The Original Mad Man

How advertising genius Albert Lasker transformed America

Americans are great at rattling off Nike slogans and reciting the lyrics to the Big Mac theme song. But ask them to name the man often described as the “father of modern advertising” and you might as well ask them to name the U.S vice-president in 1853. That so few people have ever heard of William Rufus DeVane King is understandable--he died after just 45 days in office as second-in-command to Franklin Pierce. That so few people have ever heard of the man who convinced America to brush its teeth every day and made it fashionable for women to smoke in public is downright unpatriotic.

His name was Albert Lasker, and he’s the subject of a new biography, The Man Who Sold America, co-authored by Jeffrey L. Cruikshank and Arthur W. Schultz. Lasker was born in 1880 and grew up in Galveston, Texas, where his father, a German-Jewish immigrant, was a prosperous businessman and influential figure in local politics. At 11 years old, Albert started publishing a four-page weekly newspaper, The Galveston Free Press, that included local news, political editorials, theater reviews. The young entrepreneur managed to attract enough advertisers to make approximately $60 a month for his efforts, or $1,414 in 2009 dollars.

That, it turns out, was one of the least prosperous stretches of his career. After graduating high school, Lasker wanted to follow his journalistic muse, but his father felt the newspaper business was a disreputable industry full of drunks. Hoping to steer his son away from a life of ink-stained dissolution, he set him up with an entry-level salesman’s position at an advertising agency in Chicago.

Apparently the industry had yet to institutionalize three-martini lunches. But if ad men weren’t yet as bibulous as their counterparts in the newspaper business, they weren’t as industrious either. While advertising agencies had been around for about 60 years at that point--the first ones were founded in 1842--they mostly functioned as brokers of newspaper and magazine space. Agencies distinguished themselves not through their creative work but through which segments of the market they specialized in. If you wanted to buy space in women’s magazines, you went to J. Walter Thompson. If you wanted to buy space in agricultural publications, you went to N.W. Ayer & Son. Lord & Thomas, the agency Lasker joined, specialized in religious publications.

When he arrived there in 1898, it employed one half-time copywriter and one graphic artist. But American life was poised for big changes. Manufacturers in numerous industries were substantially increasing their output and had a pressing need to expand the market for their wares. National daily newspaper circulation had grown from 254,000 in 1860 to 2.2 million in 1900. Railroads were laying down thousands of miles of new track. To simply sell space to advertisers was no longer enough, Lasker decided. If Lord & Thomas aggressively pitched its creative capabilities, it could charge higher commissions. If the agency could create more ads that were more effective than the lackluster fare that clients had been producing when left to their own devices, that would increase sales, which would in turn encourage advertisers to buy more space.

At the time, most ads simply presented a product to the public, perhaps with an illustrated mascot and an uninspired tagline. “How would you like to have a fairy in your home?” went one that depicted a cute little girl. “Use Fairy Soap.” For Lasker, however, just saying a product’s name wasn’t enough. Advertising was news, he decided. It had to communicate something important. And then, with the help of a copywriter named John E. Kennedy, he further developed his philosophy. Advertising was, as Kennedy put it, “salesmanship in print.” You had to appeal to a consumer’s self-interest. You had to give potential customers a “reason why,” a directive that would make them understand how a product could dramatically improve their life in some way.

“A century later, this doesn’t sound like a particularly powerful insight,” the authors of The Man Who Sold America observe. But in 1898, Lasker’s approach to commerce was as revolutionary an idea as Amazon and eBay would be 100 years later. Combining persuasive, consumer-centric copy with a media network that could reach millions of people at once allowed manufacturers to move goods as never before. Over the course of his career, Lasker oversaw dozens of hugely successful campaigns and established Lord & Thomas as one of leading agencies in the United States. Lord & Thomas made oranges and raisins proprietary by creating the brands Sunkist and Sun-Maid. It helped Goodyear quadruple the sale of its tires in less than four years. It figured out a better way to market Kotex, offering it in a “wrapped box” that women could pick up and purchase without having to request it from a sales clerk. It turned Pepsodent and Palmolive into category leaders. It helped Lucky Strikes increase sales from 25 million to 150 million a day by positioning it as an alternative to sweets for women watching their figures. It brought Amos & Andy to NBC’s radio network, hired an unknown Bob Hope to serve as its pitchman for Pepsodent, and helped pioneer the soap opera genre with its radio show The Story of Mary Marlin.

