In Defense of Blackface

Racism, envy, and the complicated politics of minstrelsy.

Darkest America: Black Minstrelsy From Slavery to Hip-Hop, by Yuval Taylor and Jake Austen, W.W. Norton & Co., 2012, $26.95.

If this Halloween is like every Halloween of the last two or so decades, at least one white college student or minor celebrity will arrive at a party wearing dark-brown face paint as part of a costume imitating a famous black person, photos of the incident will emerge on the Internet, and condemnations will rain down from authority figures.

In recent years, Facebook surveillors discovered and publicized photos of six University of Southern Mississippi students who colored their white skin to depict the Huxtable family from The Cosby Show, two Northwestern University students who painted themselves coal-black and dressed as Bob Marley and Serena Williams, Raffi Torres of the Phoenix Coyotes and his wife dressed and darkened as Jay-Z and Beyoncé, and a blonde Dallas Cowboys cheerleader appearing at a costume event as the rapper Lil' Wayne, complete with gold teeth, long black braids, tattoos, and chocolate-brown makeup covering her body.

As with all blackface performers since the civil rights era, charges against the latest range from insensitivity to outright racism. But virtually all critics of blackface agree that, as the Northwestern University president put it, the practice "demeans a segment of our community."

Some recent instances of blackface were obviously and viciously hostile toward African Americans. A photo of a 2001 Halloween party at the University of Mississippi showed a white student dressed as a policeman holding a gun to the head of another, who was wearing blackface and a straw hat while kneeling and picking cotton. A year later, two fraternity brothers at Oklahoma State were photographed wearing Ku Klux Klan robes and holding a noose over the head of another sporting black face paint and a striped prisoner's uniform.

But while blackface is nearly always assumed to be anti-black, the most common charge against contemporary blackface performers is that they are ignorant of its meaning and history—that they don't "know" that it's necessarily bigoted—which suggests that their intentions were not in fact hostile.

In fact, blackface performances are not always unambiguously antagonistic toward African Americans. Several scholars of the phenomenon have argued that blackface has usually been, to some degree, an expression of envy and an unconscious rebellion against what it means to be "white." There is substantial evidence that this was especially true in the first half of the 19th century, when white men first painted their faces with burnt cork and imitated slaves on stage in what were called "minstrel" shows.

Some early blackface minstrel performance was clearly little more than anti-black parody, but many historians see the songs and dances of T.D. Rice, Dan Emmett, Dan Rice (Abraham Lincoln's favorite), and other originators of the genre as expressions of desire for the freedoms they saw in the culture of slaves. "Just as the minstrel stage held out the possibility that whites could be 'black' for awhile but nonetheless white," David Roediger, the leading historian of "whiteness," has written, "it offered the possibilities that, via blackface, preindustrial joys could survive amidst industrial discipline." Similarly, the Smith College scholar W.T. Lhamon argues that slave culture represented liberation to blackface performers and fans, who "unmistakably expressed fondness for black wit and gestures." In early blackface minstrel shows, whites identified with blacks as representations of all the freedoms and pleasures that employers, moral reformers, and churches "were working to suppress."

The latest addition to this revision of our understanding of blackface is Yuval Taylor and Jake Austen's book Darkest America: Black Minstrelsy From Slavery to Hip-Hop. The authors focus on the many, largely unknown, African Americans who performed in blackface from before the Civil War to the middle of the 20th century, but they also rescue white blackface performance from the simplistic moralizing that normally greets it. "If you dismiss [minstrelsy] as simply 'demeaning,'" they write, "you miss half the picture."

Taylor and Austen's book is an encyclopedic record of not only the black performers who coaled their faces but also of the minstrelsy's many contributions to what is now considered respectable popular culture: "If we were to throw out every song originally composed for the minstrel stage, every joke first uttered by painted minstrel lips, every performer who blackened up, every dance step developed for the olio (variety) portion of a minstrel show, our entertainment coffers might seem bare." They show that much of American music, dance, and comedy originated in an art form that was "wildly popular with black audiences" but is now reflexively dismissed as mere racism. For whites, they argue, minstrelsy offered the opportunity to indulge in a "carefree life liberated from oppression, responsibilities, and burdens"; and for blacks it represented freedom as well. "Despite the appearance of minstrelsy as a servile tradition, there were elements of liberation in it from its very beginning, and these were instrumental to its popularity."

