "cannot go back to midcentury America" but instead should ask, "how can we make the most of the opportunities afforded by the dynamism and the freedom set loose by America's postwar diffusion while mitigating its costs and burdens, especially for the most vulnerable among us?"

He's refreshingly sensible on income inequality: "Wealth is not a social problem, but poverty is….[T]he end is not combating inequality as such, but combating immobility."

And he adds his voice to the increasing number of those denouncing what he calls "the oppressive array of licensing and professional-certification requirements in many states."

In the prescription department, Levin recommends a focus on revitalizing what he calls the "middle layers" between the individual and the federal government—the family and local communities and institutions of all sorts, including churches, charities, local governments, and small businesses.

There are parts where Levin gets it wrong. He blames the Reagan tax cuts for producing short-term "large budget deficits," and he faults the 1980s for their "public displays of wealth."

I think he has immigration wrong, too, decrying the lack of assimilation by Latin American immigrants while somehow failing to mention the counterexamples of Ted Cruz or Marco Rubio. He's much more pessimistic than I am about the potential of immigration to aid American economic growth. The treatment of immigration is probably my biggest quarrel with the book.

There is a throwaway reference to "the implications of in vitro fertilization technologies for the commodification of life" that I also found objectionable. What about the implications of banning IVF, as some social conservatives would apparently prefer, on the lives of infertile couples, or on the lives of the 60,000 or 70,000 Americans each year who are born that way and who otherwise would not exist at all?

As a Jewish reader, I found this to be a very Jewish book. It begins by saying, "life in America is always getting better and worse at the same time," an observation that reminded me of Saadia Gaon's statement in The Book of Beliefs and Opinions that, "all well-being in this mundane world is bound up with misfortune, and all happiness with hardship and all pleasure with pain, and all joy with sorrow." Levin's effort to locate a space between the extremes of statism and hyper-individualism struck me as a classic Maimonidean mean.

Levin doesn't show much leg, or even ankle, in the Jewish department, leaving readers only with the sentence: "There are many social conservatives who aren't religious, or who are adherents of religions other than Christianity (like me)."

Worse than the reticence is his claim that "the Judeo-Christian moral vision is not, at its deepest and most fundamental level, a political vision, so its enactment does not require (and in some ways is surely even undermined by) control of the commanding heights of society." What that means for the modern state of Israel is unexplored, as is the consequence of melding the arguably distinct Jewish and Christian moral visions into a joint "Judeo-Christian moral vision."

But these comments are intended as friendly peer review. Thomas Sowell has usefully reminded us of the damage wrought by intellectuals. If more of them were like Yuval Levin, the country would be in better shape.

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102 responses to “Baby Boomers and the Politics of Midcentury Nostalgia

  1. Yuval Levin’s basically says nothing, but manages to sound superficially profound, so I guess he’s legit?

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  2. the supposed golden age of the late 1950s or early 1960s

    “supposed”?

    1. Yes, supposed. It was a shitty, authoritarian time for anyone who valued freedom. Not a lot of innovation either.

      1. do you have to be stupid all the time about every subject? Seriously, can’t you know something about anything? Just once?

        The 50s and 60s were in many ways much less authoritarian than today. Things like speed cameras and the Byzantine system of traffic laws and fines did not exist. The EPA and OSHA did not exist. The banking laws were incredibly lax by today’s standards and respected privacy. You could do amazing things like travel across borders with large amounts of cash and not have the police steal it from you. You could deposit cash in your bank account without the bank being required to call the FBI. You could smoke in public. You could drive without being subjected to a DUI check point to prove your sobriety. You could own a gun without registering it in every state in the union.

        Were we less free in some ways? Sure. But there is more to life than porn and gay sex. And getting rid of the restrictions that did exist in no way required imposing the restrictions that we have now. Ignoramuses like you who claim the world was always less free in the past are just as stupid and just as damaging as people who overly glorify the past. The truth is generally too subtle for stupid people to understand. So you draw cartoons instead of knowing anything.

        1. Sure, all of that totally outweighs the draft and Jim Crow and the lack of civil rights. And the enormous power given to Big Labour and censors. And the trucking cartels, regulation of airlines, bans on craft brewing. McCarthyism. Was there even concealed carry? Gun rights were certainly worse.

