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1. Title IX and Regulatory Overreach
When what’s known as Title IX went into law in 1972, it prohibited educational institutions that received federal assistance to exclude women from or deny them the benefits of educational programs. Sen. Birch Bayh (D-Ind.) inserted the amendment into an education funding re-authorization act and the bill was signed into law by Richard Nixon with no mention of the equal rights language. Over the next two years, various senators tried to carve some kind of exemptions for sports, but Title IX regulations were announced in 1975 and began to be implemented in 1978. The NCAA sued but lost. While Title IX has often been credited for the rise of female athletes in sports, it’s also invited regulators and judges to influence the decisions of athletic programs, sometimes leading to schools limiting athletic opportunities for males to meet compliance.