The enormous popularity of blackface in the 19th century cannot be explained without understanding that it coincided with a period in American culture in which Puritan values merged with Victorian ideas about work, leisure, sex, and emotional expression. Nineteenth-century children's books, school primers, newspaper editorials, poems, pamphlets, sermons, and political speeches told Americans that work in itself was a virtue, regardless of what one gained from it materially. European visitors frequently commented on what they called the American "disease of work." Typical was a popular textbook of the time, which instructed children that "Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to do."

There was no such idea of work as godly in Africa, nor among American slaves. According to the African-American social scientist W.E.B. DuBois, the slave "was not as easily reduced to be the mechanical draft-horse which the northern European laborer became. He was not easily brought to recognize any ethical sanctions in work as such but tended to work as the results pleased him and refused to work or sought to refuse when he did not find the spiritual returns adequate; thus he was easily accused of laziness and driven as a slave when in truth he brought to modern manual labor a renewed valuation of life."

Slave beliefs and practices also offered an alternative to the famously repressive attitudes about sex among Puritans and Victorians. As opposed to white Americans' rigid adherence to lifelong monogamous marriage, most slaves had a far more flexible and forgiving attitude toward sexual and romantic relationships. Slave women who had sex outside marriage were not condemned as whores or "fallen" women, children born out of wedlock were not branded as "bastards," and divorce was not considered a sin.

It should therefore be no surprise that, though they certainly never expressed a wish to be enslaved, the white men who invented blackface performance often sang of a wish to be like slaves. Their songs celebrated the free, joyous, and sensual movements of slave dances—which were condemned by Victorian moralists as barbarous—and the slaves' relaxed attitudes toward love and work.

The two best-known songs of early blackface minstrelsy, Dan Emmett's "Dixie" and T.D. Rice's "Jump Jim Crow," are commonly regarded as anthems of Southern racism. But in their original versions, they were actually laments for being born white. In "Jump Jim Crow," the singer sympathizes, in slave dialect, with those "who happen to be white." It is "dar misfortune, and dey'd spend ebery dollar, if dey only could be gentlemen of color. It almost break my heart to see dem envy me." Emmett's "Dixie" was originally written as the longing of an ex-slave—whom some scholars have suggested represents Emmett himself—for his former life. Though normally regarded as post-Civil War propaganda for the "Lost Cause," "Dixie" was actually written before the war and with intentions that did not serve the interests of those who eventually adopted it. After the war, Confederate veterans' groups declared it the "official song of the Confederacy" and changed the lyrics to "more appropriate words" that made the singer a white soldier pining for his life atop the Old South hierarchy. When Emmett learned of the Confederate appropriation of "Dixie" he declared, "if I had known to what use they were going to put my song, I will be damned if I'd have written it."

Since then, the idea of "blackness"—not necessarily the actual beliefs and practices of real black people—has remained the primary representation of opposition to Puritan and Victorian values. The repressive norms that drove millions of white Americans during the 19th century to seek at least temporary refuge in the fantasy of being black remain powerful today. Belief in the virtue of work has helped drive the annual number of work hours in the U.S. far beyond that of most other industrialized nations. And observers from Europe are regularly stunned by the size and importance of American sexual scandals that wouldn't make the news there.

We will likely never know what motivates contemporary blackface performers. But those who reject the beliefs planted in our culture by Puritans and Victorians might consider the possibility that, like the originators of the practice, they are joining a 200-year, unconscious struggle for freedom.

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  • ||

    Dennis: All blackface is racist, Mac, and that is the point I'm trying to make. You just cannot cast a white man as a black man and paint his face black. You can't do it.

    Mac: They're actors. They're trying to create an illusion. You know, in the Lord of the Rings movie, Ian McKellan plays a wizard. Do you think he goes home at night and shoots laser beams into his boyfriend's asshole? I don't think so, dude.

  • DemosTheKnees||

    AMOS: Now, wait a minute----'fore we start callin' up dese people heah, let's figure out whut time it is.

    ANDY: De trouble wid my watch is dat de thing is a hour slow.

    AMOS: Well, and' de daylight savin' time make it a hour fast----so dat make it even don't it? Whut time is you got now?

    ANDY: Recordin' to de watch heah, I got eight o'clock.

    AMOS: You got 8 o'clock----but it's nine o'clock, ain't it?

    ANDY: Wait a minute--it's ten o'clock. Yo' see my watch is a hour sloweh dan yo' watch is.

    AMOS: I aint got no watch.

    ANDY: Den dat makes it.