          It’s been a mixed bag since but the ’50s and ’60s are absolutely nothing to yearn for.

          ” getting rid of the restrictions that did exist in no way required imposing the restrictions that we have now.”

          Never said it did dumbshit.

          1. More people are in prison today than ever were under Jim Crow. And Jim Crow only existed in part of the country. And there is more to civil rights than Jim Crow. We had lots of civil rights in the 50s. And you of course missed it but Brown v Topeka Board of education was decided in 1954. We didn’t suddenly get civil rights in 1970.

            1. “More people are in prison today than ever were under Jim Crow.”

              That is hardly a very useful point. That’s so inept it’s not even wrong.

              “We had lots of civil rights in the 50s.”

              The right to be drafted, hauled before a McCarthy court, use a separate bathroom if you’re black or get lynched. In the previous decade, you could be thrown in a camp for being Jap. If black, you could be infected with syphilis in Tuskagee and not told about it. What a paradise.

              It’s clear why conservatives are typecast as mouth-breathing trogs. Because so many are.

              1. Yeah, that was America in the 50s. God you are a fucking moron. Sadly, the 1500 character limit prevents me from giving you a quick lecture on the history of the US judicial system and the state of civil rights throughout history. But it is not like you are capable of learning anything. So what difference would it make.

                1. I accept your capitulation with magnanimity and grace. Have a nice day.

          2. You beet me to the punch, perhaps Jon can talk to my mother as a mixed race person life under Jim crow. in the 1930’s it was illegal for my Grandma (White ) to marry the birth father (Black)

      2. Not a lot of innovation either.

        Integrated circuits, spaceflight, oral contraceptives…

        1. On the artistic front, Rock and Roll, bee bop, the golden age of both Broadway and Hollywood. The beat writers. The New Realism. The list goes on and one.

          Cytoxic’s ignorance never fails to amaze. He is purposely ignorant about every subject known to man. It is not so much that he doesn’t know anything. It is that he knows something exactly wrong about every subject imaginable.

          1. What never ceases to amaze is your ability to project onto me whenever you talk about me. I guess this is part and parcel of your raging mental illness.

            Also, was that really the Golden Age of Hollywood? 1984 was a great year.

            1. Any list of the best movies made in the 20th Century is going to be dominated by the period from 45 to 75. There are great movies made before and after that of course, but the majority were made during those 30 years. That was when movies became real art. Again, the point is that it is mind boggling for anyone to claim the 50s and 60s were not a time of innovation. They were. The world completely transformed in the 25 years from 1945 until 1970.

              1. See below. Artistically, that era sucked.

              2. IMDB would beg to differ…

                http://www.imdb.com/chart/top?ref_=ft_250

                Their top movie list…
                top 10: 2010’s – 0, 00’s – 2, 90’s – 4, 80’s – 0, 70’s – 2, 60’s – 1, 50’s – 1, 40’s – 0, 30’s – 0, 20’s – 0
                top 25: 2010’s – 1, 00’s – 5, 90’s – 10, 80’s – 1, 70’s – 4, 60’s – 1, 50’s – 2, 40’s – 1, 30’s – 0, 20’s – 0
                top 100: 2010’s – 7, 00’s – 19, 90’s – 22, 80’s – 12, 70’s – 10, 60’s – 9, 50’s – 10, 40’s – 6, 30’s – 3, 20’s – 1

                At no level are movies from the 50’s through 70’s dominating, if anything they show Hollywood’s golden age was the 1990’s through mid 2000’s. Even accounting for modern bias it doesn’t really show a golden age from the 50’s through 70’s

          2. On the artistic front, Rock and Roll, bee bop, the golden age of both Broadway and Hollywood. The beat writers. The New Realism. The list goes on and one.

            OK – I’ve got to step in on this one.

            Rock and Roll was invented in the 30s (cf Big Joe Turner, “Roll ‘Em Pete”). White people got on board with Rock and Roll in the late 50s, early 60s, and didn’t get good at it until the late 60s, early 70s.

            The golden age of Broadway and Hollywood = 1935-1945. The 50s was washing out on that front, but did produce some movie versions of great Hollywood musicals from the 40s.