In 1904, a 24-year-old Lasker purchased a 25 percent ownership stake in Lord & Thomas. Eight years later, he owned it completely. Under his guidance, the agency didn’t just craft pretty images and slogans to publicize its clients’ products. Instead, it served a more strategic role. In many instances, it encouraged the companies it worked with to reformulate products in ways that made them more compelling to consumers. In others, it hatched schemes to get consumers to use its clients’ products in ways the client had never pursued. To get people to buy more oranges, for example, and thus benefit its client, the California Fruit Growers Exchange, it hit upon the strategy of popularizing orange juice. First, it worked with a manufacturer to develop better juice extractors--electric ones for commercial use and simple glass ones for the home. Then, it launched its “drink an orange” campaign, with ads that advised consumers to look for the inexpensive glass extractors at their local retailer. This single campaign, the authors of The Man Who Sold America report, increased orange consumption per serving in the United States “from half an orange to between two and three.”

Lasker made millions, bought a stake in the Chicago Cubs, built a huge mansion on 480 acres outside Chicago that featured its own world-class golf course, and longed to make a bigger impact on the world. In 1920, he served as “chief propagandist” for Warren G. Harding’s successful presidential campaign, a gig whose responsibilities included helping the patrician politician look more manly and down to earth by having him strike out Cubs right fielder Max Flack in a carefully arranged photo op. Later in his life, after he’d sold Lord & Thomas to the three successors that would give it its new name--Foote, Cone & Belding--he became a major philanthropist, working on behalf of the American Cancer Society, the National Institutes of Health, and Planned Parenthood, amongst others.

“Throughout his life, Lasker wanted to do something of significance, and feared he hadn’t,” write the authors of The Man Who Sold America. Thus, his excursions into politics, philanthropy, and public service. (After helping to elect Harding, he served Harding’s administration for two years as chairman of the Shipping Board, an emergency agency that was initially created in 1916 to regulate the commercial maritime industry during wartime.)

But it was his genius for selling everything from avocados to sanitary napkins that had the most profound and lasting influence on American life. Because of the mass consumption he helped inspire, products proliferated, prices dropped, and quality improved. “The general raising of the standards of modern civilization among all groups of people during the last half century would have been impossible without the spreading of knowledge of higher standards by means of advertising,” exclaimed a perceptive but long-winded Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the late 1920s, when he was governor of New York. Lasker, whose own attempts at writing copy weren’t particularly distinguished, couldn’t have said it any better himself. But surely one of his staffers would have made such sentiments sing.

Contributing Editor Greg Beato is a writer living in San Francisco. Read his Reason archive here.

Editor's Note: We invite comments and request that they be civil and on-topic. We do not moderate or assume any responsibility for comments, which are owned by the readers who post them. Comments do not represent the views of Reason.com or Reason Foundation. We reserve the right to delete any comment for any reason at any time. Report abuses.

  • Jeff P||

    Lasker was taught in both my Media History and Propaganda classes in college. Mesage delivery strategies he wrote in the 20s were used by Sesame Street for its first decade. He taught movie distributors that having your film banned was a good thing.

  • ||

    You guys just wrote this and posted it as an excuse to put a picture of Kristina Hendrix up. And God love you for it.

  • T||

    A bigger picture without the losers in suits would have been nice. Like so.

  • SIV||

    You can find this sort of thing on my blog:

    Christina Hendricks

  • Urkobold™||

    SOMETHING, SOMETHING--JESUS, LOOK AT THE SIZE OF THAT CHEST!--SOMETHING, SOMETHING.

  • Sandy||

    I thought the father of modern advertising was Stan Freberg.

  • Paul||

    Lasker is a fascinating guy, but he could only exist at the time he did.

    It would be very difficult for a single person to have the same influence Lasker did back then, today.

    In era where information comes at us from all angles, when every advertising claim and be asymmetrically checked and re-checked by millions if individuals, those kinds of culture-changing advertising campaigns are going to be more and more rare.

  • ||

    right...and White Al Queada, CO2 and Marijuana are the greatest dangers known to mankind.

    Obama is also going to end the war and pay for your mortgage.

  • Paul||

    Lasker wanted to follow his journalistic muse, but his father felt the newspaper business was a disreputable industry full of drunks.

    Reason staffers resemble this remark!

    *ducks*

  • -||

    I was going to say, "Release the Christina Hendricks breasts jokes!" but I see I am way too late. Early bird, etc.

  • Urkobold™||

    RELEASE THE RACKEN!

  • ||

    For Allah's sake, man, if you're gonna do a Google search for Christina Hendricks, use the right search words

    (portions NSFW, obviously)

  • John Tagliaferro||

    Did he work for Lord & Taylor or Lord & Thomas, or both. Or neither?