  • ||

    Mac: A lot of great actors have done blackface.

    Dennis: There's countless examples of very classy actors doing black face. We got the great C. Thomas Howell in Soul Man. We got the Wayans Brothers in White Chicks. That was a very tasteful example of reverse blackface.

    I think the only way this issue is going to be settled is if we all watch this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wjhV1DavSRM

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    There was no such idea of work as godly in Africa, nor among American slaves. According to the African-American social scientist W.E.B. DuBois, the slave "was not as easily reduced to be the mechanical draft-horse which the northern European laborer became. He was not easily brought to recognize any ethical sanctions in work as such but tended to work as the results pleased him and refused to work or sought to refuse when he did not find the spiritual returns adequate; thus he was easily accused of laziness and driven as a slave when in truth he brought to modern manual labor a renewed valuation of life."

    Are you fucking nuts?

    If the African American slave wasn't a "draft-horse", it would be due more to the fact that slavery doesn't motivate one to as work hard as profit motive does. It has nothing to due with some mythical African joie de vivre. Whom would you work harder for, yourself or some oppressive slave-master that you resent?

    [cont]

  • The Late P Brooks||

    a lot of recent scholarship on the subject.

    Saints preserve us.

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    Slave beliefs and practices also offered an alternative to the famously repressive attitudes about sex among Puritans and Victorians. As opposed to white Americans' rigid adherence to lifelong monogamous marriage, most slaves had a far more flexible and forgiving attitude toward sexual and romantic relationships. Slave women who had sex outside marriage were not condemned as whores or "fallen" women, children born out of wedlock were not branded as "bastards," and divorce was not considered a sin.

    Considering slaves couldn't get married, the de facto relationships they did have were more flexible by definition. How could one commit to a life-long relationship when a family could be broken up any time the slave owner wished?

    Furthermore, there was no need to label slave women as "fallen" or slave children as "bastard" because without the benefit of state-sanctioned marriage, they were, ipso facto, seen as such by most Whites.

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    Since then, the idea of "blackness"—not necessarily the actual beliefs and practices of real black people—has remained the primary representation of opposition to Puritan and Victorian values. The repressive norms that drove millions of white Americans during the 19th century to seek at least temporary refuge in the fantasy of being black remain powerful today. Belief in the virtue of work has helped drive the annual number of work hours in the U.S. far beyond that of most other industrialized nations. And observers from Europe are regularly stunned by the size and importance of American sexual scandals that wouldn't make the news there.

    The relaxed attitudes toward sexual mores and work ethic that many European cultures hold are not unknown to Americans today, nor were they unknown to Americans in the past. To view opposition to mainstream American values on solely an axis of imagined Whiteness and Blackness is too simplistic.

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    But those who reject the beliefs planted in our culture by Puritans and Victorians might consider the possibility that, like the originators of the practice, they are joining a 200-year, unconscious struggle for freedom.

    Bullshit. Those "Puritan" and Victorian values, such as a belief in individual freedom, self-reliance, hard work, the value of material wealth, competition, equality of opportunity, ingenuity, and optimism* are the building blocks of freedom and liberty.

    *Optimism is strictly a Victorian value, as the Puritans, being strict Calvinists, believed in the concept of Total Depravity and the idea of history as a degradation from a Pre-Fall Edenic existence.

  • Eduard van Haalen||

    A valiant attempt to cut through many layers of academic jargoneering.

  • Killazontherun||

    Well done, too.

  • The Immaculate Trouser||

    Bravo, sir.

  • Fluffy||

    The question is what the people undertaking the activity thought.

  • Eduard van Haalen||

    "the black performers who coaled their faces"

    Talk about bringing coals to Newcastle!

    I thought blackface was about *white* people putting on face paint - this is ridiculous!

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    Hey, if I wanted to be Wesley Snipes for Halloween, I'd have to apply a few coats of black makeup.

    That dude is so dark, he goes to funerals naked.

  • Almanian's Evil Twin||

    Wesley Snipes is the new black? Cool

    FREE WESLEY!!!

  • ||

    This article is so retarded. If a white person in pre-UnCivil War era America wanted to fuck around and not work, they could do so. Envying a literal slave would have been mighty clueless, since there were actual slaves living horrendously bad lives to observe back then and not envy.