            Bee bop is an abomination. No one should be proud of that.

            There are some good movies mocking 50s cultural production (Sunset Boulevard, His Kind of Girl), but most 50s movies are crap.

            The Beat? New Realism?

            I just can’t go on. You can have the 50s – please keep them.

        2. Integrated circuits were big but didn’t really get huge until computers started mainstreaming in the late ’70s. Spaceflight was a money pit.

          1. yeah, space flight was just the Apollo program, not satellites or anything. And integrated circuits never amounted to anything until we got Apple computers. Ignore transistor radios, affordable long distance calling, and about a million other uses for them,

            1. Good, but just not the same impact. Did those latter uses become a big thing around in the ’60s?

              1. Those things had enormous impact. Your claim that “there was not much innovation in the 50s and 60s” is retarded and counter to all of the known facts.

                1. No it isn’t. The late seventies and early eighties simply had a lot more going on in computers and the like. Cellphones were invented. So was the internet.

  3. The Judeo-Christian moral vision is deeply and fundamentally political — it is all about power. Specifically, it is the ultimate embodiment of might makes right. All the sins of politics, and all of politics should be seen as sinful, trace back to the crime of Abraham. That crime is obeisance to the will of power. There is no other way to read the tale.
    Maximally political, maximally immoral. The oldest of the Abrahamic faiths has grown past most of that tradition, the youngest is still stumbling its way through the horror of power for the sake of power.

    1. Shirley that is the dumbest thing I have read in a long time. Maybe you missed it but Abraham didn’t actually kill his son. Moreover, God isn’t on earth to rule. So saying you answer only to God is a repudiation of earthly power not an embrace of it.

      The Judeo Christian tradition is the source of the idea that all people are equal in dignity. All earthly power answers to God and everyone is equal before God. All natural right flow from the assumption that all people have equal dignity.

      1. Yes, thank you, John. Well put.

      2. “All natural right flow from the assumption that all people have equal dignity.”

        Nope.

        “The Judeo Christian tradition is the source of the idea that all people are equal in dignity. ”

        Pretty sure this concept predates JC-ism.

        1. And I am pretty sure you are a fucking moron. Go find me where it does. You might learn something, but I doubt it.

          1. What is ‘ancient Greece’ for $500.

            1. +1 Aristotlean Ethic

          2. Ancient Athens had more equality than most Christian societies throughout human history. Equality in the Christian world didn’t become common at all until relatively recently, and a lot of people pushing for human equality had heterodox religious beliefs or were not Christian at all.

            The fact that equal rights developed in the West and Christianity existed in the west doesn’t mean that those two things were linked. If I were a Jew I rather would have lived in the Ottoman Empire throughout most of the middle ages than anywhere in Europe.

            1. Yup. Spain was better of as part of The Caliph than under its early Christian ‘liberators’.

              Remember, John thinks Americans were freer in the ’50s than they are now.

            2. If I were a Jew I rather would have lived in the Ottoman Empire throughout most of the middle ages than anywhere in Europe

              ^ This x 1000

              I can’t hold my pedant down, though – Ottoman Empire = Renaissance, like so many things we commonly (and erroneously) think of as “medieval” (like plague and the Spanish Inquisition, to pick two).

              1. I think the Italian city states were good to Jews too but I am not sure.

                1. I think the Italian city states were good to Jews too but I am not sure.

                  “Good” is a relative term.

                  “Here – you can go live in this ghetto over there, and when we need to borrow money we’ll call you. Otherwise, keep your dirty heathen ass where we can’t see it until we feel like kicking someone’s ass for being mean to Jesus.”

                  vs.

                  “Look – a Jew! Beat it to death, stat!”

                  1. Well, that IS a big difference. I am pretty sure Jews were very good with money and used that to get elevated status. Even in Medieval England they were protected because the King needed their money for borrowing. Still, it’s iffy.

                    1. A big difference, for sure. If I had to pick between Italy and England in, say, 1190 or so, I’d go with Italy in a heartbeat.

                      I am pretty sure Jews were very good with money and used that to get elevated status.

                      Mainly they didn’t have laws against usury, which gave them a tactical advantage.