  • Robert||

    I'm sure the 1st occurrence was a typo.

  • Don Draper||

    I'm not impressed.

  • Irresponsible Hater||

    "you might as well ask them to name the U.S vice-president in 1853."

    Colonel Sanders?

  • -||

    I thought it was Robert Byrd.

  • ||

    Is "The Mad Men" available on DVD discs yet? I would like to see... more of the... two... blouse clowns in the auburn wrapping

  • ||

    Or is it burnt umber...? Hmmm!

  • Windows Activation Key||

    Our store is mainly engaged in windows activation

  • yup||

    his father felt the newspaper business was a disreputable industry full of drunks.
    ... and nothing has changed.

    If you don't read the newspaper you are uninformed,
    if you do read the newspaper you are misinformed."

    -attributed to Mark Twain and Thomas Jefferson.

  • ||

    Considering the fact that Mr. Jefferson employed liars, propagandists and slanderers to impugn the Federalists, and the fact that he never said anything funny in his life, I'd have to go with Twain on that one.

  • Steven Slater's Boyfriend||

    “How would you like to have a fairy in your home?”

    I do, I do!

  • ||

    Just citing:

    In my book, Death by Modern Medicine, in addition to providing detailed information about how Bernays built his reputation as America’s PR wunderkind, I also describe how Albert Lasker picked up where Bernays left off and became the “Father of Modern Advertising.”

    from http://webcache.googleusercont.....ient=opera

    Just sayin' :D Edward L. Bernays is the father of it all. I wondered why Bernays didn't mention Lasker. Silly me! They shut up, thats a prerequisite of their business...

    And besides that: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivy_Lee

    and, to top it all, in his autobiography, he writes:

    Karl von Weigand, foreign correspondent of the Hearst newspapers, an old hand at interpreting Europe and just returned from Germany, was telling us about Goebbels and his propaganda plans to consolidate Nazi power. Goebbels had shown Weigand his propaganda library, the best Weigand had ever seen. Goebbels, said Weigand, was using my book Crystallizing Public Opinion as a basis for his destructive campaign against the Jews of Germany. This shocked me. ... Obviously the attack on the Jews of Germany was no emotional outburst of the Nazis, but a deliberate, planned campaign.

  • ||

    oops, i forgot to add http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bernays it is his autobiography

  • ||

    Ed Bernays bitches!

    Ed Bernays1

    Ed Bernays2

  • ||

    Yeah, I'm confused. I never heard of Lasker but have heard a lot about Bernays and it was him who has been historically credited with making cigarette smoking by women as being sexy and liberated.

  • ||

    There are certain neat things to be said about advertising and the opportunities they helped create. For example: Coupons and rebates. Foreigners entering the USA are amazed at the notion of consumers able to literally get stuff for "free" simply by trying it.

    On the other hand, the ugly side of advertising is the cigarette campaigns that sought to popularize a dirty, unhealthy habit because it was profitable. Also, the infamous case of firestone and standard oil killing public transit in Los Angeles in order to sell more oil and tires demonstrates why people have a distrust for "free market" capitalism.

  • e'||

    click on my name,you can find cheap watches

  • Ad Majorem||

    Thanks for the respectful write-up. Though many of us face the changes and challenges of modern marketing, certain principles endure. Here was my recommendation of this book from inside the agency Lasker created:
    http://admajoremblog.blogspot......erica.html
    Thanks again!

  • fendi||

    It's probably regional. I've mainly heard it in reference to marijuana and rarely, if ever, to heroin.

  • wholesale mbt shoes||

    hello kugou

  • ugg discount outlets||

    Sometimes I sound like I’m arguing, when I’m actually not. I just have a way of putting my posts stronger than intended.It’s easier to keep out of the conversation and not take the chance of being misunderstood.

  • blancpain replica watches||

    which limited the actions of Congress and by extension had to be incorporated, the Second Amendment stated that RKBA was not to be infringed, and lacked detail as to by whom, and therefore applied to all government. By its very language it was already applicable to the states!

  • Scarpe Nike||

    is good

  • Jordan Shoes||

    so perfect.

  • دردشه عراقية||

    Thanks

GET REASON MAGAZINE

Get Reason's print or digital edition before it’s posted online

  • Video Game Nation: How gaming is making America freer – and more fun.
  • Matt Welch: How the left turned against free speech.
  • Nothing Left to Cut? Congress can’t live within their means.
  • And much more.

SUBSCRIBE

advertisement