  • John||

    Sure they could but without birth control and no antibiotics to treat STDs it was pretty stupid. And never underestimate the power of envy and people's willingness to idealize things. People today envy the lives of primative tribes and Indians

  • The Immaculate Trouser||

    There is also the minor problem that, in the South, worker productivity was much lower than the rest of the US -- so why would the condition of the white share-cropper or plantation owner not be similarly idealized?

  • SIV||

    You ever try to work on a hot and humid Mississippi Summer day?

  • SIV||

    The South became much more productive after the adevt of AC.

  • ||

    Yo, we got some hats now, muthafuckas!

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vuhy7sNg2zI

  • ||

    I'd never heard of NWH before this link, Greg. Thanks to turning me on to the great symbolism in their work!

  • C. S. P. Schofield||

    Excuse me? Are you even slightly aware of how few white people belonged to the Plantation Aristocracy (and could therefore fuck around and not work)?

  • YinxDoo||

    OK wow, that sounds like a solid plan to me dude.

    www.UA-Anon.tk

  • wakeup||

    Arpaio: Irrefutable Proof Obama Not Born in Hawaii, Ineligible for Presidency

    Even a picture of Obama as a child has been doctored.

    The Black hand under Obama’s right armpit doesn’t match Ann Dunham’s right arm. The size and color is wrong for a white female, and the hand is positioned closer to camera than Ann’s arm. The hand appears to be a remnant from a Black male before it was air brushed.

  • Eduard van Haalen||

    Pfaugh - Ann Dunham was simply in her partial-minstrel outfit. Or else she was suffering from pre-minstrel syndrome.

  • wakeup||

    personally, I think Obama is a direct descendant of the Queen of Sheba.

  • Almanian's Evil Twin||

    Nice!

  • ||

    Never heard of shadows have you?

    Here's an experiment: Hold your hand in a fist. Then put your other hand between your fist and the light source. Amazing! Your hand is now black!

  • General Butt Naked||

    I thought the whole fist thing was going to lead to you informing Mr. Sheeple to shove his arm up his ass.

    You're so soff anymore heller. Jesus.

  • John||

    Millions of people were slaves. If 90% of their stories were abject misery, that leaves 10%, a lot of stories by raw numbers, that were not. Life is complex and people overcome and find joy in nearly any circumstance no matter how bad. And slavery, as horrible as it was, was not Stalinist Russia or the Holocaust. I have no doubt there were some slaves who had kind owners and had never known anything different who probably liked their lives and looked back on it fondly after the war when they were left to fend for themselves.

    All this means is that history is a hell of a lot more complex and interesting than the cartoons we constantly imagine it to be.

  • VG Zaytsev||

    But John, life isn't worth living without the right to vote, abortions and subsidized puppetry.

  • Marshall Gill||

    Don't you dare forget cowboy poetry!

  • ||

    Not just the poetry, Marshall. You have to have someone to READ IT TO YOU.

  • John||

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kVj4rxALnI

    My favorite Ray Charles Song is a rather famous slave lament.

  • VG Zaytsev||

    Nineteenth-century children's books, school primers, newspaper editorials, poems, pamphlets, sermons, and political speeches told Americans that work in itself was a virtue, regardless of what one gained from it materially.

    That explains our culture's obsession with working.

  • soquoted||

    From John Strausbaugh's Black Like You: Blackface, Whiteface, Insult Imitation in American Popular Culture:

    Yet American humor has always been very rough-and-tumble. What strikes Americans as funny exists on a sliding scale from vulgar insult (blonde jokes, faggot jokes, Polack jokes) to what's most often judged hate speech today (nigger jokes, kike jokes). Ethnic identity humor plays a huge role in American culture. It's part of the toughening-up process that leads to mutual tolerance (if not mutual admiration) in America's mongrel culture. Theoretically, we are all fair game. Everybody has a right to be ignunt in America. There's a reason why insult is protected free speech in America, and not susceptible to libel litigation the way it is in the UK. In America, insult is not actionable. We are expected to be able to "give as good as we get," to "dish it out and take it."

  • SIV||


    I wish I was in the land of cotton, old times there are not forgotten,
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie Land.
    In Dixie Land where I was born in, early on a frosty mornin',
    Look away, look away, look away, Dixie Land.

    Then I wish I was in Dixie, hooray! hooray!
    In Dixie Land I'll take my stand to live and die in Dixie,
    Away, away, away down South in Dixie,
    Away, away, away down South in Dixie

  • Brandybuck||

    Yup, those lyrics are clearly about white men pining for the days when they could own slaves.