            3. Ancient Athens

              If you were a Greek, sure it did. But Athens considered non Greeks to have no rights and to be inferior human beings. Athens in no way believed in the idea of equal human dignity or rights.

              1. I’m pretty sure Aristotle was down with something like ‘equal human dignity’ and propounded it. If true, this falsifies the statement that “The Judeo Christian tradition is the source of the idea that all people are equal in dignity.”

              2. Ah, much like the ancient ‘Israelites’ and their neighbors?
                No, of course not, that’s different. Somehow. Because God, that’s why.
                Feh.
                You’re an ignorant arrogant slaver.
                ‘Abraham didn’t actually kill his son’? THAT’S your justification? Do you not even know the story?!?!?!!
                Abraham gave in to authority rather than his own moral sentiment.
                That’s evil in my book. Which is pretty obviously not yours.
                Slaver.

                1. Abraham gave in to authority rather than his own moral sentiment.

                  Yes – Abraham didn’t kill Isaac, but not for lack for trying.

                  OTOH, obeying the Force that Created and Will Destroy the Universe, and that levels whole cities in fits of spontaneous rage is not the same as obeying the government, so it’s not really a fair use of that story to say that it rationalizes obedience to state power.

      3. “The Judeo Christian tradition is the source of the idea that all people are equal in dignity”

        That explains all the Biblical justifications for slavery – everyone has equal dignity.

        1. And for being willing to murder your son because God says so. All equally subservient.

        2. Yes it does. Nowhere does it ever say that a slave is not equal before God.

        3. everyone has equal dignity

          Especially the Perizites, Jebusites, Amorites, Hittites, and Moabites.

          Not to mention the “half-tribe” of Manasseh.

  4. Shit! This dude’s my age? He looks at least in his early 50’s.

  5. he faults the 1980s for their “public displays of wealth.”

    Back then they called it “wretched excess”. It was all Reagan’s fault.

    1. Decrying ‘conspicuous consumption’ has a long history in this country, well before the 1980s.

      1. Mencken wrote an essay back in the 20’s mocking Thorstein Veblen and he’s the one who came up with the term conspicuous consumption.

        This idea’s been around so long it’s been getting laughed at for 90 years.

      2. Thorstein Veblen says “S’up?”

  6. “He reads the 20th century as divided into a first half featuring “excessive centralization” and a second half featuring “excessive individualism.””

    Weird that the second half of the 20th century, with all its ‘excessive individualism,’ gave us OSHA, the EPA, the Patriot Act, the Department of Homeland Security, the TSA, the hyper-centralization of the European Union, left-wing collectivist identity politics, hate speech laws, a massive regulatory state that causes police officers to shut down lemonade stands, militarized cops that do SWAT raids on barber shops because of regulatory non-compliance, etc.

    The state’s intrusive power into our lives seems to have expanded pretty rapidly for a period of ‘hyper-individualism’ is what I’m saying.

    1. All of that and more Irish. We are a hell of a lot less individualistic in many ways than we once were. The problem here is that reason writers often really do live up to the stereotype of ass sex, pot and Mexicans. Ignore the fact that you can’t so much as cash a check or buy cold medicine without the government’s approval. Ignore the EPA and OSHA standing there to tell you how to run your business and your life. God damn it, you have access to porn and gays roam freely. What the hell is your complaint? Seems to be the attitude sometimes.

      1. In fairness, Yuval Levin is a conservative and is making basically the same argument. Conservatives sometimes argue we’re in a period of ‘excessive individualism’ because they wish we had a less outwardly sexual culture, which ignores that we’re actually living in a period of extreme political centralization and authoritarianism.

        It’s just bread and circuses – we’ll get rid of sodomy laws so you can cheer about that while we completely eliminate all the rest of your rights.

        1. Its like I say to our resident Canadian idiot above, getting rid of the restrictions that did exist back then in no way required the new restrictions that were created. Why couldn’t we have legalized pot and porn and gay rights and also not created OSHA and the EPA and put the drug war into hyper drive?

          1. “getting rid of the restrictions that did exist back then in no way required the new restrictions that were created.”

            No one made that argument dumbshit.

            1. No you didn’t. But pointing that fact out is why your claim that we were less free in the past is ridiculous. The point is we were less free.

              1. In many ways, people were. My point was more that that era is nothing to yearn for.

    2. Eh I think you’re conflating government policy with cultural attitudes. To be fair, the writers were not being very clear themselves.

      1. But cultural attitudes drive government policy. The political centralization of the modern era came about because people became more and more comfortable with that centralization.

        1. They became comfortable with some forms of centralization, but other forms got trashed. The Reagan Revolution was a real thing and it made a real difference.

    3. Weird that the second half of the 20th century, with all its ‘excessive individualism,’ gave us OSHA, the EPA, the Patriot Act, the Department of Homeland Security, the TSA, the hyper-centralization of the European Union, left-wing collectivist identity politics, hate speech laws, a massive regulatory state that causes police officers to shut down lemonade stands, militarized cops that do SWAT raids on barber shops because of regulatory non-compliance, etc.

      Yeah but, pr0n, butt secks, weed, and Mecksicanz!!111!!!11!!!!

    4. Half that shit didn’t happen until the 21st century.

      1. The Aughts sucked.

  7. Our body politic is itself an aging boomer looking back upon his glory days,” argues Yuval Levin in his new book.

    “How much you wanna make a bet I can throw a football over them mountains?”

  8. If we just had someone with the right moral values in charge…

  9. As a Jewish reader, I found this to be a very Jewish book.

    Clear joospiracy! Wake up sheeple!

  10. You know who else spends time looking back on his glory days?

    1. Bryan Adams?

    2. Nick Gillespie?

    3. Uncle Rico

      1. *Ding!

        Winner, winner, chicken dinner.

        I also would have accepted Michael Hihn or Paul.

        I’m such a bully.

  11. excessive nostalgia for the supposed golden age of the late 1950s or early 1960s.

    +1 Oliver Stone film.

  12. Apparently Austin is up to the gills in black market ride sharing from Craigslist, FB, and Arcade City.

    1. You need to put “black market” in scare quotes when referring to Arcade city. Here’s a statement from Arcade City itself:

      Arcade City described as “a black market solution that’s really taken over the city” — hooray!
      “The departure of Uber and Lyft from the city limits of Austin prompted an underground movement to grow to more than 14,000 members in just a week.”
      “The City of Austin said Arcade City, as it is known, is legal as long as drivers do not charge beyond the federal reimbursement rate of $0.54 per mile.”

      There are rules, and they’re going to be followed.

      What makes “arcade city drivers” (and I’m not sure what defines an AC driver– maybe nothing which is the beauty of it) black market is the ‘may not’ be charging as little as .54 a mile. Which, if drivers are going to actually earn a living, I can pretty much guaran-dam-tee you they’re charging more, so bully to them.

      Unfortunately making an example out of a few drivers is all that it’ll require to scatter AC to the four winds. Send some regulators (read: cops) out on the streets, hail a few AC drivers, then ticket or arrest them the second they violate any of the phone-book regs.

      1. “Unfortunately making an example out of a few drivers is all that it’ll require to scatter AC to the four winds.”

        We’ll see but I doubt it. Didn’t work for Uber and Lyft. Granted those were big companies but spontaneous organization can be very powerful.

        1. I truly do wish them success. There’s a need, and they’re filling it. What’s unfortunate is a perfectly legitimate business idea, that being Uber and Lyft were successfully run out of Austin. We can argue the merits of “corporate” ride sharing, but both Uber and Lyft were perfectly legitimate concepts that got crushed under the zillion pound hammer of democratic government. I’m not sure how hard it would be for that same government to curb stomp Arcade City.

          1. AC is completely decentralized. Uber and Lyft offer central targets to go after. AC does not.

            1. So are drug sellers and users. That didn’t stop the State from filling our prisons with them.

              1. But there are still drugs and dealers. They didn’t scatter to the four winds.

                We’ll see. If you had said that something like Uber would have gotten half as far as it did back in 2008, you’d be called out as crazy!

  13. And he adds his voice to the increasing number of those denouncing what he calls “the oppressive array of licensing and professional-certification requirements in many states.”