  • SIV||

    Dan Emmett was a one-hit wonder.

    Stephen Foster was the King of "Ethiopian melodies"

    Old Black Joe

  • SIV||

    Nick Tosches pretty much destroys the politically correct conception of American minstrelsy as racism in the first few pages of his book Where Dead Voices Gather.

  • C. S. P. Schofield||

    "But virtually all critics of blackface agree that, as the Northwestern University president put it, the practice "demeans a segment of our community.""

    It demeans the White Intellectuals who automatically assume that, of course, NOBODy could possibly dress up as a black person out of a desire to emulate that person. It even further demeans the black intellectuals who the white intellectuals have brainwashed into also believing this.

    Racist twits.

  • General Butt Naked||

    Seems the author, and those he cites, don't have the slightest idea what a slave's life was actually like.

    I don't know either, but I do know that it wasn't some knee slappin', hambonin', raucous good time.

    I also didn't know that W.E. DuBois was such a gawdamn moron. I always liked Frederick Douglas more anyways.

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    DuBois, born into relative privilege in an affluent family of free Blacks in Massachusetts, became a Communist shithead who believed only a technocratic, Black intellectual elite could bring about racial change in America.

    Booker T. Washington, on the other hand, was born into slavery, as his mother was a slave. (His father was a white farmer from another plantation.) He argued that racial equality would come from American Blacks being acculturated with and demonstrating "industry, thrift, intelligence and property" in their daily lives.

    In this battle of ideas, it's clear that DuBois won.

  • General Butt Naked||

    Yup, wasn't DuBois a commie as well?

    And a back-to-Africa-er?

    Booker T. is okay, but like I said, I always like Douglass. They had similar views though, if I'm not mistaken.

  • Almanian's Evil Twin||

    Dude, how could anyone deny "Green Onions"? Booker Fuckin' T FTW!

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    I think Douglass was a bit more radical than Booker T, and with good reason, Douglass could afford to be, because he was a 100% certified badass.

    At the age of 16, he beat the shit out of a slave-master, to whom he was lent specifically for the purpose of breaking him down.

    One day, after numerous vicious beatings at Covey's hands, Douglass fought back. He fought off Covey's cousin and his fight with Covey himself, which lasted nearly two hours long, ended with Douglass's victory. Covey did not physically assault Douglass thereafter.

    Two hours.

    And while he disapproved of John Brown's attempt at armed rebellion, it was more tactical than philosophical. Douglass said, "A man's rights rest in three boxes. The ballot box, jury box and the cartridge box. Let no man be kept from the ballot box because of his color. Let no woman be kept from the ballot box because of her sex." He clearly knew that the 2nd Amendment was the antidote to the newly birthed Jim Crow.

    He spend his retirement entertaining himself by being a U.S. Marshal and marrying a woman 20 years his junior.

    In 1895, at the age of 77, he died of a heart attack at his home, probably while receiving a blowjob, but historians debate that last point.

  • Almanian's Evil Twin||

    OK, but where does this all place the great blues artist Blind Melon Chitlin in the scheme of things?

  • ||

    Millions of people were slaves. If 90% of their stories were abject misery, that leaves 10%, a lot of stories by raw numbers, that were not. Life is complex and people overcome and find joy in nearly any circumstance no matter how bad. And slavery, as horrible as it was, was not Stalinist Russia or the Holocaust. I have no doubt there were some slaves who had kind owners and had never known anything different who probably liked their lives and looked back on it fondly after the war when they were left to fend for themselves.

    Reading "The Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave". You might want to read that before spouting off nonsense like that.

    Excuse me? Are you even slightly aware of how few white people belonged to the Plantation Aristocracy (and could therefore fuck around and not work)?

    People don't need to be members of an aristocracy to find pussy. It was possible, even back then, for a white person to not work particularly hard if all you wanted was the lifestyle of a slave -- scanty, bad food and one pair of really crappy new clothes each year.

    Not that such an idealized view of the life of a slave that a white person back then might have held would last very long with contact with the harsh reality.

  • John||

    Yes because the narative of one person's life tells the entire story of an insitution that effected millions of people and totally disproves any other counter narrative. Sure I have read it. And I am perfectly aware of the horrors of slavery. You might also want to read something about the history of the post war South. Not every slave was Frederick Douglas.

    Jesus Christ you are a pile of stupid on this thread. Do yourself a favor, stop thinking or commenting on this subject. Just leave it alone. It will save yourself and the rest of us a lot of aggrivation.