    Well, if you right wing douche-canoes hadn’t starved the state of life-giving revenue with your perennial austerity, they wouldn’t need these entrepreneurial sources of money.

  14. When you stare into your navel, does the navel stare back?

    1. No, when you stare into your navel, your navel stares into its own navel.

      And so on.

  15. The Fractured Republic: Renewing America’s Social Contract in the Age of Individualism

    The age of individualism?!

    If only!

  16. RE: Baby Boomers and the Politics of Midcentury Nostalgia

    The only literature the little people need to read in Amerika comes from Karl Marx, Che, Lenin, John Maynard Keynes and The New York Times.
    Granted, they all say capitalism is evil and socialism is good over and over.
    But just look what socialism has done for the Soviet Union, Cuba and North Korea and burgeoning Venezuela.
    Socialist paradises all!

    1. Are you little at 5′ 8″ ? I’ve never read any of those. As for the Beats, If Alan Ginsberg is representative, there is nothing worth knowing about there.

  17. Not sure how Marco Rubio (born in US) and Ted Cruz (born in Canada, but technically US) signify anything about immigration. You’ve found two famous politicians, who weren’t even immigrants, and we’re supposed to draw what from that?

    Also wondering if there’s a bit of racism involved on Reason’s part here, i.e. if two Hispanic men have a similar set of features, then every other Hispanic person must have those same features. Reason’s argument falls apart if this isn’t the case.

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  21. “excessive nostalgia for the supposed golden age of the late 1950s or early 1960s.”

    Sounds like every Stephen King book I’ve ever read.

  22. There are parts where Levin gets it wrong. He blames the Reagan tax cuts for producing short-term “large budget deficits,” and he faults the 1980s for their “public displays of wealth.”

    ———–

    Reagan replacing “tax and spend” with “borrow and spend” WAS wrong. It was Keynesian Economics without limit. We’ve been binging on our seed corn ever since.

    The 1930’s were smoke and mirrored with a huge slice of unfunded promises (and a lot of “bad math” even Eleanor admitted to be true by the early 50’s). The 1960’s plopped another huge slice of promises to appease the masses. By the early 80’s, the bill was starting to come due, and Reagan jacked up FICA taxes, slashed general taxes, and whipped out the credit cards. Those credit cards are now maxxed out.

    In short, the early 80’s was the last best chance to minimize the insanity of the involuntary Ponzi schemes. Their effect was simply replaced by VOLUNTARY PONZI SCHEMES in the form of hot off the press Bonds.

    Keynesianism, which I don’t favor, AT LEAST discusses the issuance of debt as a mechanism for liquidity – a tactical use of relatively short term intervention by the government to unlock a locked up economy by providing said liquidity. Under Reagan, began the collectivist nonsense of “debt you never have to pay back”.

    It was unconscionably wrong. And we’re soon to pay the price.

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  26. There are parts where Levin gets it wrong. He blames the Reagan tax cuts for producing short-term “large budget deficits,” and he faults the 1980s for their “public displays of wealth.”

    ———–

    Reagan replacing “tax and spend” with “borrow and spend” WAS wrong. It was Keynesian Economics without limit. We’ve been binging on our seed corn ever since.

    The 1930’s were smoke and mirrored with a huge slice of unfunded promises (and a lot of “bad math” even Eleanor admitted to be true by the early 50’s). The 1960’s plopped another huge slice of promises to appease the masses. By the early 80’s, the bill was starting to come due, and Reagan jacked up FICA taxes, slashed general taxes, and whipped out the credit cards. Those credit cards are now maxxed out.

    In short, the early 80’s was the last best chance to minimize the insanity of the involuntary Ponzi schemes. Their effect was simply replaced by VOLUNTARY PONZI SCHEMES in the form of hot off the press Bonds.

    Keynesianism, which I don’t favor, AT LEAST discusses the issuance of debt as a mechanism for liquidity – a tactical use of relatively short term intervention by the government to unlock a locked up economy by providing said liquidity. Under Reagan, began the collectivist nonsense of “debt you never have to pay back”.

    It was unconscionably wrong. And we’re soon to pay the price.

    ????? ???
    ???????

  27. “excessive nostalgia for the supposed golden age of the late 1950s or early 1960s.”

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