  • John C. Randolph||

    From what I've seen of the "gansta rap" culture, I have to wonder why in the world it isn't generally despised by "liberals" the way that Stepin Fetchit is.

    -jcr

  • Heroic Mulatto||

    What, you've never heard of Tipper Gore?

  • SIV||

    Liberals unanimously hated the great dancehall artist Buju Banton back in the 1990s when he was at the peak of his popularity. IIRC, some were still trying to "ban" him right up until the feds sent him to prison. I strongly suspect there is a connection.

  • YinxDoo||

    lol, no way man thats jsut liek way too funny dude.

    www.GoAnon.tk

  • ||

    Yes because the narative of one person's life tells the entire story of an insitution that effected millions of people and totally disproves any other counter narrative.

    Well, no. I've cited one original first-person source that tells about the abuse of not one, but many slaves.

    You have made seemingly ignorant statements about how slavery wasn't all that bad for every slave, unbacked by any such first-person source, or any source at all. If you have read such a source, please link to it. I would be delighted to read it and be enlightened about how wonderful someone other than Frederick Douglass found it to be owned by someone else who had the power to beat them and kill them for any reason, or no reason.

  • Skip||

    How funny would it be if Mitt Romney had blackface performers at his inaugural ball?

  • d_remington||

    Probably not that funny at all?

  • Yuval Taylor||

    Actually, Ronald Reagan had a blackface performer at his inaugural ball: Ben Vereen did a blackface act, purporting to play Bert Williams. Reagan thought it was funny; African Americans didn't. You can read all about it in the book under review.

  • Yuval Taylor||

    There's a good reason we began our book, Darkest America, with a quote from Larry Wilmore: "Here's when blackface is OK . . . when you have a black face!" It's a shame that Mr. Russell missed that. While white minstrel-show performers may well have worn blackface because they enjoyed acting crazy, lazy, and free, it seems a stretch to say that they ENVIED black slaves, whom they held in contempt, and whom they portrayed as ignorant, savage buffoons. As we wrote, "The minstrel tradition, as practiced by whites in blackface, was a fundamentally racist undertaking, neutering a race's identity by limiting it to demeaning stereotypes." Yes, one shouldn't simply dismiss it altogether, but neither should one laud it. If one's idea of freedom is inextricable from contempt for an oppressed people, as it was for white minstrels--and many of the founders of our country--the "struggle for freedom" Mr. Russell praises is actually a struggle to increase the privileges of oppression.

  • pradaguccioutlet@gmail.co||

    Since the program’s creation, the Energy Department has guaranteed $16 billion in loans for a total of 26 projects. Although Section 1705 is mainly known for funding such high-profile bankruptcies as Solyndra and Abound Solar, the companies it helps generally do well. That’s because most of the loan guarantees have gone to projects backed by large and financially secure companies. For instance, the energy producer Cogentrix, recipient of a $90 million guarantee, is a subsidiary of the investment bank Goldman Sachs. There’s every reason to believe Congentrix could have obtained a loan on its own.cheap nfl jerseys State backing confers subtler advantages as well. In 2010 the Government Accountability Office concluded that federal subsidies signal to investors that a company is relatively safe, a perception that helps attract additional private capital. During a July 18 statement before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Craig Witsoe, former CEO of Abound Solar, one of the Section 1705 companies that recently went under, explained that his company managed to collect an additional $350 million from private investors after it had secured its government guarantee. Much of that funding could be the product of the security that the federal support implied.

  • Cameroon||

    In fact, blackface performances are not always unambiguously antagonistic toward African Americans. Several scholars of the phenomenon have argued that blackface has usually been, to some degree, an expression of envy and an unconscious rebellion against what it means to be "white." There is substantial evidence that this was especially true in the first half of the 19th century, when white men first painted their faces with burnt cork and imitated slaves on stage in what were called "minstrel" shows.coach outlet that you have made seemingly ignorant statements about how slavery wasn't all that bad for every slave, unbacked by any such first-person source, or any source at all. If you have read such a source, please link to it. I would be delighted to read it and be enlightened about how wonderful someone other than Frederick Douglass found it to be owned by someone else who had the power to beat them and kill them for any reason, or no reason.

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    When you are presently purchasing a cell phone, then you've almost certainly heard of the iPhone. Chances are you've seen people who have an apple iphone, but aren't sure what http://www.shopjordanssale.com Retro Jordans advantages they have around every other phone available.

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